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TRANSACTIONS 



ristol and Gloucestershi 



Archaeological Society 



1894 - 95- 



TRANSACTIONS 



OF THE 



Bristol ano (SHoucestetsbive 



Hrcbaeolookal Society 



FOR 



1894 - 



Edited by Rev. C. S. TAYLOR, M.A. 



VOL. XIX. 



BRISTOL : 

PRINTED FOR THE SOCIETY BY J. W. ARROW SMITH, QUAY STREET. 



e Council of the Bristol and Gloucestershire Archaeological 
Society desires that it should be distinctly understood that the 
Council is not responsible for any statement made, or opinions 
expressed, in the Transactions of the Society. The Authors are 
alone responsible for their several Papers and Communications, and 
the Editor, the Rev. C. S. Taylor, 2 Upper Byron Place, Clifton, 
for the Notices of Books. 



1396879 



^ TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



1 



Page 

In Memoriam. Sir John Maclean, F.S.A., F.R.S.A., Irel. 168 



Transactions at Ledbury ..... 
,, Bredon ..... 

Berkeley 

A History of Kemerton. By the Rev. Jerome J. Mercier 
Overbury Church. By the Rev. C. Glynn, M.A. 



i 

19 
421 

24 
4i 



Notes on the History of Beckford. By the Rev. J. Melland 

Hall, M.A. . . . . ." . . 6i 

Berkeley Minster. By the Rev. C. S. Taylor, M.A. . . 70 

The Domestic Life of Berkeley Castle. By the Rev. Thomas 

Veal . . . . . . * . 85 

Two Bristol Calendars. By Alfred E. Hudd, F.S.A. . . 105 

An Account of Roman and Mediaeval Remains found on the 
site of the Tolsey at Gloucester. By M. H, Medland, 
F.R.I.B.A. . . . . . .142 

The Tallage of 6 Edward II., and the Bristol Rebellion. By the 

Rev. E. A. Fuller, M.A. ..... 171 

Haresfield : Manors and Church. By the Rev. J. Melland 

Hall, M.A. . . . . . . .279 

The Chantries of Westbury-on-Severn. By the Rev. Leonard 

Wilkinson, B.A. ...... 374 

On the Discovery of Skeletons at the Barton, Cirencester. By 

Ernest Whatley ...... 394 

Notes on a great Hoard of Roman Coins found at Bishop's Wood. 

By Mary Ellen Bagnall-Oakeley , , . 399 



NOTICES OF RECENT ARCHAEOLOGICAL AND 
HISTORICAL PUBLICATIONS. 



Page 

Feudal England. Historical Studies on the Xlth and Xllth 

Centuries. By J. H. Round, M.A. .... 159 

Documents Illustrative of English Church History. By Henry 

Gee, B.D., and William John Hardy, F.S.A. . . 161 

An Introduction to Folklore. By Marion Roalfe Cox . 164 

Gloucestershire Notes and Queries. Vol. VI., parts vi., vii. and 

viii. ........ 165 

Notes and Queries for Somerset and Dorset. Part xxxiii. . 166 

Archaeological Journal. Vol. III., No. 1 . . 167 

Woman under Monasticism. Chapters on Saint Lore, and Convent 

Life between a.d. 500 and a.d. 1500. By Lina Eckenstein 434 

Historical and Topographical Collections relating to the Early 
History of parts of South Somerset. By John Batten, 
F.S.A. ... . 437 

Battles and Battle-fields in England. By C, R. B. Barrett . 438 

Venerabilis Bedae Opera. Instruxit C. J. Plummer, M.A. . 440 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. 



To face Page 

7 Plates. Representations of Antiquities at Haresfield . . 338 

1 ,, Roman Jar . . . . . . 410 

1 „ Map of Forest of Dean . . . . 411 



TRANSACTIONS OF THE 

At the Annual Meeting held at Ledbury 

On Tuesday, Wednesday, and Thursday, July 24th, 25th, 
and 26th, 1894. 



The Annual General Meeting of the Society was held at 
Ledbury on the days above mentioned. This is the second 
time within the last three years that members of the Society 
have visited Ledbury and its neighbourhood. A large and 
influential local committee were nominated to receive the 
Society, Mr. M. Biddulph, M.P., being appointed Chairman. 
Mr. Spencer H. Bickham and Mr. George H. Piper kindly 
acted as local secretaries, but owing to the serious illness of 
Mrs. Bickham — and which has since proved fatal — the for- 
mer gentleman was unable to be present, and the duties were 
kindly carried out by Mr. Jesse Garrood. Mr. Bickham was 
also local treasurer. The company first assembled in the 
ancient Townhall to hold the Annual Meeting of the Society, 
and during the progress of the business the cries of the 
market hucksters underneath were plainly heard. Among 
those present at the introductory meeting were the Revs. 
C. S. Taylor (Bristol), S. Bentley, G. S. Master, Pre- 
bendary Maddison Green, and W. Bazeley, General Vizard, 
Major Hawkins Fisher, Messrs. M. Biddulph, M.P. (Led- 
bury), F. F. Fox, S. H. Swayne, F. Tuckett and J. Baker 
(Bristol), W.J. Stanton (Stroud), J. Biddulph, J. Garrood, 
G. H. Piper, and C. H. Dancey. 

2 

Vol. XIX. 



2 



Transactions for the Year 1894-95. 



Mr. Michael Biddulph, M.P., said as Chairman of the 
local committee he desired to offer the Society a hearty wel- 
come on the part of the town of Ledbury. The inhabitants 
were exceedingly pleased to see their Society, and they hoped 
their visit would be instructive and interesting. 

In the absence through illness of the retiring president 
(Mr. Russell J. Kerr), Aid. F. F. Fox, of Bristol, was asked 
to take the chair. He said they all lamented the absence of 
Mr. Kerr, who presided over them at Newnham last year 
with singular ability, and successfully directed one of the 
most admirable meetings the Society ever had. Let them 
allow him, on behalf of the members of the Society, to thank 
Mr. Biddulph and the local committee for their kind welcome. 

The Rev. W. Bazeley, the Honorary Secretary, then 
read the following 

Report of Council of the Bristol and Gloucestershire 
Archaeological Society for 1893-4. 

The Council presents the following Report to the members of the Bristol 
and Gloucestershire Archaeological Society for the past year. There are 
at present 370 annual members, 70 life members, and 3 honorary members 
on the Society's list, giving a total strength of 443 members. 

The income of the Society for the financial year ending April 21st, 
1894, was ^"479 18s. 5d. The expenditure during the same period was £yj 
us. 1 id. The balance in the hands of the Society's Treasurer on April 
21st, 1894, was ^442 6s. 6d., as against a balance of ^294 12s. 7d. on the 
21st of April, 1893. Besides this balance, on which the cost of the Trans- 
actions for 1892-3 and 1893-4 must be considered a charge, the Society has 
a funded capital of ^432 3s. 8d. in Consols representing the fees paid by 
the life members. 

The Society has held two General Meetings during the past year. 
The Annual Summer Meeting of 1893 was held at Newnham-on- Severn, 
under the presidency of Russell J. Kerr, Esq., and was most successful as 
regards the number of members present, the interest of the places visited,, 
and the financial results. On Tuesday, July 25th, Mr. Charles Bathurst 
and Miss Bathurst received the Members and Associates most hospitably at 
Lydney Park. The Roman Station and Villa on Camp Hill were inspected 
under the guidance of Mr. C. Bathurst, jun., and part of the beautiful tessel- 
ated pavement, which at other times would have been covered with earth, to 
protect it from the weather, was exposed to view by Mr. Bathurst 's orders. 



Report of Council. 



3 



Many beautiful and highly interesting objects which have been discovered 
at various times and places in the Park are preserved in the Museum at 
Mr. Bathurst's residence. These were shown to the members. For an 
accurate description of the Camp and Villa, and also of the many antiqui- 
ties found in Lydney Park, the Council would refer the members to Roman 
Antiquities at Lydney Park, by the late Rev. W. Hiley Bathurst. 

On Wednesday, July 26th, an excursion was made from Newnham 
under the guidance of Mr. G. W. Keeling, through the Forest of Dean to 
Goodrich Court and Castle, and to Symond's Yat. On Thursday, July 
27th, the members visited Littledean, Flaxley Abbey, and Westbury, and 
were received in the afternoon by the President and Mrs. Kerr at The Haie. 
The Council is deeply indebted to Mr. James Wintle for placing Hill 
House at the Society's disposal during their meeting, and also to Mr. 
Douglas Wintle for the admirable manner in which he performed the 
duties of Local Secretary. A detailed account of the meeting will appear 
in volume xviii. of the Society's Transactions, and also the papers read at 
Newnham and elsewhere. 

The Annual Spring Meeting for 1894 was ne ^ at Gloucester on the 
24th of April, and a special Report of the Council was presented to the 
Society. In this Report, which was unanimously adopted, various recom- 
mendations were made to the Society by the Council :— (1) That a piece of 
silver plate should be presented to Sir John Maclean, in recognition of his 
eminent services as Editor of the Society's Transactions for the last sixteen 
years; (2) that a Photographic Archaeological Survey of Gloucestershire 
be commenced under the auspices bf this Society ; and (3) that the finan- 
cial year of this Society commence on the 1st of January, and terminate on 
the last day of December, instead of the 22nd and 21st day of April 
respectively as heretofore. 

(1) The Council has much pleasure in reporting to the members that a 

very beautiful inkstand, selected by Mr. Wilfred J. Cripps, C.B., 
having a suitable inscription, was presented in June to Sir John 
Maclean by Sir Brook Kay and other members of the Council, on 
behalf of the Society. 

(2) The Photographic Societies of Gloucestershire have been invited to 
send delegates to an executive committee to draw up a scheme for the 
Photographic Archaeological Survey of Gloucestershire, and favourable 
replies for the most part have been received. It is hoped that the 
Committee will meet shortly to draft the scheme. 

(3) The Treasurer's accounts will close henceforth on the 31st day of 

December ; and subscriptions for 1895 will become due on New Year's 
Day. Those members and associates, however, who have subscribed 
for 1894-5 will be entitled for such subscription to attend any meet- 
ing of the Society held before the 21st of April, 1895. 

2 * 



4 



Transactions for the Year 1894-95. 



In connection with the Annual Spring Meeting, evening meetings were 
rield at Gloucester, Bristol, and Stroud, and addresses were given at each 
place by Mr. H. S. Pearson, of the Birmingham and Midland Institute, on 
the Photographic Archaeological Survey of Warwickshire. The thanks of 
the Society are due to the Mayor of Gloucester for the free use of various 
rooms at the Guildhall, and to the Bristol Museum and Library Com- 
mittee for the free use of the Lecture Room. 

The Council is glad to be able to report that considerable progress 
has been made in preparing an Illustrated List of Church Plate in 
Gloucestershire. 

During the last few weeks vol. xvii. part I. of the Society's Trans- 
actions has been issued to the members, and part II. will be issued shortly. 
The Council is anxious that an Index to the first 18 or 19 volumes shall be 
prepared, and issued as a separate volume of the Transactions. An offer 
on the part of one or more members of the Society to undertake the work 
would be gladly welcomed. 

The need of a building or room which shall be used as the head- 
quarters of this Society and shall contain its Library has become a very 
pressing one ; and a committee has been appointed to make the necessary 
inquiries and report to the Council. 

The binding of the Society's Transactions has been undertaken by 
Mr. H. J. Rogers, of 51 Colston Street, Bristol, on similar terms to those 
.arranged with Messrs. Jefferies many years ago. Members who wish their 
Transactions to be bound should communicate directly with Mr. Rogers. 

The Council reports with great regret the death of Mr. Allard and Mr. 
"New, who acted for many years as Local Secretaries of the Society at 
Tewkesbury and Evesham respectively. 

The Council desires to nominate for re-election the President of 
Council, the General Treasurer, the General Secretary, the Vice-Presidents 
and the Local Secretaries for Stow-on-the-Wold, Tetbury, Lydney, 
Berkeley, Wotton-under-Edge, Chipping Sodbury, Cheltenham, Cirencester, 
Gloucester, and Stroud. The Council has much pleasure in nominating 
as a Vice-President of the Society the Rev. David Royce : Vicar of 
Nether Swell. This position in the Society is due to him, the Council 
ventures to think, on account of the very valuable service rendered by him 
to Archaeologists by the editing of the Winchcombe Abbey Register. The 
Council has much pleasure in nominating Mr. John Latimer, the very able 
author of The Annals of Bristol in the iSth and 19th Centuries, as Local 
Secretary for Bristol ; the Rev. H. Sheringham, Local Secretary for 
Tewkesbury ; the Rev. Harvey Bloom, Local Secretary for Chipping 
•Campden ; the Rev. W. S. Davis, Local Secretary for Dursley ; and Mr. 
Douglas Wintle, Local Secretary for Newnham. The following members 
of Council retire by rotation, but are eligible for re-election : — Messrs. A. 



Report of Council. 



5 



Le Blanc, W. C. Heane, T. Dyer Edwardes, E. C. Gael, J. Morton Ball, 
and the Rev. A. C. Jennings. 

The Council has held seven meetings during the past year — four at 
Gloucester, two at Bristol, and one at Ledbury ; and desires to express its 
acknowledgments to the Mayor of Gloucester and the Mayor of Bristol for 
the use of the Guildhall at Gloucester and the Grand Jury Room at 
Bristol. 

Mr. Tuckett, in proposing that the report be accepted, said it was 
satisfactory, showing much activity and careful management of their 
affairs. The comparative figures were satisfactory, as they showed a 
balance in hand twice as large this year as last. 

General Vizard seconded the resolution, which was adopted. 

The Rev. W. Bazeley said that with regard to Mr. Tuckett's remark 
on the financial position of the Society, he was afraid it must not go forth 
that their financial position had improved by £200 during last year. The 
fact was, that owing to a change in their printers and the serious illness of 
their late Editor, Sir John Maclean, their Transactions had been delayed, 
and the volume which should have been in the Society's hands by the 
beginning of the year — volume xvii. — was only partly issued, and the 
second part would not be out for a month or two, so that they would 
have to pay for two volumes out of the funds they had in hand. Whilst 
their financial position was not so good as it appeared, it was perfectly 
satisfactory. They did not wish to make ^200 a year profit by the Society. 
The subscriptions would be expended in enriching their Transactions, for 
the success of the Society depended upon the quality of the Transactions ; 
and under the care of their new Editor, Mr. Taylor, he was confident the 
character of them would be maintained. 

THE NEW PRESIDENT AND HIS ADDRESS. 

Alderman Fox then introduced the incoming President, Mr. Biddulph, 
M.P. He remarked that Mr. Biddulph was so well known and highly 
respected, not only in that county, but in the neighbouring counties as 
well, that it was almost unnecessary to introduce him to them. He did 
not think Mr. Biddulph would find the post a difficult one, or them a 
difficult team to drive. He was old enough to remember the time when 
two members of an archaeological society never agreed upon one single fact 
brought under their notice the whole day. (Laughter.) That condition 
of things, however, was not found now, and never in the Gloucester 
Archaeological Society. (Hear, hear, and laughter.) 

Mr. Biddulph, M.P., remarked that in presiding over 
them that day — which he had very great pleasure in doing — 
he must ask them in the first place to be lenient with him as 



6 



Transactions for the Year 1894-95. 



their chairman. He was not a skilled archaeologist, and did 
not pretend to be a great authority on the subject of archae- 
ology. Any remarks, therefore, he had to make he trusted 
they would receive with a lenient spirit and with indulgence. 
Before he proceeded further he would ask them to pass a 
hearty vote of thanks to Mr. Russell Kerr, the late President, 
who, so unfortunately, was unable to be with them, and to 
Alderman Fox for taking the chair that day. (Applause.) 

Continuing, Mr. Biddulph observed that he proposed to 
confine the remarks he should make to objects of interest in 
the immediate neighbourhood, some of which they would see 
in their excursions on the following days. (Hear, hear.) He 
would first refer to that monument of antiquity — the magnifi- 
cent old camp called the British Camp, the entrenchments 
of which could be seen for many miles around the hill. It 
was one of the most ancient of such monuments in this 
island, for the date of its formation, he presumed, was 
unknown and quite lost in the mists of antiquity. He 
supposed it might be called pre-historic. There was no 
doubt but that it was constructed by the early tribes who 
inhabited this part of the country before the arrival of the 
Romans. He would give a good deal to know who first did 
construct the camp, and the different scenes to which it had 
been a witness. One could not fail to be struck by the 
immense size of the entrenchments. In fact they enclosed a 
very large space ; but they must bear in mind that it had to 
form a resting place for the whole tribe, and not only for the 
tribe, but for their cattle and the cattle stolen from their 
neighbours as well. (Laughter.) There were also a number 
of other camps in the neighbourhood. Wall Hills Camp was 
in the immediate vicinity, and was evidently a very old one, 
probably forming one of the number which existed in this 
part of the land at about the time he had mentioned. 

The next matter to which he wished to direct their 
attention was the notice taken of the town of Ledbury 
in Domesday Book. That appeared to be the first notice 
in ancient times there was of the town, as there were no 



The President's Inaugural Address. 7 

Saxon chronicles giving them a history of the vicinity 
before that period. In Domesday there was an account 
of the town which existed there at the time of the Conquest. 
He presumed it was not then a large town, although 
important enough to be noted. It gave the number of 
inhabitants of different classes, and mentioned a very 
interesting fact in the occupation of the Hazel Farm, 
just outside the town. That farm appeared to have been 
inhabited from that time right up to the present, and was 
one of the most ancient places of habitation which existed 
in the neighbourhood. After that they did not appear to 
have any notice of Ledbury until the time of Bishop 
Swinfield, who had a residence at Bosbury in the 13th 
century, and there was a very interesting account book kept 
by his steward. It gave an account of the Bishop's travelling 
from one part of the diocese to another, and his journeys to 
London and other places. It was also interesting in so far 
that it showed the provisions consumed in the establishment, 
where they came from, and how much was used. The 
Bishop appeared to have had a large household. He got 
venison from Dingwood Chase and Colwall Chase, the Park- 
way, the road in the Dingwood Chase, having sustained its 
name ever since. There was another little fact in connection 
with the diary worth referring to, and that was that there 
was one mention, and one only, of roedeer venison having 
been consumed. 

The next fact of interest which affected Ledbury was 
that once upon a time the town returned members of 
Parliament. In 1295 and 1304, in the time of Edward I., 
Ledbury returned two members to Parliament. It did 
not appear to have returned members after that time, 
for he could find no mention of it. Therefore, Ledbury 
returned members for a short time only. It used to be 
reckoned a town of considerable importance. They knew 
there were cloth manufacturers there, and that it possessed a 
thrifty and well-to-do population. Some towns went up and 
some went down in the world, and unfortunately Ledbury 



8 



Transactions for the Year 1894-95. 



did not flourish much after the time of Charles I. or II. Its 
manufacturers were drawn away to other centres, and the 
town itself, although he was happy to say that of late years 
it had looked up a little in the world, did not continue to 
flourish as other towns had done, perhaps by reason of the 
mail coaches ceasing to run or the railway taking people 
elsewhere. Nevertheless, he did not think they had anything 
to complain of now. The town had looked up, and was as- 
thrifty and industrious a centre as was to be found in their 
agricultural districts. 

He came now to the time of the Civil War. That 
was, perhaps, one of the most interesting periods in the 
history of the country, and one in which Ledbury was 
particularly interested. There was, as many of his hearers 
were aware, a battle at Ledbury. It took place on the 
22nd April, 1645, and was fought between the Governor of 
Gloucester (Colonel Massey) and Prince Rupert. Prince 
Rupert was in command of a large force of cavalry, and was 
quartered in the town, by tradition taking up his residence in 
his (Mr. Biddulph's) house. At any rate Prince Rupert was 
here ; and at the raising of the seige of Gloucester he retired 
towards Worcester. Ledbury was immediately occupied by 
the Governor of Gloucester (Colonel Massey) ; but Prince 
Rupert, determining not to give it up, on the morning of the 
22nd April retraced his steps and fell upon the town. The 
defenders did not appear to have any guards set. Prince 
Rupert came down from the Worcester Road, which used to 
run through the churchyard, and fell upon them. They 
appeared to have been totally unprepared to receive him. A 
panic took place, and the Parliamentary army left by the 
road to Gloucester. There was no time to mount horses,, 
and a regular fight took place in the streets. The officers 
formed themselves into a kind of rear guard to protect their 
men from the assault of the cavalry. They eventually 
formed up at the top of the street, known as the "Cross," 
to prevent them giving pursuit. They learnt that one officer 
was mortally wounded, and two or three officers otherwise 



The President's Inaugural Address. 9 

wounded. There was a very curious old sword (which Mr. 
Biddulph handed round for inspection) discovered in the roof 
of Mr. C. W. Stephen's house in the town. It was, no doubt, 
an officer's sword — it was no common soldier's sword ; and 
his theory was that it must have belonged to one of the 
wounded officers he had just spoken of. They knew the 
fight took place at the top of the street near the house where 
it was found, and there was nothing more likely than that a 
wounded officer should have been carried into there. To 
keep it from the enemy, no doubt it was hidden in the roof. 
He thought this was an item worth noticing, and one which 
gave some interest to the encounter which took place there. 
(Hear, hear.) 

Whilst on the subject of the battle, he should like to 
say something concerning a great national failing. It 
was, that amongst the people there was a total absence of 
any tradition. There seemed to be no one in Ledbury who 
had the faintest tradition of the battle. There was in fact no 
tradition in England. If they went to Scotland, there was 
no highlander who could not tell them from tradition about 
Prince Charlie and the Battle of Culloden. If they went to 
Ireland, the people there were full of its traditions, and 
would tell them about their ancient kings, and what happened 
a hundred years ago in the Irish Rebellion. If they went 
into Wales, the Welsh had a glimmer of tradition of what 
happened in the ancient days. When they came over the 
border, however, into England, the people did not seem to 
have the slightest trace of any tradition at all. He did not 
believe there were many working men in England who knew 
anything about the Battle of Waterloo. (Laughter.) They 
had no recollection of anything which had taken place unless 
they found it out in old writings. 

Continuing, Mr. Biddulph remarked that a short time 
previously he referred to the old Hazel Farm. Coming down 
to later times, a hundred and fifty years ago it was occupied 
by a man of some note, and whose name was very well 
known, Jacob Tonson, the founder of the " Kit-Kat Club."" 



io Transactions for the Year 1894-95. 

At a farm in Herefordshire there now lived a family who 
possessed the 11 Kit-Kat " pictures. Their ancestors used to 
live at the Argus Farm, which was close to the Hazel 
Farm. 

In conclusion, he remarked that he always took the 
greatest interest in everything appertaining to old times and 
those who had gone before them, and he fully entered into 
the spirit which had caused that Society to be formed and go 
thus about the country. Their method was a most interest- 
ing and valuable means of recreation, and he only hoped 
they would have fine weather, and not be disappointed in 
their visit to Ledbury. (Applause.) 

A vote of thanks to Mr. Biddulph was proposed by Alderman Fox, 
which was accorded with acclamation. 

Mr. Fox asked for some information concerning the hall in which 
they were met, and 

Mr. Biddulph said some persons gave the date of its erection as the 
lime of Queen Elizabeth, and some afterwards, and, he believed, some 
before. (Laughter.) However, it was an old building and substantially 
built. At the present moment it belonged to three trustees, who held it 
for a charity, the money being given to the churchwardens for disbursement. 

Mr. Piper said no doubt there was a hall there in the time of King 
Stephen. He believed the present one was erected in the time of Charles 
II., and no doubt the timber of the old building was used in its erection. 
The massive beams, they would notice, had been hewn straight from the 
timber. There was a tradition that the architect of the great Town Hall 
at Hereford, since destroyed, and of a similar building at Leominster, was 
also the architect of the Ledbury Town Hall. 

The Rev. W. Bazeley expressed the opinion that archaeology should 
be taught in the Voluntary and Board Schools, and thus restore some of 
the traditions which their president told them were rapidly fading away. 
When one heard that people had never heard of the Battle of Waterloo, 
the members of such a Society ought to take up the matter, and plead for 
tuition on the subject. He thought they ought to try to keep up the old 
traditions of the people, because depending upon it was the English love 
of everything good and true. (Applause.) The Rev. W. Bazeley, con- 
tinuing, referred to the absence of parochial records, and remarked that 
they could find copies of their parish registers at the Diocesan Registry. 
Those who loved their parishes should go there and search, and thus fill 
up the vacant places in their registers. 



Visit to Bosbury. 



ii 



Mr. Piper remarked that during the Civil War there were no registers 
kept in Ledbury. He had been unable to find a trace of where the soldiers 
had been buried. 

The Rev. W. Bazeley said they must not suppose that because they 
had no record themselves there was none at the Diocesan Registry. 

Mr. Biddulph, M.P '., remarked that he hoped someone would be 
found possessing sufficient enterprise to go to Hereford for the purpose in 
question. 

This brought the meeting to a close, and the company then adjourned. 



Bosbury was visited in the afternoon, whither the party journeyed in 
brakes. On entering the quiet, unpretending street the party thought that 
they could detect traces of the earthworks that gave its claim to be a 
"Bury," but the rain, which was falling gently, prevented any facilities 
for the mapping out of Bosa's ancient stronghold. Bosa was the scribe of 
Witlaf, king of Mercia, and dwelt at Bosbury in the middle of the 9th 
century. Bosa was now merely a name, but there was no doubt that he 
was a scholar, a landowner, and a soldier of renown a thousand years or 
more ago. On entering the churchyard by the Lych Gate the objects that 
first arrest the attention of the visitor are, the 13th century detached tower, 
the lineal descendant, it may be, of Bosa's fortress — a place of refuge for 
the inhabitants of the village in the time of a Welsh raid ; and the 14th 
century cross of red sandstone, entire but weather-worn and ready to 
perish. Passing through a 15th century timber-work porch, the members 
were received at the Norman doorway by the Vicar (the Rev. Samuel 
Bentley), a parish priest, courteous, modest, and very learned — one of the 
old school of clergy which is passing rapidly away and giving place to 
another, more at one, it may be, with the stirring, busy, rushing times in 
which we live, but not so attractive or so lovable in the opinion of many. 
Mr. Bentley pointed out two fonts at the west end of the church, one with 
a square bowl of 13th century workmanship, and the other belonging to 
the time of Bosa, it may be, and to a Saxon church of which no traces 
could be found. A very fine Perpendicular rood screen of oak separates 
the nave from the chancel. Within the chancel are two fine Elizabethan 
tombs of the Harfords, who intermarried with the Foxes, and amongst the 
visitors, by a strange coincidence, were representatives of these two ancient 
families. A magnificent organ, the gift of the late Mrs. Hope, occupies a 
chamber on the north. At the east end of the south aisle a chantry 
chapel, erected by Sir Rowland Morton in the 16th century, contains 
several examples of his rebus. In the south aisle a stone head projects 
from the wall, said to be a likeness of Bishop Swinfield, and above an 
inscription almost illegible, said to be in memory of Bishop Swinfield's 



12 



Transactions for the Year 1894-95. 



father, and 600 years old. Two floriated 13th century crosses lie on the 
floor, and no doubt cover the remains of Knight Templars from the 
adjacent preceptory of Temple Court. Rev. and Mrs. Bentley invited the 
members to afternoon tea at the Vicarage, after which they returned to 
Ledbury, and on their arrival they were received by the Rector of Ledbury 
in the grounds at St. Katharine's, and subsequently a conversazione was 
held in the Town Hall, the President (Mr. M. Biddulph, M.P.) presiding. 

A paper on "Sepulchral Effigies in Churches near Ledbury" was 
read by Mrs. Bagnall Oakeley, and the Rev. S. Bentley read a paper 
on " The Knights Templars and Hospitallers." 1 

Mrs. Oakeley's paper was a very clever and interesting one, and she 
illustrated her remarks by showing two sketches of effigies — one at Much 
Marcle Church and the other at Pembridge. In Anglo-Saxon times 
civilian dress consisted of long and flowing garments, known by various 
names, and the Normans enriched these garments with ornaments and 
material. The fashions continued much the same till 1340, when an entire 
change took place in the civil dress. The long tunics or super-tunics were 
superseded by short and tight dresses. The grave and sedate people, 
however, still continued to wear the long dresses. Judges, serjeants-at- 
law, and all legal persons retained the long tunic, and the term " gentle- 
man of the long robe," as describing the legal profession, probably began 
at this time. The effigy at Pembridge was a very remarkable one, and 
represented " a gentleman in the long robe," about the middle of the 14th 
century, The effigy in Much Marcle Church, with the exception of a 
jewelled belt, is much the same as that at Pembridge. Over the head is a. 
hood, a usual arrangement at the date of 1350. The legs are in tight hose 
and are crossed, which is a very unusual position for the effigy of a civilian. 
The effigy is cut out of solid oak, and hollowed out inside. There is an 
old story that it used to be carried before all the funerals of men as they 
were taken from the church to the grave. 

Votes of thanks to Mrs. Oakeley and the Rev. S. Bentley concluded 
the proceedings. 



SECOND DAY. 

VISIT TO BRONSIL CASTLE, BRITISH CAMP, BIRTSMORTON, ETC. 

The party, consisting of upwards of fifty of the members, left Ledbury 
punctually at half-past ten. The first stoppage was made at Bronsil 
Castle, where Mr. G. H. Piper, F.G.S., read an elaborate paper upon the 
history of the castle and its former owners, from which our space will 
allow some brief extracts only. It was a castellated mansion, erected 
upon the site of a building of much greater antiquity, by Richard 
l Both Papers are printed in Vol. XVIII. of the Transactions of the Society. 



Visit to Bosbury. 



13 



Beauchamp, the son of John, first Lord Beauchamp of Powyk, to whom 
license was granted in 1449, and again in 1460, to enclose 300 acres of land 
in Eastnor as a park, and to crenellate his mansion. The building was 
probably completed in the reign of Edward IV. In form it is nearly 
quadrangular, the sides measuring about forty yards in length, with a 
somewhat lofty octagonal tower at each angle. The approach was by 
means of a drawbridge on the western side, with a doorway flanked by 
towers, part of one of which remains in a very dilapidated condition, and 
the whole was defended by two moats, some twenty yards apart. The 
innermost being faced with stone is still well preserved, and the forms of 
the outer moat may be easily traced — double moats like these are very 
rare and curious. Sir John Beauchamp, one of the early proprietors of 
the castle, was celebrated for his wisdom and courage. He was elevated 
io the peerage by Henry VI., and was buried in the church of the 
Dominican Friars, in Worcester. His son dying without issue male, the 
i:itle, at the death of Richard, second Lord Beauchamp, in 1496, became 
extinct, and his estates were divided amongst his grand-daughters, of 
whom Margaret, the youngest, married William Reede, Esquire, descended 
from an old Worcestershire family, in whose heirs Bronsil continued until 
the middle of the 18th century, when it was purchased by Mr. Cocks, of 
Castle Ditch, an ancestor of the late Earl Somers, in the possession of 
whose daughter, Lady Henry Somerset, it still continues. 

After leaving Bronsil, the party resumed their seats in the carriages, 
and ascended to the Hollybush Pass, on the Tewkesbury road, and 
climbed the ravine between the Midsummer and Hollybush Hills — the 
only part of the Malvern range where the hills assume a double formation. 
Here Mr. G. H. Piper, who is so familiar with the ancient settlement, its 
structure, and former uses, pointed out the nature and strength of its 
defences, the means of storing water for the use of the people, and their 
cattle and horses, the hut-hollows where they lived, the great oblong 
barrow where probably the remains of their heroes were buried, and called 
attention to other objects of interest to those who are familiar with 
archaeological enquiry. 

A move was then made to Birtsmorton Court, where the Rev. W. 
Bazeley gave an account of the Court and Church, with special reference 
to their connection with members of the Nanfan family. An account of 
the descent of the manor and advowson is given in volume x. of the 
Transactions of the Society, pages 186—209. 

The members of the Society were much interested in the moated 
manor house, with its lofty wall, mullioned windows, and ornamental 
chimneys. Passing over the drawbridge and under the stone gateway, 
they were taken into the parlour of the mansion, a large room entirely 
wainscoted with beautifully carved oak. The chimneypiece is especially 



14 Transactions for the Year 1894-95. 

worthy of notice ; in the middle compartment are Nanfan's arms with his 
quarterings, on each side his alliances : Harley on the left, and Cornwall 
on the right. Round the room are painted the arms of families allied to 
the Nanfans: Thomas Harley, Esq., Baskerville of Eardisley, Esq., 
Thomas Cornwall, Esq., Sir Henry Pole, Knt., Sir James Croft, Knt., Sir 
John Scudamore, Knt., Sir Thomas Throgmorton, Knt., Lord Copley, 
John Blount of Eye, Esq., William Rudhall of Rudhall, Esq., John 
Wyett, Gent., Bromwich of Bromsberrow, Esq., Roger Minors, Esq. 
There is also much good woodwork in other parts of the house— in the 
staircase especially. A visit was also paid to the church, which formerly 
possessed the right of sanctuary, a memorial of which still remains in the 
iron ring on the door. The church is Early English, the nave Decorated, 
the tower Perpendicular ; there are also transepts, which, however, seem 
not to have been fully completed. The seats are of ancient oak marked 
with the Tudor rose, and there is a curious circular alms-chest, apparently 
hollowed out of the bole of a tree. An ancient altar-tomb in the south 
aisle attracted attention ; it was not, however, considered possible to state 
for whom it was erected. There is also a handsome marble monument in 
the style of the period to Rear Admiral Caldwell, who died in 1718, on 
the north side of the sanctuary, within the altar rails. 

After lunch, the party proceeded to Little Malvern, and after viewing 
the beautiful grounds of Little Malvern Court, visited the Priory Church. 
This was originally cruciform, with a tower at the crossing and a 
sacristy behind the altar ; but now only the chancel is used for Divine 
Service, what remains there are of the rest of the church being only ivy 
covered ruins. The tower is beautifully panelled, and within there is 
much of interest in the woodwork of the roodloft, screen, and choir seats ; 
there are also some tiles similar to those in the church at Great Malvern, 
and others apparently of an earlier date. The church was rebuilt by John 
Alcock, Bishop of Worcester, 1476 — 1486 ; and to this period, and more 
precisely perhaps to the years 1480 — 1482, may be assigned what is now, 
as it must always have been, the glory of the church — the beautiful 
glass in the east window. 

This window consists of six lights, with four smaller lights of 
quatrefoil form in the tracery above; but with the exception of a few 
fragments, the two central and the two side panels of the window have 
perished. It is known, however, that the two central panels represented 
King Edward IV. and his queen, Elizabeth ; in the panel behind the king 
was the Prince of Wales, afterwards Edward V., and behind him again 
Richard Duke of York. In the panel behind the queen are four princesses, 
her daughters; and behind them again was John Alcock, Bishop of 
Worcester. Of the figures of the king and of the Duke of York there are 
now no remains; of the queen's figure there are but a few doubtful 



Ledbury. 



15 



fragments ; of the representation of the bishop there remain fragments of 
an alb, a violet chasuble, and a crozier — in the right hand is a book, and a 
chain to which is appended a padlock. 

The figures of the Prince of Wales and of his four sisters are perfect,, 
and form most beautiful and interesting examples of the costume of the 
period. The prince was in 1482 about twelve years of age; his sisters 
were — Elizabeth, afterwards queen of Henry VII., who was then about 
sixteen or seventeen years old ; Cicely, in her thirteenth year ; Anne, in 
her seventh year ; and Katherine, who was at least three years old. 

Proceeding along the Ridgeway, a passing glance at the mistletoe oak, 
and a pleasant drive through Eastnor Park, brought to a successful 
termination a most pleasant excursion. 

In the evening the members were received at the Park by the President, 
Mr. Biddulph, and by Lady Elizabeth Biddulph. The gardens were 
prettily illuminated, and a first-class string band (conductor,' Mr. G. W. 
Davis) played an excellent selection of music, which was much praised by 
the guests. An opportunity was then afforded of seeing the pictures, 
engravings, china, and other objects of art with which Mr. Biddulph's 
most interesting house is so richly stored. 



THIRD DAY. 

LEDBURY, DYM0CK, KEMPLEY, MUCH MARCLE, AND PRESTON CHURCHES. 

On Thursday morning the Rector of Ledbury met the members at the 
Ledbury Parish Church, and his remarks on its history and architecture 
were listened to with much interest. "The Clerk's House," and other 
interesting buildings adjoining the church, were also inspected. A brief 
time only was given to the very interesting parish church, because it was 
thought by the Local Committee that the church, being in course of 
restoration, would be in too great confusion to allow of careful study. It 
has been partly arranged, however, that another visit of the Society shall 
be held at Ledbury during the presidency of Mr. Biddulph, when a whole 
day will be given to Ledbury, its church, hospital, and other interesting 
buildings. The absence of seats and flooring in the church, and certain 
excavations which have taken place, enabled the Rector to lay various 
matters of special interest before the Society. Beneath the pillars of the 
arcade in the north side of the nave plain drum-shaped bases have been 
discovered, which are out of line with the remains of the 12th century, or 
Norman arcade. It was thought that these bases belonged to a church 
which existed before the Norman Conquest. Attention was also called to 
the square pedestals on which the bases and shafts of the short Norman 
pillars in the choir rest. They were thought to indicate that screens on 
the north and south sides of the choir formed part of the architect's plan 



i6 



Transactions for the Year 1894-95. 



of building in the 12th century. A hope was expressed that the gallery 
on the north side of the nave which blocks up the windows and destroys 
the symmetry of the building might be removed. The Society, however, 
was not of opinion that the central (Mr. Biddulph's) pew of the gallery 
should be destroyed, but that it should stand on the floor beneath, between 
two of the windows, as it has an interest and a history of its own which 
should not be swept away. 

Special attention was called to the recumbent effigy of a lady on an 
altar-tomb, ornamented with many heraldic shields bearing alternately 
three lions passant and two lions rampant. The costume shows that it 
belonged to the end of the 14th century. It is hoped that further light 
will be thrown on the identity of this lady in the Society's Transactions. 

A short General Meeting of the Society was held in the Town Hall at 
10.30, when it was resolved that votes of thanks be given to : 

(1) The Rev. Samuel Bentley and Mrs. Bentley; to the Rev. Prebendary 

Maddison-Green and Mrs. Maddison-Green ; and to the President and 
Lady Elizabeth Biddulph, for their generous hospitality to the Society 
at Bosbury Vicarage, St. Katherine's, and Ledbury Park respectively. 

(2) The Lessees of the Ledbury Town Hall for the free use of their 

most interesting historic building. 

(3) The Incumbents of Bosbury, Birtsmorton, Little Malvern, Ledbury, 

Preston, Dymock, Kempley, and Much Marcle, for permission to visit 
their churches, and for the information afforded by them. 

(4) Mr. Berington of Little Malvern, and Mr. Hartland of Preston Court, 

for so kindly permitting the members to visit their houses and 
grounds. 

(5) Mrs. Bagnall-Oakeley, the Rev. Samuel Bentley, Mr. G. H. Piper 
and Mr. Walters, for the excellent papers read or communicated by 
them. 

(6) The Chairman and Members of the Local Committee, to the Local 

Secretaries and Treasurer, to Mr. Garood, Acting Local Secretary, for 
the valuable assistance given by them in organizing and carrying out a 
most successful meeting. 
Also it was resolved : 

(1) That the General Secretary be requested to convey to Mr. Bickham, 
the very able Local Secretary and Treasurer, an expression of the 
deep sorrow felt by the members at the death of Mrs. Bickham, and to 
offer to him their heartfelt sympathy. 

(2) That the selection of the place of the Annual Summer Meeting of 1895 

be left to the Council, and also the choice of a President for 1895-6. 

(3) That the hearty thanks of the Society be given to Michael Biddulph, 

Esq., for the very able manner in which he has presided over the 
Society during the present meeting. 



Ledbury and Kempley. 



i7 



At 10.45 the Society bade farewell to Ledbury and drove to Preston, 
the parish church of which contains little of interest beyond a Norman 
doorway with a tympanum, on which is carved the Agnus Dei. The party 
then drove to Dymock, and was received at the parish church by the Vicar 
(Rev. R. Horton), who gave them an excellent account of the sacred 
structure. There is now a tower at the west end ; in the twelfth century 
there was certainly one between the chancel and the nave. Attention was 
called to a beautiful floriated cross on a tombstone which has been affixed 
to the north wall of the nave. 

The General Secretary, in thanking the Vicar for the information he 
had afforded them, added that the enthusiastic love which the Vicar showed 
for his church gave the Society the deepest pleasure, and was worthy of 
imitation by all who were the custodians and guardians of ancient 
buildings. 

Luncheon was provided by Mr. and Mrs. Horton, whose kindness was 
much appreciated. 

The Society proceeded at two p.m. to Kempley, and examined the inter- 
esting wall paintings which have been preserved in the parish church 

Much Marcle was the next place visited, and here they were 
courteously welcomed by the aged Vicar. Special attention was given to 
the effigies, in which the church is very rich. The church is a large, hand- 
some structure of a kind not often found in a country village. The 
arrangement is uncommon ; a chancel with north chapel, a nave with 
aisles, south porch, and a tower between the nave and chancel, quite clear 
•of the aisles, and having no transepts*. 

The exterior has a pleasing and unusual appearance, with its high 
pitched roofs and gables crowned with crosses giving effect to the outline. 
The nave has a good Early English arcade on each side of four arches, 
springing from circular pillars, mostly with plain moulded capitals, but 
some with foliage and heads. There is a lofty clerestory of single lancets, 
which are now blocked up, except the arched heads of those on the north 
side. At the west end of the north aisle is a narrow square-headed 
window ; on the north and south are various windows, chiefly Decorated, 
one with no foils, one having them in the lights, but not in the head. 
Other windows are Perpendicular, especially the western one, which is 
large and long, of four lights with a transom. The chancel is large, and 
has on the south side a Decorated and a Perpendicular window, and a 
priest's doorway, with details of a classic character. It is divided from the 
north chapel by two Early English arches, springing from a slender 
circular pillar. The tower is Perpendicular, opening both to the nave and 
chancel by a large pointed arch with continuous mouldings. The lower 
part has two tiers of windows of two lights, open to the interior, the belfry 
storey being finished by a good battlement, without pinnacles. Duncombe, 

3 

Vol. XIX. 



i8 



Transactions for the Year 1894-95. 



in his History of Herefordshire, says, " The present tower of the church was 
erected by order of Thomas Walwayne, of Helyons, or Hellens, about 
1430, according to directions in the will of his father, Thomas, second son 
of Sir Richard Walwayne, of Helyons. It is supposed the chancel was 
also built by him, as that family appears to have had the exclusive right of 
sepulture in the chancel." The font is Norman, cylindrical, of large size r 
and with a band of plain moulding round the bowl. It has a square base 
standing upon a circular step. The eastern gables of the chancel and 
chapel are precisely similar, being of equal height, and each having a plain 
three-light window, with wheel crosses on the gables, the one over the 
chancel having a crucifix carved upon its western side, finished in this way 
possibly in Puritan times. 

This church is very rich in sepulchral effigies, which deserve careful 
examination. On a window cill in the south aisle is a cross-legged wooden 
effigy of a civilian, or frankelein, or squire of about the middle of the 14th 
century. Mr. Bloxam knows of but two other examples of civilians 
being represented with the legs crossed ; in Thurslaston church, Leicester- 
shire, and in Birkin church, Yorkshire. In the north wall of the chancel 
of Marcle church is a curious tomb, dating from the latter half of the 14th 
century, supporting the recumbent effigy of a lady, above which is a 
singular shaped canopy, the back forming a semi-hexagon. Another high 
tomb of about the same date occupies the north-west corner of the chapel, 
and bears recumbent effigies of a man in armour and a lady, the south side 
being ornamented with cusped panels, containing shields and demi-figures 
of angels, also bearing shields. The centre of this chapel is occupied by a 
stately tomb of black and white marble, surmounted by well-executed 
recumbent figures of Sir John Kyrle and the Lady Sybilla, his wife. This 
monument is said to have been executed in Italy, in the lifetime of Sir 
John Kyrle, who was the first Baronet of the family, and died in 1650. 
His father purchased the Homme House property in this parish. The 
tower contains a peal of six bells, dating from a.d. 1638 to 1804. 

The greatest structural peculiarity of this church arises from its follow- 
ing the slope of the ground towards the east, so that the chancel floor is 
lower than that of the nave, and the eastern half of each arch of the nave 
arcades is longer than the corresponding western half, the piers sinking in 
regular gradation from west to east. 

The Society left Much Marcle at four o'clock to catch the train which 
left Dymock for Gloucester at 4.50. 

The Hon. Secretary, Rev. William Bazeley (who has held the post for 
fifteen years), was heartily thanked on the platform of the station for his 
leadership. 

The weather, generally speaking, was favourable, and the Society 
departed, well pleased with the 1894 summer meeting at Ledbury. 



TRANSACTIONS OF THE 



At the Spring Meeting held at 
Bredon, Kemerton, Overbury, and Beckford 

On Thursday, June 13th, 1895. 



The members held their Spring Meeting on Thursday, 
June 13th, when they visited Bredon, Kemerton, Overbury, 
and Beckford. The day was beautifully fine, and the large 
party seemed to enjoy themselves thoroughly. Among those 
present were, the Rev. W. Bazeley (General Secretary), 
Messrs. Bartleet, Blakeway, Blood, Mr. and Mrs. Bonner, 
Mr. and Mrs. T. S. Bush, Mr. and Mrs. Bruton, Messrs. 
Chanter, Clarke, Collett,' Mrs. W. C. de B. Corry, Mr. 
and Mrs. Currie, Mr. Dancey, Mr. and Miss d' Argent, 
Miss Daubeny, the Rev. C. Davis, the Rev. Melland Hall, 
Messrs. Eager, Fox, Gael, Mr. and Miss Hyett, Miss 
Isacke, Messrs. Kempson, Leigh, Whatley, Margetson, 
Master, the Rev. C. A. Baker, Messrs. Meedway, Perkins, 
Piper, Sugden, Swayne, Mr. and Mrs. Wintle, Messrs. 
Pitcairn, Prankerd, Ranger, Salway, Smith, Col. Smythe, 
Mr., Mrs. and Miss Thorpe, Messrs. Trusted, Wells, 
Whitehead, Simeon, T. Collins, and others. The Clergy 
of the several Parishes visited, joined the party as they 
inspected the different Churches. 

BREDON. 

The fine Church of St. Giles, Bredon, was first visited. After a short 
Service, Mr. Bazeley read a paper describing the different points of interest 
which the building presented. Reading its history from the walls and 

3 * 



20 



Transactions for the Year 1894-95. 



sculpture, he said he thought the original building was commenced early 
in the 12th century, when the prevailing style of architecture was pure 
Norman. When the building was finished it consisted of a lofty nave, a 
low central tower, and probably a semi-circular apse, of which there were 
now no traces. There was on the north side a lofty porch with a priest's 
chamber above. At the end of the 12th century the chantry chapel on 
the south side was built in the Early English style. In order to place the 
chapel there the south wall of the Norman nave was cut away and replaced 
by an arcade consisting of Early English arches resting on a central pier 
and two responds, the responds on either side being attached to the Nor- 
man work. In the 13th century the north wall of the nave was taken 
down as far as the porch, and two Decorated arches built, similar to those 
on the south side (only of the next style of architecture), and a chantry 
chapel erected on the same lines as the chapel on the other side, but much 
narrower. Then the Norman tower probably showed signs of falling. As 
far as he could judge, since the present arch was built in Transitional 
Norman style, he thought it very likely that the Norman archway with its 
chevron moulding was taken down and rebuilt with a pointed arch ; or the 
old Norman tower might have been thirty or forty years later than the 
nave, and might have been built with a pointed arch, just as Canterbury 
Cathedral was, in the Transitional Norman. Then the Norman apse was 
removed and a Decorated chancel erected, with three two-light windows on 
each side, with geometrical tracery, and a handsome four-light window with 
geometrical tracery at the east end. Mr. Bazeley drew attention, among 
other features of interest, to a large slab on the chancel floor, in memory 
of Dr. Prideaux, who was Bishop of Worcester during the time of the 
Civil War. On the surrender of the city of Worcester to Cromwell, he 
was driven out of his palace, and was allowed a sum of 4s. 6d. a week. 
He found it impossible to live on that amount, and had to sell his goods 
piece by piece. He died in 1650, and was buried beneath the slab in that 
chancel. In the south chapel was a very fine example of a Jacobean tomb. 
It was to the memory of Giles Reed (died 161 1) and his wife and family. 
In Saxon times there was a missionary college at Bredon, and there was 
afterwards an abbot. At the end of the 10th century the monastery was 
dissolved, and the church, the monastery, and all its possessions, were 
given to the Bishop of Worcester. They remained in the hands of the 
Bishop of Worcester till the time of Queen Elizabeth, when they were 
alienated, and since that time both the advowson and the manor had 
passed through various families. Very possibly the old cross which was 
dug up in the churchyard, and is now deposited in the chancel, was all 
that remained of the Saxon monastery and church. 



The Tythe Barn, Kemerton, Overbury. 21 



THE TYTHE BARN. 

The wonderfully fine Tythe Barn standing a short distance from the 
Church was next examined by permission of Mr. Dyer. It is of great 
length and height, and is in fine repair. The ponderous gates were thrown 
open and the Company entered, and were struck with the tall and 
substantial oak pillars which supported the grand carpentry of the roof, 
taking off its weight from the walls, which were pierced in places for 
firing through in the event of siege, a not unnecessary provision during the 
critical times in which it was founded. A- flight of stone steps from the 
outside led to an entrance through the wall at which it was stated it was 
not improbable that the tythe presented was received. The date of this 
fine old structure was conjectured at about the 15th century. 

KEMERTON. 

Kemerton Church was next visited, under the guidance of the Rev. 
s f. J. Mercier. This Church has been restored, and Mr. Mercier said the 
only old part was the tower, the lower part of which was in the transition 
style from Norman to Early English. The top stage was no doubt put on 
in very much later times, late in the 15th or early in the 16th century, 
and the angle buttresses were added. At the time the Church was rebuilt 
it was intended to pull down the tower and build another tower with a 
spire, which should overtop the neighbouring tower of Bredon, but fortu- 
nately the design was not carried out. 

Lunch was provided for the pjarty at Northwood by the kind per- 
mission of Mr. and Mrs. Mercier. Mr. Mercier afterwards read a paper 
on the history of Kemerton parish. Among other interesting facts, he said 
that many of Wyckliff's polemical treatises were preserved in the Imperial 
library at Vienna. One of these manuscripts, containing three treatises 
on the Truth of the Holy Scriptures, the Church, and Divine Lordship, 
was known to have been in great part transcribed and corrected at 
Oxford, at Whitsuntide, 1407. At the end of the second chapter of De 
Ecclesia was a note, "Kemerton psano." " Psano " was Bohemian for 
" written at," so it was clear that that chapter was written at Kemerton. 

OVERBURY. 

At Overbury Church the visitors were received by the Rev. C. Glynn, 
who gave a description of the Church. It consisted, he said, of a nave in 
the Norman style, a chancel in the Early English style, aisles Decorated, 
tower pure Perpendicular, and porch 19th century. The old Church, 
which was commenced in the reign of Edward the Confessor, consisted of 
a nave tower, transepts, and apse. The next step was the addition of the 
south doorway in 11 60 or thereabout ; the outer doorway of that porch was 
now standing, forming the inner doorway of the present porch. Next 



22 



Transactions for the Year 1894-95. 



came an alteration. The apse was broken through, the Early English 
chancel was erected in 1220 as an extension of the old ground plan, and 
the consecration of the new portion took place. The west window was put 
in in 1240, the aisles built a hundred years later, the tower in 1386, the 
bell chambers in 1450, the east window in 1480. The west end, the south 
aisle, and the porch were rebuilt in 1850, and the Church was restored in 
1879-80. The font, which was extremely interesting, was as ancient as 
any part of the Church, dating from Edward the Confessor. The bowl, 
which was the true old font, was divided into four panels : the first con- 
tained the figure of a priest in the officiating dress ; the second, that of a 
bishop with a remarkable nimbus and two croziers ; the third, a cross 
with the emblem of the dove ; and the fourth, some beautiful scroll work. 
The bowl of the font had been fractured, and he thought that this was 
caused by the insertion of staples for a cover, a constitution having been 
ssued in 1236 by Edmund, Archbishop of Canterbury, that every font 
should be covered and locked. There were five bells. The first bore the 
words "Sancte Egidi, ora pro nobis," and was cast by Rt. Hendley, 1450 — 
1500. The second had an incomplete alphabet; it was a 16th century bell, 
but post-Reformation. The third and fourth bore the words, "Come when 
I call — to serve God all," and " Hallelujah," with the date 1641, and were 
cast by Purdue, of Salisbury and Bristol. The fifth bore the inscription 
"John Dance, Thomas Baldwing, churchwardens, 1719, A.R.," and was cast 
by Abraham Rudhall, of Gloucester. The registers were very interesting. 
They dated from the fourth year of Queen Mary, and one or two of the 
first entries were of names of persons still existing in the parish. In 
Domesday they read that " the Church of Worcester holds Overbury with 
Pendoc." In 875 a.d. Ceolwulph, king of the Mercians, gave the Manor 
to the Church of Worcester. The patronage is still in the hands of the 
Dean and Chapter. The Manor passed from the Dean and Chapter to 
the Ecclesiastical Commissioners. In 1723 Mr. John Martin, in succession 
to Mr. Parsons and others, became tenants of the Dean and Chapter on a 
lease of three lives. In 1861, while one life was still running, Mr. Robert 
Martin purchasad the property from the Ecclesiastical Commissioners. 

OVERBURY COURT. 

The visit to Overbury Court, the residence of Mr. Robert Martin, at 
which the company had been invited to take afternoon tea, was very much 
enjoyed. The fine stone mansion stands in its own grounds surrounded 
by sumptuously laid out gardens, lawns, and a park containing many 
magnificent plane and horse-chestnut trees. The latter showed to great 
advantage in the form of a broad avenue, the old and gnarled trunks of which 
bent about in most picturesque forms, presented charming objects for the 
artist's pencil, while the verdant surroundings furnished a grand back- 



Beckford. 



23 



ground for the many pictures that met the eye in every direction, backed 
as they were by the distant purple hills. Mr. Martin, who is unfortunately 
somewhat of an invalid, cordially received his visitors and partook of 
afternoon tea with them. The rooms of the mansion were thrown open 
and an inspection was made of the numerous pictures and other charming 
objects with which the walls were adorned. The kindness and hospitality 
shown by Mr. Martin were cordially acknowledged. 

The present mansion, Overbury Court, was built in 1736 to replace a 
bouse of similar design which was burnt down in 1735. The old manor, 
house, having five gables, was pulled down in 1725 to make room for the 
house that was subsequently destroyed by fire. 

BECKFORD. 

The party afterwards drove to Beckford, and was received at the 
Church by the Rev. W. Robinson and several local gentlemen. The Rev. 
Melland Hall, of Harescombe, near Gloucester, had prepared a paper on the 
history of the Church, but was able to read only a small portion of it, as half 
the party had to leave to catch a train at Ashchurch soon after he had 
commenced. Those who remained examined the building with considerable 
interest, and expressed their dissatisfaction that the tower arch had been 
whitewashed. It was explained on behalf of the churchwardens that they 
could not afford to have the arch properly cleaned, and that to have put it 
into the hands of ordinary workmen would have been to ruin it ; they, 
therefore, covered it with whitewash to preserve it until it could be 
properly seen to. Considerable interest was shown in the two tympana, 
one in the porch over the door leading into the church, and the other over 
the outside of the walled-up doorway in the north wall of the church. The 
one in the porch depicts a cross, with a dove or some bird resting on one 
shaft, and on the other what appears to be an eye or a symbol of the world. 
There is on each side a beast, apparently worshipping the cross. Mr. 
Bazeley said the tympanum evidently represented the worship of the cross 
by the beasts, the beasts, he supposed, being two or four beasts mentioned 
in the Revelation. The visitors could not make much of the tympanum 
over the north doorway. Some of them seemed to think it represented the 
descent of Christ - into Hades, while others argued that it represented the 
triumph of the cross over the Evil One. This tympanum is considerably 
defaced. 

Some of the party afterwards visited the interesting houses of Capt. 
Case Walker and Capt. Freeman. 

The papers on Kemerton, by the Rev. J. J. Mercier ; on Overbury, by 
the Rev. C. Glynn; and on Beckford, by the Rev. Melland Hall, are 
printed in this volume of the Transactions of the Society. 



A HISTORY OF 



KEMERTON. 



By The Rev. JEROME J. MERCIER, 

Rector of Kemerton. 

The Parish of Kemerton is a long narrow tongue of land, 
protruding from the northern boundary of Gloucester, the 
county to which it belongs, into the County of Worcester,, 
from which it is separated both civilly and ecclesiastically. 
The total area of the parish is only 1,635 acres. The summit 
of Bredon Hill, marked by a square stone tower of no great 
antiquity, locally known as the " summer house," 1 lies within 
the parish, a few yards from its northern boundary. The 
Ordnance Survey gives the elevation of this point as 977.6 
feet above mean high water at Liverpool. The church, two 
miles and a quarter from the top, stands at 149 feet, and at 
the little bridge over the Carrant, which marks the south 
boundary of the parish, the elevation is only 75 feet. 

Nothing is really known about the district in which 
Kemerton lies until the time of the Roman invasion under 
the Emperor Claudius ; for though Julius Caesar first landed 
in Britain in b.c. 55, the permanent occupation of the 
country was not undertaken till the time of Claudius, who 
sent over Aulus Plautius in a.d. 43 as general-in-chief. At 
that time Oxfordshire and Gloucestershire were inhabited by 
the Dobuni, and apparently the Severn separated them from 
the Silures of South Wales. Plautius routed the Dobuni in 
45 A D -) b ut hostilities were kept up for many years between 
the native race and the invaders — until an arrangement was 
made by which Arviragus, the chief of the Dobuni, was 
married to a daughter of Claudius, and the Dobuni were 

1 Formerly " Parsons' Folly," built by John Parsons (great-uncle of the 
late John Hopton, Esq., d. 1 891) of Kemerton Upper Court, about 1760-70. 



A History of Kemerton. 



25 



received on terms of friendship by the Romans. The Silures 
on the other side of the Severn were very troublesome 
neighbours, but they were defeated by Ostorius Scapula, who 
had in a.d. 50 succeeded Plautius in the chief command. 
Scapula established a line of forts along the Severn and 
Avon, to keep the Silures in check. It is probable that many 
of these forts were already in existence, made by the British 
tribe on this bank of the Severn with the same object, namely,, 
to withstand the encroachments of the Silures, the most 
active, resolute, and persevering of the British nations. A 
line of forts, 25 in number, can still be distinctly traced,, 
stretching for 40 miles from Clifton Down, near Bristol, to 
Bredon Hill. These forts are so placed, generally on pro- 
jecting headlands of the Cotswolds, that any one of them can 
be seen by at least its next neighbour both north and south, 
and thus a ready means was afforded of telegraphing all 
along the range by means of beacon fires. The encampment 
on Bredon Hill is well marked by two deep ditches and 
mounds, running east and west, then N.N.E. Thus a 
rhomboidal enclosure is formed, denned and protected on the 
north and west by the steep declivities of the hill. The 
length of the outer ditch is about 2,000 feet, of the inner 1,300 
feet, and a space of about 25 acres is thus enclosed. This is 
apparently the largest of the enclosures in the Cotswold forts, 
except perhaps that on Uley Bury, which is said to include- 
30 acres. Roman coins have been constantly found about 
these entrenchments, and on other parts of the hill, and the 
charred wheat used by the Romans may still be picked up 
there. There are traces of another encampment on the hill,, 
south-east from the summit, in the parish of Overbury, but of 
this I do not possess any information. In the inner enclosure 
of the encampment on the summit is a deep depression in 
which lies a large mass of conglomerate. It is known as the 
Banbury Stone; but I am unable to throw any light on the 
etymology of this word. On the western slope of the hill,, 
above Westmancote, are several similar masses of con- 
glomerate, known as the King and Queen. They are 



26 



Transactions for the Year 1894-95. 



generally supposed to have been objects of Druidical worship, 
and I believe within the memory of man, when a court 
leet used to be held on this part of the hill, the stones were 
whitewashed, and leave asked of their majesties to hold the 
court. It is not, indeed, improbable that these stones may 
have witnessed Druidic rites ; but they are evidently in situ, 
they have not been placed where they are by man. They lie 
just where the upper lias and the oolite join, and the rains of 
centuries have washed away the more friable portions of the 
soil, leaving these great stones exposed. Such a rationalizing 
method of treating legend will, I trust, give no offence either 
to the King, his consort, or their supporters. 

When we pass on to Saxon times we find that the valley 
of the Severn was first inhabited by the Saxons after the 
battle of Deorham, 577. Green says : " The capture of the 
hill fort of Old Sarum in 552 by the West Saxons threw open 
the reaches of the Wiltshire Downs, and pushing along the 
upper valley of Avon to a new battle at Barbury Hill (near 
Swindon), they swooped at last from their uplands on the 
rich prey that lay along the Severn, Gloucester, Cirencester, 
and Bath, cities which had leagued under their British kings 
to resist this onset, became the spoil of an English victory at 
Deorham in 577, and the line of the great western river lay 
open to the arms of the conquerors." Whatever settlements 
the British may have had in this neighbourhood, the names 
of the villages round the hill are all Saxon, most of them 
ending in the very common " ton " (or " don "), an enclosure 
— Comberton, Bricklehampton, Netherton, Ashton, Aston, 
Grafton, Conderton, Kemerton ; while in Eckington we have 
in addition the very frequently recurring patronymic " ing " 
in the medial syllable. That word must mean the " settlement 
of the sons of Eck ; " but on most of the others I can throw 
no distinct light. The older topographical writers — who 
certainly were not strong on etymology — derive Kemerton 
from "cwm," British for hill, and Saxon "ton," a settlement, 
so that the word would mean "hill town;" bu't, to say 
nothing of this unusual mixture of languages in local names 



A History of Kemerton. 



27 



the older form of the word is Ken-merton. I have two 
theories of the meaning of this name, which I simply give for 
what they are worth, and to provoke discussion. " Ken" or 
?' Kenmer " is probably a family name, and Kenmer-ton is 
equivalent to the " settlement of Kenmer." Or, if the family 
name is only "Ken," then " mer " must be some epithet of 
" ton," either the settlement on the mere or lake — very likely 
existing at the lower end of the parish— or the "mere" in 
the sense of " border " settlement, lying perhaps on the edge 
of the occupation of two septs or tribes. I cannot help 
thinking also that Comberton and Kemerton are probably 
the same word, and the villages may have been settled by 
the same family. 

The Domesday forms of the word should be compared 
with Chenemeresforde — Kempsford on the Thames, where that 
river now divides Gloucestershire from Wiltshire, as in old 
days it formed the boundary between the Huiccians and the 
West-Saxons. This comparison would suggest that " mere " 
is used in the sense of " boundary ; " but it is difficult to 
assign any definite meaning to the first element in each 
name — " Chene;" though the 'Anglo-Saxon " cene" keen, bold, 
warlike, or 11 camp" a battle may perhaps supply a clue. 

Kemerton appears in Domesday under the three forms of 
Chenemertone, Chinemertune, and Caneberton, and the following is 
a translation of the entries relating to it : — 

1. Under the heading " The King's Land " we read : — 

In Kemerton Lett held 8 hides, and it was a manor. Girard 
now holds it, and has there 3 teams and 14 villains with 5 teams. 
There are 8 serfs and 3 mills of 15 shillings [yearly value]. It was 
worth 8 pounds and is now worth 6 pounds. To this manor 3 hides 
in Boddington are joined. The same Girard holds them, and has 
there 2 teams, and 4 villains with 3 teams : there are 3 serfs and a 
mill of 8 shillings [yearly value] and 8 acres of pasture. It is and 
was worth 40 shillings. 

2. Under the heading " The Land of St. Peter's, West- 
minster, in Deerhurst Hundred " : — 

At Kemerton half a hide. Leuuin held it, Girard [now] holds 
these lands. 



28 



Transactions for the Year 1894-95. 



Then follows this entry, struck through with the pen : — 
In the same place Baldwin the Abbot holds half a hide. 
Then lower down : — 

At Kemerton Eluuin [held] half a hide. Baldwin the Abbot 
holds this. 

3. Lastly, under the heading " Land of St. Denis of Paris,, 
in Deerhurst Hundred " : — 
In Kemerton half a hide. 

From the entry in Domesday, then, it appears that in 
Kemerton, lands were distributed as follows : — 

Girard's large manor, held under the King ... 8 hides. 

Girard's small manor (formerly Leuuin's), 

held under Westminster | ,, 

Baldwin, Abbot of St. Edmund's Bury (for- 
merly Eluuin's) i" 

Abbey of St. Denis \ „ 

Total ... gi „ 

The eight hides in Kemerton, and the three in Bodington,. 
which Girard held at the date of the Survey, are also men- 
tioned under the head of " St. Peter's, Westminster," where 
it is said that they always paid gheld and rendered other 
services in Deerhurst Hundred until he had them, after which 
time they did so no more. 

It is a vexed question with the learned as to what a hide 
of land exactly was, some of the Domesday Commissioners 
using this term, while those who surveyed the Northern 
Counties employ carucate. Both, however, it is supposed, 
refer to an area of rating, rather than an actual extent of 
acreage. It is, I believe, agreed that the ploughland repre- 
sented as much land as could be ploughed by one " team " of 
oxen, and this is frequently taken as 120 acres; but it is 
obvious that this acreage must vary with the character and 
position of the land. Now, on Girard's large manor were 
three teams, and on the smaller manor he and his under- 
tenants had five between them. This would give eight teams 
for eight and a half hides. If the other tenants had a team 



A History of Kemerton. 



29 



for their hide this would give nine teams on the Kemerton 
lands, and the acreage of arable (at 120 acres the team) at 
1,080. When we deduct the lower part of the parish, which 
was till very recently bog, and a considerable part of the hill 
which was no doubt rough pasture and wood, the arable at 
the present time would be very much what it was at the time 
of Domesday. 

We must notice the population of Kemerton, as given in 
Domesday. Besides the landowners Girard and the Abbots 
of St. Edmund's and St. Denis (or their representatives), 
there were fourteen villains and eight serfs. The villain is 
the Norman representative of the Saxon ceorl, churl. For the 
most part they were not independent freeholders, but culti- 
vated the lands of their lords, on which they were bound to 
reside, and from which they could not remove themselves, 
neither could the lord remove them so long as they duly 
performed their services. Practically, the villain performed 
the same services as the agricultural labourer of the present 
day. He could acquire no private property in land or goods ; 
liis daughters could not be married without the lord's consent 
to what was considered a dahiage to the property ; and his 
sons grew up in the same state of bondage with himself. 
Still, the law gave him a certain protection, and he could 
acquire freedom in several ways. In course of time the 
condition of the villains, however, was greatly ameliorated, 
and they and their families were allowed to enjoy their 
holdings in a regular course of descent, and thus in time the 
custom on this or that estate grew into law, and from the 
class of villains sprang the class of copyholders, who had no 
deeds to show for the land they occupied, but whose position 
was secured by a copy of the entry on the rolls of the estate, 
stating what the immemorial usage of that estate had been. 
It is from the class of ceovls or villains that Hallam considers 
"that noble plant," the English yeomanry, to have sprung; 
that class which has now so completely died out in most 
places, and which modern legislators desire so fervently to 
see re-established. It would appear, then, that the fourteen 



30 Transactions for the Year 1894-95. 

villains in Kemerton must have been fairly well to do, for 
they had five teams of oxen between them, i.e, they must 
have cultivated 500 or 600 acres on their own account, or 
about forty acres apiece. Besides these were the three serfs, 
whose position was a much inferior one. The serf repre- 
sented the Saxon theow or esne [pi. theowas, esnas~\, and 
although he was protected by law from gross injury, his life 
was spent in the service of his lord, at whose discretion he 
received wages or only maintenance. If we reckon four or 
five to a house, the population of Kemerton at the time of 
the Survey would be about 100, certainly not more, probably 
less; as I find the population in 1712 given by Atkins as 
u about 150, of whom 6 freeholders." The three mills spoken 
of would undoubtedly occupy the sites of three out of the 
four mills at present existing ; I should be inclined to think 
the upper three. The under-tenants were all bound to grind 
their corn at the lord's mill, for which they paid a fee. These 
three mills brought in 15s. a year, and as money was then 
about forty times the present value, this would represent a 
clear gain to the lord of £30 a year. The manor was then 
worth ^"240 of our money, but had been worth ^320. To 
these amounts must be added the value of the labour- 
services of the tenants, to which it is difficult to assign even 
an approximate worth in money. 

It would be most interesting to trace, if it were possible, 
the history of these several manors to the present day, and to 
gather some information about the persons who actually 
held them at the time of Domesday. About Girard I can 
find nothing beyond the fact that he is called Camerarius • 
and the Rev. C. S. Taylor, the chief authority for the 
Gloucestershire Domesday, tells me that he had transferred 
his great manor from the Hundred of Deerhurst to that of 
Tewkesbury. The most interesting particulars revealed by 
the Domesday entry is the fact of the connection of Kemerton 
with such distinguished places as Westminster, Deerhurst, 
St. Denis, and St. Edmundsbury. 

The connection with Deerhurst appears to be this : Deer- 



A History of Kemerton. 



3* 



hurst Priory was founded in the very early Saxon times, and 
held extensive lands in Gloucestershire and Worcestershire. 
Half a hide was held in Kemerton, and the church there 
paid to Deerhurst yearly two bushels of corn and half its 
mortuaries. Edward the Confessor, more at heart French 
than English, bestowed Deerhurst and its land upon the 
Abbey of St. Denis — about 1050-60. Thus Deerhurst became 
an alien priory, and it was not made denizen till 21 Hen. VL 
(1443), and in 1459 became attached to Tewkesbury. I 
presume the half hide held here by St. Denis was the same 
formerly held by Deerhurst, but who ultimately became 
owner of this half hide I have not been able to trace. 

The Abbot of St. Edmund's, who held half a hide here, is 
mentioned by name in Domesday — Baldwin — and a very 
remarkable man he seems to have been. He was the first 
Prior of Deerhurst after its transference to St. Denis, of 
which Abbey he was then a monk. In 1065 he was elected 
Abbot of St. Edmund's on the death of Abbot Leofstan, and 
ruled the Abbey thirty-two years five months. The fine 
Abbey buildings, of which large portions still remain, are due 
to him, and into his new and splendid church, the body of St. 
Edmund was translated with great pomp in 1095. Two 
years later Baldwin died. He was evidently a good and 
able man, and was specially skilled as a physician. The 
chronicler of the Abbey relates that the Bishop of Thetford 
(Arfast), in whose diocese Bury St. Edmund's was then 
situated, made certain claims of jurisdiction upon the Abbey, 
which were resisted by Baldwin, who appealed personally to 
the Pope and obtained his support. The Bishop, however, 
still kept up his claim. One day, when riding in the forest, a 
branch of a tree severely damaged one of the Bishop's eyes, 
and after much suffering, the Bishop was urged to go and call 
on Baldwin, as the only man who could possibly cure him. 
Much against the grain, he presented himself at the Abbey, 
and Baldwin undertook his cure, taking care, however, first 
to exact from the Bishop a renunciation of all claim to 
jurisdiction. In due time the Bishop was cured, and then, 



32 Transactions for the Year 1894-95. 

alas ! for human weakness, he at once re-asserted his 
claim. 

It is difficult to trace accurately the descent of land in 
Kemerton. There are now two manors, and as no new 
manors have been created since the passing of the statute 
Quia Emptoves in 1290, it is clear that both manors must have 
been in existence at that time, and it is probable that both 
have existed from the date of Domesday. The county 
histories, however, do not clearly distinguish between them ; 
but it seems probable that both manors were held of the 
Honour of Gloucester. 

A manor here belonged to the Musgrose family in the 
thirteenth century. Richard Musgrose was Rector in 1242; 
Robert Musgrose died seized of the manor in 1253; John 
Musgrose, his son, in 1274; and Robert, his son and heir, 
in 1280. Robert Musgrose left a daughter and heiress, 
Harvise, who was thrice married: 1, to William de Mortimer, 
a younger son of Roger, Earl of March ; 2, to Jolinde Ferrers; 
3, to John de Bures. Harvise and her third husband levied 
a fine of their manor to their daughter Catherine and her 
husband Giles de Beauchamp. From them it passed by 
direct descent to Richard, Lord Beauchamp of Powyck, who 
died possessed of it in 1502, leaving three co-heiresses, one 
of whom was Anne, wife of William Ligon. Sir Arnold 
Ligon held the manor in 1608, and sold it to John Parsons, 
Esq. 

William de Beauchamp, Earl of Warwick, died seized of 
a fourth of the manor here in 1297 ; from him it passed to his 
son Guy, Earl of Warwick, who died in 13 15 ; then through 
Thomas, Earl of Warwick, to William Beauchamp, Lord of 
Bergavenny, who died in 1410, leaving a son and heir, 
Richard ; but the manor in dower to Joan, his wife, who 
survived till 1435. The son of this William and Joan, 
Richard Beauchamp, Earl of Warwick, was, in right of his 
mother, heir to the manor of Kemerton. His son and heir 
Henry, afterwards Duke of Warwick, died at twenty-two 
years of age, leaving an infant daughter, who soon died also. 



A History of Kemerton. 



33 



Then Anne, his sister, became his heiress ; but the manor of 
Kemerton was granted to Cicely, widow of Henry, for life, in 
part of her dower, 25 Henry VI. (1447). Anne, thus left sole 
heiress of the vast wealth and possessions of the Beauchamps, 
married Richard Neville, Earl of Salisbury, who through this 
marriage became also Earl of Warwick. We know him best 
as " Warwick the Kingmaker." The issue of this marriage 
was two daughters, the eldest of whom, Isabel, was married 
to George, Duke of Clarence, brother of Edward IV., who in 
her right died seized of the manor of Kemerton, 18 Edward 
IV. (1478). Kemerton, with the rest of the great estate of 
her mother, Anne Beauchamp, had been taken away and 
settled on the two daughters during her lifetime. But at the 
beginning of the reign of Henry VII. that wily king procured 
another Act, by which Anne was re-instated. The king's 
design in this was to prevail on her to settle her estates on 
him, which she did, 3 Henry VII. (1487), whereby the manor 
of Kemerton was vested in the Crown after her death, which 
happened soon afterwards. It was then held as part of the 
possessions of the Crown until 1556, when it was granted to 
Thomas Huys, Margaret his wife, and their heirs ; and 
finally it was sold by this, or another, Thomas Huys to 
John Parsons., Esq, in 1608. 

Thus in 1608 Sir Arnold Ligon and Thomas Huys, 
Esq., were apparently lords of the two manors which 
still exist : and by them both manors were sold to John 
Parsons, Esq. I have often thought that the smaller of the 
two, known as the Upper (formerly Over) Court, may 
perhaps represent Girard's smaller manor. In 1712 John 
Parsons, Esq., is put down as the lord, the two manors 
having belonged since 1608 to one possessor. The. first entry 
of the name of Parsons in the parish register is in 1680, when 
Elizabeth Parsons, daughter of Honor Parsons, was bap- 
tised, 8th October. Subsequently the Parsons' estate passed 
by marriage to the Hoptons, of Canon-ffrome, Herefordshire, 
in whose possession it still remains. 

It is interesting to notice how an insignificant Glou- 

4 

Vol. XIX. 



34 



Transactions for the Year 1894-95. 



cestershire village has borne a part, though a passive one, 
in the great political movements and changes of the middle 
ages, and especially of that time when feudalism was dying 
out in the fifteenth century. We have also an indication 
that it was brought in contact with one of the great 
intellectual and social movements of the fourteenth century 
— that, namely, inaugurated by John Wycliff, commonly 
known by the term Lollardry. For this interesting piece of 
information I am wholly indebted to my friend, Mr. Reginald 
Lane Poole, one of the indefatigable workers for the Wycliff 
Society. 

It is a curious fact that the MSS. of many of Wycliff's 
polemical treatises are preserved in the Imperial Library at 
Vienna, whither they have, no doubt, found their way from 
Bohemia, which, as is well known, welcomed with enthusiasm 
much of Wycliff's teaching. One of these MSS., 1 containing 
the three treatises on the truth of the Holy Scriptures, on 
the Church, and on Divine Lordship, is known, from a note 
in it, to have been in great part transcribed, and finally 
corrected, at Oxford at Whitsuntide, 1407, by two Bohemians, 
Nicholas Faulfisch and George de Knyehnicz. Now, at the 
end of the second chapter of De Ecclesia is an interesting 
note which says that that portion was completed at Kemer- 
ton. The exact entry is " Kenmerton psano," Bohemian for 
" Written at Kemerton." This Nicholas Faulfisch was an 
enthusiastic admirer of Wycliff, and one way in which he 
showed his admiration was by bringing into Bohemia a piece 
of Wycliff's gravestone, which was venerated by Bohemian 
Wycliffites as a precious relic. He was also the abettor, if 
not the author, of a much more questionable act, when John 
Hus was accused of teaching heresy, a charge which finally 
brought him before the Council of Constance. One of the 
writings of Hus which was attacked was a treatise on the 
Church, which is really Wycliff's De Ecclesia, copied in a 
large measure verbatim. In order to clear Hus of suspicion of 
heresy in promulgating the writings and opinions of W 7 ycliff, 

1 See Wycliff's De Ecclesia,, published by the Wycliff Society, 1886. 



1396879 

A History of Kemerton. 



35 



it was necessary to produce some attestation of Wycliff's 
orthodoxy. Now, some time before, a Latin document 
had been brought to Prague by Nicholas Faulfisch, purport- 
ing to come from the University of Oxford, dated 5th 
October, 1406, and certainly sealed with the University 
seal, attesting Wycliff's orthodoxy. It has frequently been 
thought that Faulfisch forged this document himself; but 
Anthony a Wood, who gives the document in full from 
the Cottonian MS., says that it was done by one Peter 
Clerke, otherwise called Payne, who made use of the 
common seal of the University for the purpose. It may 
strike us as strange that the seal should have been so 
carelessly kept, but that little care was exercised in the 
matter is clear from the fact that in 1426 the University 
passed a statute restricting the use of the seal. However, 
though, as Milman says, " it is difficult to define or appreciate 
the precise delinquencies or errors of which John Hus was 
found guilty," yet the human bloodhounds who were thirsting 
for his blood were resolved to have it, and so this John was 
burned at the stake, while the other John, who appeared at 
the Council, Pope John, twenty-third of that name — the 
infamous Balthasar Cossa — " Diabolus incavnatus" as the 
Council itself decreed him to be, was, though deposed, 
" permitted to close his days in peace, and even in honour, 
for he was raised again to the dignity of a Cardinal." 

We are not certain that Faulfisch knew the document 
which he produced to be a forgery ; but even if he did we can 
easily condone his act in endeavouring to save his master, a 
man " of life blameless to austerity, and absolutely un- 
impeachable in morals " (Milman). I often think of my two 
Bohemians, and wonder where they lodged to do their 
copying, and what could have brought them to so remote a 
place as Kemerton. Perhaps my predecessor at that time — 
I have not yet been able to recover his name, but hope some 
day to do so — was a Lollard ; for the neighbourhood, as we 
know, was, a little later, a centre of Wycliffite teaching. The 
execution in 1401 of the priest, Wm. Sawtre, the first victim 

4 * 



3 6 



Transactions for the Year 1894-95. 



of the iniquitous statute, de heretico comburendo gave great 
vigour to the Lollard movement, and the second victim 
(1409 or 10) was John Badby, a tailor of Evesham. The 
neighbourhood of Tewkesbury and Pershore also furnished 
armed support to Sir John Oldcastle, when he was at 
Malvern preparing for revolt a few years later. However 
it may have come about, it is not likely that these Bohemian 
Wycliffites would have come to Kemerton unless they had 
known that they had friends and sympathisers there. 

The parish church of Kemerton, dedicated to St. Nicholas, 
is a modern building occupying the site of an ancient church. 
With the exception of the tower, it was completely re-built 
in 1847-51, by the then Rector, Archdeacon Thorp, assisted 
by some members of the Hopton family. The architect was 
Richard Carpenter, one of the most able of the architects of 
the revival, and he has handled the style chosen — the 
geometrical Decorated of the fourteenth century — with great 
skill ; and though the church is by no means perfect as an 
architectural specimen, it all shows careful thought, and a 
just appreciation of the best mediaeval work. Carpenter's 
mouldings and tracery are specially to be commended — 
points which are too frequently neglected by more modern 
architects, who think that anything will "do" so long as a 
decent effect is produced for the money expended. The 
church which the present building replaced must have been 
an interesting specimen. The arcade separating the north 
aisle from the nave was Norman, apparently of later date 
than at Overbury, while the opposite arches were pointed. 
Unfortunately, for the sake of getting into the south aisle a 
copy of one of the windows in Exeter Cathedral, the aisle 
was widened eight feet, destroying the old proportions, and 
destroying also a late but picturesque south porch, vaulted 
with fan tracery, with a room over it. I sometimes think 
the two Bohemian copyists may have done their work there, 
and the destruction of such a piece of old work is much to 
be regretted. At the same time the staircase turret at the 
north-east angle of the tower was destroyed, as it was 



A History of Kemerton. 



37 



intended actually to pull this tower down, and erect in its 
place a commonplace spire, whose only merit, if it could be 
called a merit, was that it should overtop the spire at Bredon ! 
The tower fortunately remains intact, and though it has no 
very great beauty, and has been greatly dwarfed by the high 
nave and aisles of the new church, it is extremely interesting 
as an architectural study. The two lower stages are un- 
doubtedly transition from Norman to Early English, perhaps 
the latter half of the twelfth century. The upper belfry stage 
is much later, about the latter half of the fifteenth century, 
and at the time that this stage was added, the large angle but- 
tresses at the south-west and north-west corners were inserted. 
The chancel was built and furnished by old Cambridge friends 
of Archdeacon Thorp, who had for many years been Vice- 
Master of Trinity, and serves to mark the esteem in which he 
was held there, while the church itself bears testimony to his 
generosity. The tower was completely restored in 1879 in 
his memory, by his brother, Dr. Disney Launder Thorp. 

There are no houses of any great antiquity. The two 
Manor Houses, the Upper and Lower Courts (formerly Over 
and Nether Courts) were re-built in the last century, but at 
the Upper Court fragments of much earlier work, probably 
thirteenth century, have been found. The Upper Court was 
altered and nearly re-built by John Parsons between 1760-70. 
The Lower Court was re-fronted by John Parsons, father of 
the above, 1730. The Rectory House, as we learn by a note 
in the registers, was almost completely re-built in 1678 by 
the then Rector, Nathaniel Lye, but some fragments on the 
north side show that a much earlier building was partially 
incorporated. The oldest dated house is that known as 
Primrose Bank, which bears a stone inscribed R.I. A., 1627. 

The Church Registers date from 1572, and are very fairly 
well kept and preserved. They are complete except for the 
years 1589-95. The entries present scarcely anything of 
interest. The only person of note whose name appears there 
is Godfrey Goodman, Rector of Kemerton from 1630-47, and 
Bishop of Gloucester from 1625-55. His life is given in 



38 Transactions for the Year 1894-95. 

great detail in the Dictionary of National Biography, and he 
appears to have been a man of very unstable, not to say 
unprincipled, character. Born at Ruthin, in Denbighshire, 
1583, he took his degree at Trinity College, Cambridge, and 
was ordained in 1603. He soon obtained preferment, and 
held many benefices, together with a prebend at Westminster 
(1607). While Rector of West Ilsley, Berks, he bought the 
advowson of Kemerton, to which he presented himself in 
1630. He was permitted to hold these two livings, with a 
Windsor Canonry (1617), and other benefices under ^200 a 
year, together with the Bishopric of Gloucester, to which he 
had been appointed, 1625. His episcopate was a stormy one. 
He was frequently charged, apparently with good reason, 
with holding and teaching Roman doctrine, and he managed 
to offend both the King and Laud. He was believed to have 
been actually received into the Roman Church, and his 
equivocal position was very prejudicial to the cause of his 
fellow churchmen, when the troubles of Charles I.'s reign 
began. His subsequent career is a sad tissue of equivocation 
and shiftiness. He died on January 19th, 1655, and was 
buried in St. Margaret's, Westminster. His will, made in 
the year of his death, fully justifies the charges of bad faith 
brought against him. In it he says he dies as he had lived, 
" most constant in all the doctrines of God's holy and 
Apostolic Church, whereof I do acknowledge the Church of 
Rome to be the mother church, and I do verily believe that 
no other Church hath any salvation in it, but only so far as it 
concurs with the faith of the Church of Rome." This is 
tolerably strong from a man who owed everything he 
possessed to the Church of England, and who had for years 
drawn large revenues from her. 

Goodman's writings obtained much fame in his days, but 
they have long since gone to fill a niche in the library of 
limbo, a place which, as my dear friend Mr. Derwent 
Coleridge once remarked to me, "must be a very extensive 
establishment." One of his works, The Creatures Praising 
God, had the honour of being translated into French, and is 



A History of Kemerton. 



39 



only here mentioned on account of the literalness of the title, 
and the mistake on the title page. It is said to be by " le 
sieur Geoffroy Bonhomme de Ruthin." The only curious 
names I find in the registers are Apollonia, Agrilla, 
Chrisogon, Usulana,* and Colibery for women, and Conon 
as a man's name. 

In 1772 an Enclosure Act was carried out, by which 
about 1,000 acres of common and commonable land were 
divided among existing landowners. It is edifying in read- 
ing the " award " to notice how comfortably matters were 
managed in what are miscalled the "good old times." Those 
who already possessed lands were given more. The claims 
of the poor, who were commoners, were certainly not 
forgotten, for half an acre of land on the hill was set apart 
for them ! and the plan from that time seems to have been 
to put the rent of that land, a few shillings a year, on the 
receipt side of the poor rate, a truly ingenious method of how 
not to do a thing. The Commissioners, having given away 
what did not belong to them, proceeded to free these lands 
from certain imposts. Church rates were done away with 
by a grant of eight acres of land, and tithe by a grant of 300 
acres. The parson was put off with the worst land in the 
parish. " Oh, Charles," he said to an old gentleman whose 
grandson told me the tale, " they are going to ruin me by 
giving me all my land down in that beastly bog." Thanks 
to drainage, the bog has now become some of the most 
valuable land in the parish, and the present parson is duly 
grateful. 

This list of the Rectors of Kemerton, so far as they can 
be obtained, with dates of institution, is compiled from the 
Bishop's Registers preserved in the Edgar Tower, Wor- 
cester, and from the Parish Register of Kemerton: — 
? 1242 ... Richard Muchigros. 
... John King. 
21 June, 1332 ... John de Hales. 
21 Jan., 1346-7 ... William de Coleford (Clericus). 
... William de Gadesby. 



40 Transactions for the Year 1894-95. 



12 July, 


1366 ... 


John de Hatton. 


17 Feb., 


1382-3 ... 


Henry Coterel. 






Henry Naym. 


10 Ap., 


1400 


Robert Smyth. 




... 


William Creke. " 


8 Aug., 


1452 ... 


John Paynot or Paynard. 


23 May, 


1471 ... 


Robert Vobys or Voobes. 


20 Feb., 


1493-4 ... 


John Lelyngeham. 




... 


Thomas Helingham. 


30 Jan., 


1504-5 ... 


John Wikeley. 


16 Feb., 


1529-30.. 


John Blakden. 




154° ••• 


Doctor Raynoldys. 




1572 ... 


George Swatt (was R. in 1572, when 






Parish Register begins). 




1582 ... 


Ralph Eaton. 




1587 


William Stephens. 




1596 ... 


John Fowns. 




1630 ... 


Godfrey Goodman, Bishop of Glou- 






cester. 




1647 ... 


Henry Blackburne. 




1648 ... 


John Hinman. 


17 Ap. 


1675 


Nathaniel Lye. 




1737 » 


John Lloyd. 




1762 


Godfrey Goodman. 




1785 


Roger Parry. 




1797 — 


David Charles Parry. 




1830 ... 


Godfrey Goodman. 




1832 ... 


John Goodman. 


9 Oct., 


1839 - 


Thomas Thorp. 


18 June, 


1877 - 


Jerome John Mercier. 



OVERBURY CHURCH. 



By the Rev. C. GLYNN, M.A., Vicar of Overbury. 

At the south-eastern extremity of the county of Worcester 
in the Hundred of Middle Oswaldstow, on the southern slope 
of Bredon Hill, lies the parish of Overbury. Together with 
the parishes annexed to it, viz., Conderton, Alston, Little 
Washbourn, and Teddington, it is dovetailed into the 
northern portion of the county of Gloucester, which almost 
insulates it, only a narrow neck of land connecting it with 
Elmley Castle and so with the rest of Worcestershire. 

Overbury was originally written Uverbyry or Uverbire, 
and among the older inhabitants of the neighbourhood it is 
not uncommon to hear the name pronounced Uverburie. 
Nash says : " Perhaps it is called Overbury, or Upper Bury, 
to distinguish it from Berrow, which lies lower and was 
formerly dependent on this church ; for in an original ledger 
of Worcester Priory in the possession of Mr. Astle, compiled 
in Henry III.'s time, is the following account of chapels at 
that time dependent on Overbury : ' Capelle de Tedington, 
Alistune, Wasseburne and de Bereg, sunt capelle de Uver- 
byry : prior percipit medietatem de dominico Wasseburn,. 
et ecclesia de NafFord aliam medietatem.' " 

In his description of Berrow or Berewe, Nash says : 
" This parish, or rather chapelry, formerly named Berga 
though distant eight miles from Overbury, yet 
acknowledged St. Faith of Overbury the mother church. 

" Robert de Berga testified that the chapel built upon his 
own land in the village of Berga was ab antiquo subject to 
God, our Blessed Lady, and the mother church of St. Faith 
in Overbury. 



42 Transactions for the Year 1894-95. 

"The chaplain or officiating minister of Berewe was 
maintained by the Priory of Worcester, but always subject 
in some degree to the Vicar of Overbury." 

" Note. — This parish was sometimes called Netherberrowe 
to distinguish it from Overberrowe, alias Overbury, the 
former being dependent on the latter and bothe dedicated to 
St. Faith." 

On p. 87, Noakes Worcestershire Ntiggets, 1889, appears the 
following: "a.d. 1224. This year the chapel of Berrow was 
consolidated with Overbury." 

The benefice is in the rural deanery of Bredon, one of the 
subdivisions of the ancient deanery of Pershore, and in the 
archdeaconry and diocese of Worcester. 

In a.d. 875 Ceolwulf, king of the Mercians, gave to 
Bishop Werfrid and the convent at Worcester, " Quandam 
ruris portiunculam villam scilicet quam ruricolae Ufere- 
breodun vel Uferebiri appellant vi. cassatorum cum duabus 
villulis Cantuaretun videlicet et Peonedoc," — that is to say, 
Overbury, Pendock, and Cantuaretun, afterwards called 
Canterton, now Conderton. 2 

In 874 the Danes took up their winter quarters at Repton, 
driving the Mercian king Burhred from his throne. He took 
refuge at Rome, and they committed the Mercian realm to 
Ceolwulf, whom the Chronicles call an unwise King's Thegn, 
on condition that he would surrender it to them at any time. 
Ceolwulf, however, was evidently acknowledged by the 
Mercians as king de jure as well as de facto, for this grant as 
well as another of Daylesford made at the same time are 
cast in the usual form, and are witnessed in the usual way 
by bishops and by " duces." 

This grant of Overbury to Worcester therefore is of very 
considerable historical interest, as being a gift of a king of 
the Mercians who held his realm, not by the choice of his 
fellow-countrymen, but from the hands of their enemies. 

As in the case of so many English villages, the chief 
interest of Overbury centres in its church, which is dedicated 
2 Kemble, C.D.cccviii. Cartularium Saxonicum, 541. 



Overbury Church. 



43 



to St. Faith ; at any rate October 6th, " S. Faith, Virgin 
and Martyr." is generally accepted, as the festival of the 
dedication. Sixteen churches in England, including Berrow, 
are named in her sole honour ; and when a church of St. Faith 
which stood at the East end of St. Paul's was pulled down in 
a.d. 1255 that the Cathedral might be lengthened, the crypt 
begun a.d. 1256, was dedicated in her name, and is famous in 
our church history as the chapel of St. Faith. 

The church is full of architectural and archaeological 
interest, from the fact of its comprising features of con- 
struction ranging from the date of Edward the Confessor 
to the nineteenth century. 

The present structure consists of : 

i. Nave, Norman in style. 

ii. Chancel, Early English, First-pointed. 

iii. Aisles, Decorated, Middle-pointed. 

iv. Tower, Perpendicular, Third-pointed. 

v. Porch, Nineteenth Century. 

The dates of enlargement, alteration, reconstruction, and 
restoration are indicated by the following table : 

i. Erection, a.d. 1040—1060, Edward the Confessor, prob- 
ably while Ealdred was bishop of Worcester (1044 — 1062), 
holding also the see of Hereford in 1056 and translated to 
York 1060, retaining the see of Worcester till 1062. 

ii. South Doorway, a.d. 1160, Henry II., Alured being 
bishop. 

iii. Chancel, a.d. 1220, Henry III., while William de Blois 
was bishop. 

iv. West Window, a.d. 1240, Henry III., in the episcopate 
of Walter de Cantelupe. 

v. Aisles, a.d. 1340, Edward III., Wulstan de Bransford 
being bishop of Worcester, and Henricus Gerayd being 
rector of the parish. 

vi. Tower, a.d. 1386, Richard II., while Henry Wakefield 
was bishop and Henry de Stretford was rector. 

vii. Bell-chamber Windows, a.d. 1450, Henry VI., John 
Carpenter being bishop and Johannes Newneton the vicar. 



44 Transactions for the Year 1894-95. 

viii. East Window, a.d. 1480, Edward IV., the bishop 
being John Alcock and the vicar being Will'mus Stoyle. 

ix. West End and South Aisle rebuilt and Porch added 
a.d. 1850, Victoria, Henry Pepys being bishop and William 
Smith vicar. 

x. Restoration and refitting of the whole church, a.d. 1879-80, 
Victoria, Henry Philpott being bishop of Worcester, Charles 
Glynn vicar, Robert Martin and William Ancill church- 
wardens. 

The ground plan of the building as it at present stands is 
of larger extent than the original, which was increased in the 
twelfth century by the site of the first porch, of which the 
outer entrance is still standing ; in the thirteenth century by 
the space covered by the existing chancel ; by the extension 
of the aisles to their present dimensions in the fourteenth 
century, and also by the site of the porch in the year 1850. 
The chancel is an exquisite specimen of Early English 
(13th century) work. The two bays of which it consists are 
lighted on each side by two elegant lancet windows of long 
and narrow proportions, with moulded arches surmounted by 
a hood-mould, which is continued throughout the three sides 
of the chancel in a string-course on the level of the springing 
of the arch, serving to enrich and define their outline, and 
supported by small slender shafts having each a single band. 
At a lower level runs another well-defined string-course. 
Between the windows stands a narrow and shallow buttress 
of almost feeble dimensions, continued upwards without 
diminution, until at the top it terminates with a plain slope 
dying into the wall. Two other buttresses of greater breadth 
and much bolder projection, evidently of later date (Per- 
pendicular), are found east and west of the lancet windows 
and serve the purpose of supporting the walls. At the east 
end are two Early English buttresses of more massive pro- 
portions than those on the north and south. The east 
window of late Perpendicular design — evidently an insertion 
— consists of four chief divisions, subdivided into eight lesser 
lights in the lower portion, and separated from the upper 



Overbury Church. 



45 



part of six lights by four quatrefoils, while between the cill 
and the string-course is a plain unperforated portion. Above 
the east window is a very plain small two-light window cut 
out of one stone, which admits light to the space between the 
groined vaulting and the roof above it. A cross at the apex 
and a moulded coping of recent introduction terminated in 
small ornamental gablets completed the gable. The windows 
in the aisles are good specimens of the Decorated or Middle- 
pointed style, though the tracery and mouldings of those on 
the south and west have somewhat suffered in the rebuilding 
of that part of the church less than forty years ago. 

A doorway corresponding in design with the rest of the 
aisle finds a place on the north side, directly opposite the 
south porch.' ' 

The west window of the nave is a triple lancet, and not 
improbably was inserted soon after the erection of the 
chancel, and, as may be seen from an old engraving of the 
church, originally did not possess the elegant external Early 
English characteristics of the lancets in that part of the 
church. 

A good specimen of a similar triple lancet window with 
hood-moulding, &c, exists at Wimborne, Dorset. 

Between the nave and chancel stands the tower, 68 feet 
9 inches in height to the top of the battlement — a superb 
piece of masonry of the Third-pointed style. It is supported 
by substantial buttresses at the angles, has three stages, and 
is surmounted by an embattled parapet with crocketed pin- 
nacles at the corners. The four windows of the bell-chamber 
are large square-headed openings without any mouldings, 
filled in with plain upright mullions and elegant stone tracery. 
Two simple single-light windows light the second stage, 
while the lowest stage has on the north and south a three- 
light window — a very good example of pure Perpendicular 
in its best form ; and on the south side beneath the window 
is a doorway with a four-centred arch. The string-courses 
are very bold and massive, and are ornamented with the 
rose and quaint figures. In the uppermost string-course, at 



46 Transactions for the Year 1894-95. 

the four corners above the buttresses, the gurgoyles for 
throwing the water from the tower-roof are carved into 
shapes of still more grotesque creatures of the bat type. 
The roof of the nave, chancel, and porch is covered with 
old Gloucestershire stone tiles, some of which were at the 
recent restoration brought from Tewkesbury, Tredington, 
and Alston, and that of the aisles and tower with lead. A 
cross of modern date surmounts the gables of the west end 
and porch. 

The south doorway within the porch has a late Norman 
semicircular arch thrice recessed with plain circular mould- 
ings of almost Early English character, and two slender 
nook-shafts on each side having capitals with foliated orna- 
ment, varied in each capital ; the footstalls are buried in the 
masonry of the stone benches on either side. This doorway 
is of much earlier date than the aisle of which it is now a 
part, and occupies its original site as the southern entrance 
of a porch which was added to the ancient church in the 
transition period from Norman to Early English. 

The Nave is the most ancient part of the building, and 
has had a variety of dates assigned to it. It is unquestion- 
ably of a very early type, and very probably is one of those 
pre-Norman structures erected between a.d. 1000 and 1060, 
which were respected by the Norman invaders perhaps 
because they were of the Continental type. The north side 
indeed corresponds so minutely in detail with the remains of 
the ancient Church of S. Clement's, Worcester, in the wall 
of which immediately above the arches was found a gold 
coin of Edward the Confessor, that there need be no 
hesitation in ascribing to it a date not later than his reign. 

Separating the nave from the aisles, on either side is an 
arcade of four bays having arches with square edges once 
recessed, resting on large square imposts of unusual pro- 
jection, the bases of which are ornamented with cushion 
moulding, supported on short heavy cylindrical columns 
8 ft. in circumference and 4 ft. 6 in. in height, having a 
two-fold moulding on double square bases. The arcades are 



Overbury Church. 



47 



not quite similar : in that on the south side the capitals 
(3 ft. 6 in. square) are deep (1 ft.) and heavy, with the lower 
part cushioned, and the hood-moulding projecting over the 
head of the arches takes the form of an engrailed ornament 
[a double scollop or wave ornament] , which in two cases 
stops short of, and in the others is continued to, the impost ; 
on the north side the capitals (3 ft. 2 in.), preserving the 
general character of those on the south, are of better pro- 
portions, and the hood-moulding, comparatively plain, is 
terminated in sculptured heads, one of which — the central 
one, crowned — was discovered during the recent restoration 
buried in the ordinary stonework of the tower, and was re- 
instated in the original position which it had occupied in 
undisputed possession for nearly five hundred years previous 
to its removal, and in which a stone bracket after the pattern 
of the square-headed capitals had supplanted it for four 
centuries. 

With the exception of one window, at the east end of the 
arcade on the north side, which has been nearly destroyed to 
make room for the rood-loft staircase, the clerestory still exists 
in its entirety and in excellent preservation, but its general 
effect is much marred by being enclosed beneath the roof of 
the aisles, a step consequent on the widening of the aisles 
and the raising of the roof in the 14th century. The position 
of the windows over the columns is unusual but not unique, 
a similar arrangement existing at Bakewell, Derbyshire. The 
openings are widely splayed (3 ft.) on the nave side, but very 
small (i ft.) externally next to the aisles, where they have 
only a small shallow recess round them, which serves to 
exhibit the method of fixing the glazing in those early times. 
The west window of the nave is a good example of Early 
English grouped triple lancets, having interposed between 
the tracery of the windows and the interior surface of the 
work plain inner arches or rear-vaults on slender columns, 
which are strengthened by heavier stonework behind them ; 
the lancets, though separate on the exterior, are on the inside 
combined in one general design. This window has been 



4 8 



Transactions for the Year 1894-95. 



filled with stained glass, and was dedicated on August 13th, 
1893, m memory of Mrs. Martin, of Overbury Court. 

Across the nave and aisles, about one foot from the base 
of the easternmost column, runs a step, which probably may 
have been for use as an approach to side altars. 

On the north side above the last pillar of the nave is the 
rood-loft doorway, which was approached by an entrance — 
now blocked up — in the north aisle. The position of the 
rood screen is thus determined, as well as by the marks of its 
locality in the stonework in the western tower piers. The 
nave roof has been restored in the original waggon shape, 
with ribs added. 

The aisles are covered by an ordinary lean-to [too-fall or 
to-fall] roof, and underneath the enclosed clerestory are to be 
seen the projecting dripstones and the brackets or corbels for 
the wall-posts of the original aisle. 

The present tower — Perpendicular in style — has replaced 
the original structure, of which there are still remains ; and 
the builders seem at first to have possessed neither a love of 
beauty nor an eye for symmetry : they showed no respect for 
the artistic work of the ancient architect, but turned the old 
capitals upside down and laid them below the surface as the 
foundations of their stonework, while the capitals they 
introduced in the new tower are every one dissimilar in 
proportion and of unequal height from their base ; they 
nevertheless paid some regard to the substantial character of 
their work, for through every stage, both internally and 
externally, the workmanship is solid and true; and as the 
work advanced, they still used up the remains of the old 
tower, the pinnacles being now visible in the walls of the 
upper stages, and sixty years later improved taste character- 
ised the excellent design and workmanship of the windows in 
the upper stage and of the pinnacles. 

At the four angles of the lowest stage are the ancient 
vaulting shafts and springing of the ribs, pointing out that a 
vaulted roof was part of the original design, which at the 
last restoration was carried out in an effective manner. 



Overbury Church. 



49 



In the south window are found two Tudor roses and a 
deep red circle, the only remains of the ancient stained glass. 

At Overbury there is a peal of five bells, tuned in the Key 
of B flat, the tenor weighing 9 cwt. They bear legends and 
•dates as follows : — 

i. SANCTE EGIDI ORA PRO NOBIS 

ii. 4* A.BC.G.EFG PXE 

iii. »£• COME WHEN I CALL 

TO SERVE GOD ALL 164I 

iv. HALLELUIAH 164I 

V. JOHN DANCE & THO. BALDWING 
CHURCHWARDENS I719 AR 

i. This bell was cast by Robert Hendley of Gloucester, 
who lived about 1450— 1500. The legend is in Lombardic or 
Gothic characters, all capitals. 

ii. This bell has the inscription in quasi-Gothic characters ; 
the elaborateness of which leads to the presumption that it is 
of the 16th century. 

iii. and iv. These bells have the legend in curious broad, 
flat, capital Roman letters, which indicate the work of a 
founder named Purdue, o*f Salisbury and Bristol. They 
were placed in the tower when Philip Tinker was Vicar. 

v. This bell was added when Stephen Bradley was 
Vicar. The initials AR, which with the rest of the inscription 
are in capital Roman characters, are those of Abraham 
Rudhall, the famous bell-founder at Gloucester, who died 1729. 

It is customary to ring a peal on Nov. 5th. On St. Thomas' 
Day, Dec. 21st, it is also customary to ring a peal in the 
early morning, but tradition is silent as to the cause ; and on 
this day the quaint old practice of mumping prevails in the 
parish. The children of the village come round to the 
bettermost houses in the early morning and sing (?) the 
following : — 

" Here we come a mumping, a mumping, 
Please give me an apple to make an apple-dumpling ? 
The roads are very dirty, my shoes are very thin, 
I 've got a pocket to put a penny in." 

5 



50 



Transactions for the Year 1894-95. 



A muffled peal is rung on the evening of Holy Innocents* 
Day, Dec. 28th. 

On Dec. 31st, for the half-hour before midnight, a muffled 
peal proclaims the " passing of the Old Year ; " and after the 
last stroke of twelve o'clock, a bright open peal ushers in the 
New Year. 

In the inventory of church goods made by commission in 
the reign of Edward VI., while John Browne was Vicar, 
occurs the following entry: " iij bells in the steple," of 
which that numbered i. seems alone now to exist. 

There is a tradition current at the present time that a 
century ago or more two bells were removed from the Church 
of St. Nicholas, Teddington, to St. Faith's, Overbury. 

The Chancel consists of two bays, windows, arches, pillars, 
vaulted roof, etc., contributing to form as interesting and 
attractive a group of architectural features as can be found 
in a structure of this size. In each of the two bays on either 
side is an elegant lancet window, having slender double 
pillars, single-banded with conventional foliaged capitals 
which blossom out into human heads ; while, enhancing the 
general effect, round each bay runs a simple moulding, and 
beneath, a string-course corresponding with that on the 
exterior. At the extremities of the two bays, from tall 
slender shafts with foliaged capitals budding into human 
heads, spring the ribs of the groined vaulting : at the inter- 
section of the ribs in one bay is found an annular moulding, 
in the centre of which is introduced the bust of a crowned 
figure ; and in a similar position in the other bay, a female 
figure with delicately sculptured features and having a veil, 
which falls from the back of the neck round her head forming 
a nimbus-like circle and terminating in conventional foliage. 

On the north and south walls are found in stencil-work 
crosses of apparently modern design and workmanship, 
which are reported to be the consecration crosses of this 
part of the church ; they have evidently been recoloured from 
time to time, and in the recent restoration were carefully 
preserved. 



Overbury Church. 



5i 



There are no traces of aumbry, piscina, or sedilia ; but a 
small carved bracket or corbel of 14th century work, orna- 
mented with the ball flower, is found on the south side in the 
position usual for the piscina. 

The east window, of late Perpendicular character, is 
carried below the lights ; and the eight divisions of this 
imperforated part are filled with panelled work, each division 
being subdivided into panels of trefoil arches with quatrefoils 
above them. Nash says : "In the east window of the chancel 
was a priest praying. In the north window of the belfry, 
dividing the chancel from the body of the church, the 
resemblance of John Cooke and his two wives. On the 
north side of the chancel were the arms of the Bishoprick 
of Worcester, of Babington, Lacy, Grafton, and others, all 
now gone." 

Substantial and elegant clergy and choir stalls of walnut 
upon oaken plinths, Perpendicular in design, were added at 
the restoration in 1880 to furnish the tower. 

The Pulpit is unquestionably made up of the old wooden 
third-pointed screen, the crest of which has been inverted to 
form the upper band. It consists of five panels, ornamented 
with flowing tracery ; the upper band is a good example of 
the vine and grape pattern, of which not unfrequent instances 
{e.g. at Ashchurch) are found. The present base of solid 
masonry replaced five ugly wooden pillars of Jacobean type, 
which supported it till the recent restoration. 

The seating of the nave consists of the old oak bench 
ends and capping-moulding, which have been preserved, 
repaired, and worked into the present arrangement as far as 
possible ; the style is similar to that of the pulpit. In the 
gangway, between the north and south doors, may be seen 
what appears to have formed the front of the old choir stalls. 
The seating in the aisles and in the western part of the nave * 
is of modern construction and design, and was added in 1880. 

The Font is supposed by some antiquarians to be coeval 
with the earliest part of the church, and of the nth century, 
certainly as early as Edward the Confessor's date ; it has 

5 * 



52 



Transactions for the Year 1894-95. 



also been described as Danish in origin. It consists of a 
tapering cylindrical [egg-shaped] bowl, of Cleeve Hill stone, 
in circumference 6 feet 4 inches at the top and 4 feet 6 inches 
at the foot, rudely carved in high relief, and standing on a 14th 
century octagonal stem with ball-flower ornament on every 
face but one. The substantial octagonal base of Forest of 
Dean stone was added at the restoration in 1880. By bands 
of six-fold mouldings (bead, reed alternating with cable) 
running from top to foot the bowl is divided into four panels. 
In one panel is represented a priest in ecclesiastical vestments, 
with a stole hanging over both shoulders and tied in front, 
while over the left arm hangs a maniple, and in the rignt hand 
is a model of a church — suggestive of the founder — or perhaps 
a shrine, or casket, or an ark, a symbol often found on fonts. In 
the second panel is represented a bishop — a nimbus of peculiar 
form, similar to that on the font at Coleshill, surrounding 
the head indicates that he is canonized — with a pastoral staff 
in each hand. Many conjectures have been made by way of 
evplanation. The bowl has evidently been fractured ; and it 
may be imagined that possibly some local sculptor in days 
gone by has restored it in this mistaken (?) fashion, the 
missing side of the bishop being reproduced with a second 
staff in his right hand, instead of with the right hand raised 
in the attitude of blessing. Nevertheless, the conjecture 
hazarded by some critics that the figure represents the bishop 
of two dioceses is supported by the facts that the stem of the 
second staff finds a place in the unfractured part of the font, 
and that the Bishop of Worcester (Ealdred, a.d. 1044 to 
1062), at the date corresponding with the font, was also 
Bishop of Hereford. An analogous instance of a prior with 
two mitres is on record. 

Habingdon says : " For this noble ornament (the mitre) 
which John de Evesham (1340) gayned to himself and left to 
his successors, priors of Worcester, he is sett oute in ye 
north isle, siding ye quire as a prior with two mitars, one on 
his head and other in his left hand, and in his right a staff of 
authoritie, and written 'Johannes de Evesham, prior, privi- 



Overbury Church. 



53 



legiu ' de mitra — impetravit, ecclesiam de Overbury et 
Warrenam.' A brittle evidence of a glasse window yet forti- 
fied with ye ledgers aforesaid." 

The third panel has also suffered from the fracture, 
but in all probability has been reconstructed on the original 
lines : a Latin cross and above it the dove emblematical of 
the Holy Spirit, surrounded by rays, making a representation 
of the baptism of our Lord by an illustration as ancient in 
Christian art as the 4th century. " The earliest instance," 
says Louisa Twining in Christian Symbols and Emblems, 1885, 
John Murray, page 55, " of the dove appearing in Christian art 
is in the example from the bas reliefs on the tomb of Junius 
Bassus . . . dated 359. It is here shedding the Divine 
blessing in rays of light upon the Saviour at His baptism ; and 
it is interesting to observe this as the first representation of 
a subject which was so frequently repeated afterwards during 
every period of art, and in all of which the dove retains its 
prevailing form and character." And, "Among all the 
symbols of Christ there is none older or more universal than 
the Cross," page 16. 

In the fourth panel the local artist has succeeded admir- 
ably in copying the scroll-work, which is of an exceedingly 
interesting character illustrative of the rich foliage-work of 
that period. No tradition is extant of the cause or date of 
the fracture, nor of the name of the local sculptor who 
undertook its repair. Speculation upon the cause leads to a 
suggestion which carries with it no unreasonable plausibility. 
By a Constitution of Edmund, Archbishop of Canterbury, 
a.d. 1236, fonts were required to be covered and locked, the 
better to preserve them from any profanation when not in 
use. It is not impossible that, in fixing the ironwork for the 
lock in the stonework grown hard and brittle after more 
than 200 years' exposure to light and air, misadventure on 
the part of the local blacksmith was the cause of the 
fracture. 

On January 16th, 1553, less than six months before 
Edward Vlth.'s death, a Commission was issued for the 



54 Transactions for the Year 1894-95. 

seizure of all goods not absolutely needed for the use of 
parish churches. 

The Overbury inventory is as follows : 

" Overbury St. Faith V. 

" Overbury Aug. 8 

" ij chaleces with ij covers parcell gylt 

" a cross of brass 

" a cope of red velvet 

" a payre of old red vestments of sylke 

" iij bells in the steple 

" i iij awter clothes j towell 

" Sir Jo Browne 

"Vicar." 

The chalice with its cover, which has been in use for 
more than three centuries in the ancient church of Overbury, 
is a very good example of the 1571 chalices. It is cone 
shaped, with a band of engraved floral ornament round it ; 
the stem having three bands of impressed work, with a 
circular foot ornamented with a dotted line pattern. The 
cover is engraved with the same floral design, and has a 
flat button or knop, on which the date 1571 is inscribed, 
surrounded by the same dotted line pattern and serving as a 
foot for it to stand upon. Some members of the British 
Archaeological Association, on the occasion of their visit to 
Overbury, August 23, 1881, called attention to the fact that 
the stem bears marks of having had the cup and foot joined 
to it, and expressed the opinion that it is Gothic in design, 
of workmanship totally distinct from the other portions, and 
is a portion of the pre-Reformation chalice. Probably it is 
the stem of one of the " ij chaleces with ij covers" mentioned 
in the inventory in Vicar Browne's time, and perhaps of a 
date as early as the font— the earliest part of the church. 

The Overbury registers date back to the fourth year of 
Queen Mary's reign (a.d. 1557), an d all the volumes from 
that time to the present have been preserved in good con- 



Overbury Church. 



55 



dition. Many family names found in the very oldest of the 
registers still exist in the village. 

The first entry affords an example of the practice, which 
came into use early in Queen Mary's reign, of entering in the 
register of baptisms the names of the godfathers and god- 
mothers. A record of the "gossips" (God's kin) seemed 
desirable, for when these were not certainly known "married 
persons could the more readily obtain divorces by pretending 
previous spiritual relationship." 

The following are the first, second and other entries of 
some interest: — " 1557. Thomas, the son of Thomas Roberts 
and Elizabeth his wife, John Grey and Edward Roberts 
godfathers and Alice Remmet godmother, was baptised the 
iiii th day of September, Anno 1557." 

Then follows on the succeeding leaf: "A book of christen- 
ings, burialls and weddings within the parish of Overbury in 
the Diocese of Worcester made the yere of our Lord God 

1563-" 

" First was buried Annes Clemens the wife of William 
Clemens the xi th day of May 1563. 

" Item was married William Bowyde to Jane Millar the 
xxvi th day of October, and had a licence to be married 
without askinge 1563. 

" Item was buried Jane Colle a crystome child the last 
day of December 1563." 

From Parish Registers, by R. E. Chester Waters, 1853, we 
learn as follows : — Baptised infants who died within the 
month after their birth were formerly shrouded in the white 
cloth (chrism) put on the head at baptism and were there- 
fore called chrisoms. 

The use of the chrism is thus mentioned in the rubric of 
the first Prayer Book of King Edward VI., 1549 : " Then 
the godfathers and godmothers shall take and lay their 
hands upon the child, and the minister shall put upon him 
his white vesture, commonly called the chrisom, and say: 
* Take this white vesture for a token of the innocency which 
by God's grace in this holy sacrament of Baptism is given 



56 Transactions for the Year 1894-95. 



unto thee, and for a sign whereby thou art admonished so 
long as thou livest, to give thyself to innocency of living,, 
that after this transitory life thou mayest be partaker of the 
life everlasting. Amen.' " 

Calvin in his letter to Protector Somerset (22nd Oct.,. 
1548) contends that the ceremony of the chrism does not 
admit of defence, &c. Accordingly the chrisom was 
expunged from the Prayer Book of 1552, but the memory of 
it long lingered in the hearts of the people, and down to the 
18th century babes dying in their innocence were called 
chrisoms in the bills of mortality and in registers. 

Westminster Abbey : "1687. The Princess Ann's child, 
a chrissome, buried 22 October." 

The efforts made from time to time to introduce into 
the parish books a register of births seem to have failed 
generally. One such entry occurs in the Overbury register 
in the 32nd year of Queen Elizabeth's reign as follows : — 
" William, the sonne of William Drinkwater and Agnes his 
wife, was christened the xiii th of Julie and born the Tuesday 
before being the xii th day of Julie 1590. Eliza. 32." 

The civil wars, which produced in many parish registers 
so many marks of irregularity and confusion, have left no- 
trace at Overbury ; nor are there any indications of the 
expected improvement in the keeping of these records during 
the period 1653 — 1660, when laymen were substituted for 
" curates" in the responsible office of Registrar. The 
entries appear in Latin : " 1654 Oliverus, fill us spurius 
ignotae mulieris et a se inhumanissime et contra naturam 
derilictus imediate post partum ejus, baptizatus erat 
Octob. 19." 

In 1624 — 1625 the ordinary entries are written in Latin 
intermingled with English, and later in Latin only (not 
always very classical) until 1683, when the vernacular 
reappears. 

The benefice was originally a Rectory, and so continued 
until the resignation of Henry de Stratford. It having been 
represented that on account of hospitalities which it behoved 



Overbury Church. 



57 



the Prior and Chapter to give of a description greater than 
usual — " qualitatem solito majorem " — a heavy burden is 
thereby imposed, and besides the (cathedral) church itself 
being known to stand in need of very great repair, on the 
humble suit of the Prior and Chapter, and on the application 
of Queen Philippa, it was ordained on 20th April, 1368, by 
the Bishop, William Whittlesey (subsequently Archbishop 
of Canterbury), under a bull of Pope Clement VI. and under 
license of King Edward III., that the Rectory, which was 
then of the yearly value of ^"25, should be appropriated to 
the Prior and Chapter for the relief of burdens of that kind, 
and for the maintenance of two students from among the 
monks at Oxford, and that the Vicarage should be instituted. 
The Bishop also assigned a fitting endowment for the 
Vicarage. The Vicar should have a suitable residence with 
two virgates of land from the glebe of the Rectory, one at 
Overbury and one at Washbourne, with certain pastures and 
meadows belonging to them ; all tithes of hay in Overbury, 
Conderton, Teddington, Washbourne and Alderton, except 
from the demesne land and Senglemede ; all offerings of 
every kind ; all tithes of lambs, wool, swine, geese, and 
calves ; of the milk of cows, and sheep ; of honey, flax, and 
gai^lens, and all the small tithes of every sort; also four 
pounds in money to be paid quarterly by the Prior and 
Chapter. Which endowment the Bishop was credibly 
informed amounted to an annual sum of ^20 17s. 4d. 

This was a liberal endowment, the Bishop evidently 
intending that the interests of the parishioners should not 
suffer by the appropriation of the Rectory. 

INCUMBENTS OF OVERBURY, WITH THE DATES OF 
THEIR INSTITUTION. 

Rectors — 

Geoffrey de Norwicke ... ... 17th September, 1293. 

P. de Periton ... ... .... 28th April, 1305 

Robertus de Stretford 4th October, 13 17 



5§ 



Transactions for the Year 1894-95. 



Rectors — 

Johannes (dictus Gerard) 

Stretford 

Henricus Gerayd 
Johannes de Todenham ... 
Henricus de Stretford ... 

Vicars — 
Johannes Whylde 
Johannes Norton 
Petrus Braunche 
Johannes Sterre ... 
Thomas Fort 
Thomas Mull 
Johannes Newneton 
Ricardus Leche alias Turner 
Johannes Stoyle ... 

Wiil'us Stoyle 

Edwardus Testewoode ... 
Thomas Moy 
Johannes Robynson 
Thomas Smith 
Johannes Browne, A.M. 

Wiil'us Robyns 

Henricus Lawxton 
Galfridus Lewes, S.T.B. 
Thomas Penrin 
Johannes Charlet, S.T.P. 
Philippus Tinker, A.M. 
Robertus Powell 
Stephanus Bradley, A.B. 
Thomas Phillips, A.M. ... 
Matthew Bloxam 
John Darke, M.A. 
George Skelton, M.A. ... 
George Martin, M.A. ... 
Edward John Herbert, M.A. 



de 

... December, 1319 

... 25th April, 1334 

... 27th September, 1350 

... 1362 — 64 

... 25th March, 1403 
7th March, 1406 
... 22nd March, 1411 
12th September, 1415 
13th December, 1437 
1st May, 1442 
... 20th April, 1449 
... 27th May, 1452 

12th October, 1454 
... May, 1455 

19th July, 1482 
16th March, 1499 
29th March, 1504 
5th February, 1534 
... 24th February, 1545 
... 26th April, 1571 
... 4th July, 1571 

24th November, 1571 
... 21st May, 1584 
1 5th April, 161 5 
13th July, 1640 
8th July, 1663 
6th May, 1686 
... 28th March, 1728 
... 2nd July, 1743 
12th July, 1768 
... 20th December, 1788 
... 21st May, 1796 

3rd February, 1797 



Overbury Church. 59 

Vicars — 

William Stafford, B.A. ... 17th August, 1810 

Thomas Clarke, M. A. ... ... 22nd January, 1821 

William Smith, B.A. ... ... 30th August, 1859 

Charles Glynn, M.A 16th May, 1876 

As doubt has been expressed with regard to the nation- 
ality of the King Ceolwulf, by whom Overbury was given to 
the Convent at Worcester, it seems best to print the deed 
of gift at length, together with a translation of the Anglo- 
Saxon land-boundaries. The document is preserved in 
Heming's ChavUdavy, a collection of Worcester Charters 
drawn up by Heming, a Monk of Worcester, in the time of 
St. Wulfstan, Bishop of Worcester, 1062 — 1095 : 

DE UFERABYRIE. 

•i* In Nomine sanctas et individuas trinitatis. Anno dominicas 
incarnationis DCCCLXXV. Ego Ceoluulf gratia Dei gratuita 
largiente rex Merciorum aliquid in elemosinam donare prascogitavi 
ut sempiternae Mercedis portionem acciperem. Iccirco rogatus a 
Werfrido episcopo Wiciorum et familia in Wigornacestre concessi 
monachis Deo famulantibus in monasterio Wigornensi quod con- 
structum est in honore sanctae et perpetuas matris ac virginis Marias 
quandam ruris portiunculam villam scilicet quam ruricolas U FE RE 
BREODUN vel UFEREBIRI appellant vi cassatorum 
cum duabus villulis Cantuaretun videlicet et Peonedoc et cum 
omnibus ad earn pertinentibus campis scilicet pratis et silvis. Eo 
quoque jure tenoris ut ab omnibus mundanis negotiis pro redemp- 
tione animse meae semper sit libera praeter expeditionem dumtaxat 
et emendationem pontis et arcis. Hanc vero libertatem quam ego 
apposui cum consensu omnium meorum episcoporum et principum 
ac optimatum nostras gentis si quis custodierit omnipotens Deus 
ilium custodire dignetur. 

Si quis autem infringere vel violare temptaverit sciat se rationem 
ponere cum districtus judex orbis tremendus advenerit. 

Ego Ceoluulf rex Merciorum hanc conditionem propria manu 
■confirmo. 

Ego Werfryth episcopus consensi (Worcester, 873 — 915) 

Ego Eadberhtus episcopus conscripsi (Lichfield ? , signs 869 — 875) 

Four " duces ' and eight others also sign as witnesses. 



6o 



Transactions for the Year 1894-95. 



These are the land boundaries of Uferabyrig : — 

First from Kasrent to Eomot's ditch, 
Along the ditch to Rumwold's moor, 
From Rumwold's moor to the hollow stone, 

,, the hollow stone to Merecombe, 

,, the Combe to earthnut's thorn, 

,, the thorn to the Woodgate, 

,, the gate along the edge to the horse-paddock 
(stodfald), 

,, the horse-paddock to Dudda's stone, 

,, Dudda's stone to Swallowbury, 

,, the bury to Wicca's stone, 

,, the stone by the little wood to Simaere's ford, 

,, the ford along (hwate broc) the swift brook 
to Kasrent, 
Along Kasrent to Edric's ford, 
From Edric's ford to Eomod's pool. 

Authorities : — 

M.S. Cotton, Tiberius, A, xiii., f. 149. Heming, Cartulary, vol ii., p. 33 
Kemble, Codex Diplomaticus, No. cccviii. Birch, Cartularium Saxonicum, 54 



NOTES ON THE HISTORY OF BECKFORD. 



By The Rev. J. MELLAND HALL, M.A. 

The records concerning this parish are comparatively- 
scanty ; but the first notices which I have met with are of a 
very respectable antiquity. 

We are generally content to begin with Domesday Book, 
compiled in 1085 ; but we hear of Beckford nearly 310 years 
anterior to this Survey. 

Among religious establishments in what is now Glouces- 
tershire, at the death of Ethelred, king of the Mercians, in 
715, were those of Gloucester, Tetbury, and Withington ; 
somewhat later, there were also churches, great or small, at 
Beckford, Berkeley, Cheltenham, Cleeve, Deerhurst, Twining, 
Winchcombe, Westbury-oh-Trym and Yate. " Monasteria " 
at Beckford and Cheltenham are mentioned in the record of 
the settlement of a dispute between Deneberht, Bishop of 
Worcester, and Wulfheard, Bishop of Hereford, which was 
effected at the Council of Cloveshoe in 803, when the 
Archiepiscopate of Lichfield was abolished, and Canterbury 
restored to its ancient right. 

Deneberht, Bishop of Worcester, had this contest with 
Wulfheard, Bishop of Hereford, concerning the Monasteries 
of Celtanhom and Beccanford (now Cheltenham and 
Beckford) which did of old belong to the Church of 
Hereford: he sued for his procurations — " pastum suum" — 
at these two places, which Wulfheard refused to pay him, 
alleging that for above thirty years past none of his 
predecessors had received them; but Deneberht proved 
that Bishop Wermund, in 775, had received them at 
Beccanford, and Bishop Hathored, 781-98, at Celtanhomme, 



62 



Transactions for the Year 1894-95. 



and that Wulfheard himself had given him money for the 
same; upon which the Archbishop decreed that for the 
future he should have half procurations one year at Beccan- 
ford, and the next another half at Celtanhomme, to which 
he agreed for his life, but would not bind his successors. 
The Rev. C. S. Taylor, in his interesting article in our 
Transactions on " Gloucestershire in the Eighth Century," 
states that on the death of Deneberht the estates were to 
pass entirely to the See of Worcester, but that during his life 
half the profits were to go to the Archbishop of Canterbury, — 
namely, in one year those from Beckford, and in alternate 
years those from Cheltenham. These " Monasteria " 
evidently existed in the year 775, but by whom they were 
founded there is no evidence to show. Probably the thirty 
hides at Prestbury and Sevenhampton, noted in Domesday 
as belonging to the Church of Hereford, were in some way 
connected with the lands claimed by Wulfheard, Bishop of 
Hereford ; but the Survey notes nothing at Beckford or 
Cheltenham as belonging to the See of Worcester. Now we 
come to the long interval of 300 years or so during which 
we can learn nothing of its history. This ended, we have 
the entry in Domesday Book, from which we may make a 
fresh start. 

This is as follows : — " In Tetboldestane Hundred : 
Rotlesc, the housecarl of King Edward, held Beceford. 
There were eleven hides and three carucates in demesne ; 
and thirty-four villeins and eighteen 1 bordarii,' having thirty 
carucates. There were twelve serfs and four handmaidens. 
From this manor Earl William gave three hides to Ansfrid 
de Cormeilles, in which were twelve villeins with five plough- 
teams. Turbertus, a thane of Earl Harold, held Estone. 
There were eight hides and four carucates in demesne, and 
ten villeins, four 'bordarii,' with six plough-teams. There 
are eight serfs and four handmaidens. 

" Out of these two villes Earl William made one manor, 
and it was not at ferm until Roger de Ivri put it to ferm at 
^40. The tythes and the churches, together with two villes 



Notes on the History of Beckford. 63 

and three virgates of land, the Earl himself gave to the 
Abbey of Cormeilles. The men of the county being asked 
said that they had never seen the brief of the King which 
said that this land was given to Earl William." 

Sir Henry Barkly says: "The joint manors here alluded 
to, must, on the attainder of William Fitz Osbern's son, have 
been granted to the Tankerville family, for in the reign of 
Henry I., Rabel (or Ravel), the Chamberlain, one of the sons 
of Ralph, Chamberlain to King William in Normandy, gave 
Beckford and Ashton to the Abbey of St. Martin and St. 
Barbara." This Abbey was a House of Augustinian Canons, 
situated on the river Dive in Normandy, and was founded 
in the year 1128. 

The original Charter of the time of Heny I. is no longer 
extant, but a Confirmation Charter of Henry II., probably 
drawn up about January, 1161, 1 which mentions this grant 
of Ravell, Chamberlain of Normandy, was made at RouelP,. 
and is witnessed by Thomas the Chancellor, Richard de 
Humet the Constable, and Richard de Luci. 2 It gives "in 
the valley of Gloucester all the Manor of Becheford and of 
Ashton," out of which he* reserves nothing for himself, but 
the defence and protection of the religious out of love to 
God. 

This Charter of Henry II., which recites and confirms 
former grants, commences thus : — " Henry, King of England,, 
Duke of Normandy and Aquitaine, and Earl of Anjou, to the 
Archbishops, &c, &c. Know ye that I have granted and do 
by this present Charter confirm to the Church of St. Martin 
and St. Barbara of Eschaiolet, and to the Canons serving 
God in that place, in perpetual alms whatsoever has been 
lawfully given to them, &c." 

Rudder states: " Robert Fitz Alan founded a Priory of 
regular Canons in this place, which was made a cell to the 
Abbey of St. Martin and St. Barbara in Normandy." 

From the Testa de Nevill, to be dated perhaps from the 

1 Rev. R. W. Eyton, Itinerary of Henry II., 52. 
2 Dugdale, Monasticon, vi., 11 12, 



64 Transactions for the Year 1894-95. 

reign of King John, and the most complete record since the 
Domesday Survey, we find that " the Prior of Bekeford 
holds thirty pounds of land, of the gift of King Henry the 
-elder" (Henry I.). 

A Charter of Henry III. confirms " to God and St. Mary 
de Cormeilles and the Monks there serving God," inter alia, 
" the Church of Beckford with all its appurtenances, with 
its tythes and chapels, and all the tythes of the demesnes in 
the improved grounds and in the new-ploughed grounds and 
half a hide of land : — also the Church of Aston with all its 
tythes and chapels and appurtenances and one yard land 
and all the tythes of the demesnes." 

The Jurors in the Hundred Rolls (Edward I.) say "that 
the Earl of Warwick claims free warren beyond his 
boundaries in the Manor of Elmeley in the County of 
Worcester, even in the County of Gloucester, as for instance, 
within the Manor of Beckeford, &c, &c." 

From the same source we find that the Prior of St. 
Barbara had gallows, together with assize of bread and ale, 
in the Manor of Beckeford. 

We gather something of the value of the Priory lands 
from the Taxation of Pope Nicholas, 1291 : — " W r ygorn' Temp' : 
Prior de Beckeford." 

"The Prior of Bekeford has at Bekeford four carucates 
of land, each carucate being worth 30s. ; from stock, 30s. ; 
from rents of assize, 16s. ; from relaxation of works and 
customary services there and at Wyston (Estone), £20 per 
annum. Also at Axton, three carucates of land, each being 
worth 20s. per annum. Also two mills which are worth 30s. 
Sum, ^32 16s. Tenth of same, 5s. 7d." 

Coming now to the reign of Edward II., the Nomina 
Villarum mentions this Hundred of Tiboldestane in the liberty 
of Clive: one part of which was said to be held by the 
Bishop of Worcester (Cleeve Episcopi), and the other by the 
Priory of Beckford. 

From an Inquisition taken in the second year of this King, 
it is found that the Prior of St. Barbara held in Beckeford, 



Notes on the History of Beckford. 65 

Ayston, and Grafton, two carucates in demesne, with 26s. 
rents of Assize, and a mill ; in Villenage, 77 virgates of land, 
and in Cottage rents 26s. per annum. 

The explanation of this Inquisition will probably be found 
in the fact that the prior and convent had taken the Church 
of Beckeford to ferm from the Abbot of Cormeilles ; but that 
by reason of a statute forbidding money to be sent out of 
the realm by alien priories, they withheld the arrears and 
rents, against the King's intention, and were accordingly 
ordered to pay the same. 

It is plain that religious houses which were merely cells 
of monasteries in France were a great source of danger to 
the realm in time of war, and hence in 1336 (10 Edward III.) 
Parliament granted to the King the estates of all priories 
which were cells to monasteries in France, after which he 
proceeded to let them to ferm. 

Sir John Cheyney Knight held for life the Manor and 
Priory of Beckford, with ten messuages, five cottages, five 
carucates of land, twenty acres meadow, twenty acres 
pasture in Grafton, together with twenty messuages, ten 
cottages, ten carucates, forty acres meadow in Ashton, 
parcel of the Manor of Beckford. 

Margaret, widow of Sir John Cheyney, died, seised of the 
Manor and Advowson of the Priory of Beckford for life — 
reversion to the Crown. 

However, by some means, the manor seems to have 
passed to Anna, daughter and heiress of the above, who 
became the wife of Thomas Rous. 

Later on, the sum of £"43 6s. 8d. was to be paid by Sir 
John Beauchamp and heirs, who held the manor after 
Thomas Rous. 

The priory was totally suppressed in 1414 (2 Henry V.) 
by Act of Parliament, together with all other alien priories. 

Afterwards the manor was to pass to the College of Eton, 
as follows : — 

"For a Charter of Henry VI. grants to the King's College 
of Our Lady by Eaton beside Windsor, £53 6s. 8d. in rent 

6 

Vol. XIX. 



66 Transactions for the Year 1894-95. 

issuing yearly out of the Manor of Beckford, otherwise 
called the Priory of Beckford, in the County of Gloucester, 
payable by the hands of John Beauchamp Knight, his heirs 
and assigns, tenants of the said Manor of Beckford, otherwise 
called the Priory of Beckford, from and after the death of 
Robert Roos Knight, who holds the same for the term of his 
life by a former grant from us. 

" Witness : The King at Windesore, March 25." 
When, however, the Yorkist cause prevailed and Edward 
became King, he annulled this grant to Eton College of 
^53 6s. 8d. annual rent issuing from the manor after the 
death of Sir Robert Rous, and bestowed it upon Fotheringhay 
College. The lands in Didcot which belonged to Tewkesbury 
Abbey, and which were granted to Richard Tracy by 
Henry VIII., had passed into the possession of the Abbey 
by exchange from Alexander de Cormeilles in the reign of 
Henry I. 1 According to Mr. A. S. Ellis, 2 in his paper on 
the " Domesday Tenants of Gloucestershire," Alexander was 
the grandson of Ansfrid de Cormeilles, who held three hides 
in Beckford in 1086 by gift of Earl William F'itzosbern. 
This exchange, therefore, would denote that Ansfrid's holding 
lay wholly or in part in the tithing of Didcot. 

At the beginning of the reign of Edward VI. the Manor 
and Park of Beckford, with the Advowson of the Vicarage,, 
together with the Rectory of Grafton and Advowson of the 
Vicarage, all which belonged to the College of Fotheringhay, 
were granted to Sir Richard Lee, rent reserved £10 10s. 5|d.> 
and out of the Parsonage 40s., with the Manor and Tythes 
of Ashton, late in the tenure of John Powis for 21s. rent. 

Sir Richard Lee had two daughters, who are said to have 
made a partition of the estates. One of these married 
Coningsby of St. Albans, whose son Humphrey sold the 
Manor of Beckford (Aston being a portion thereof) to Sir 
Richard Franklin and Edward Wakeman. 

Sir Thomas Glover purchased Franklin's share in Ashton* 
and, together with Wakeman, is said to have obtained a 
1 Rudder, Appendix, xxxi. 2 Transactions, vol. iv , 189. 



Notes on the History of Beckford. 67 

fresh grant from the Crown, and with the reservation of 
certain manorial rights over his own lands, conveyed all 
other over the residue of the manor to Mr. Wakeman. 

In the year 1562, Bishop Cheyney's "Account of the 
Diocese of Gloucester" "is sent to the Queen's Majestie." 
Master John Chamberlyne is named as Vicar, not being 
resident; and Sir John Woodcock, Curate; Ashton, a 
Chappell to the same; the number of households being 
respectively 41 and 32. 

The impropriators formerly paid to the Vicar at All 
Hallows, Easter and Whitsuntide, eight quarters wheat, four 
quarters barley, six quarters oats, and £8 in money. 

In 1773, the impropriation being in the hands of Mr. 
Wakeman, who had the Tythes of Didcote, Beckford, and 
Grafton, the common fields were enclosed by Act of Parlia- 
ment, when proportionate lands were assigned to him, 
together with the Vicar. 

The Taxation of Pope Nicholas, 1291, before quoted, 
gives the annual value of the Rectory or Church of Bekeford 
as ^27 13s. 4d.; portion of the Vicar 'thereof, £6 13s. 4d. : 
this escaped the payment of the tenths, as not exceeding the 
value of ten marcs per annum. 

At the Dissolution, in the Valor Eccles., Beckeforth Vicarage 
is stated to be of the clear value in tythes and oblations 
(beyond 6s. 8d. paid to the Archdeacon of Gloucester for 
procurations, and 4s. to the Bishop of Worcester for proxies 
and synodals) of £16 16s. iod. Tenths of the same, 
33S. 8*d. 

Sir Stephen Glynne, who visited this parish on March 
25th, 1854, tnus describes it in his MSS. Notes on the 
Churches of Gloucestershire : — 

" This church has a chancel and nave without aisles, 
and a tower placed between the chancel and nave: a Norman 
building, with much of Norman and Early English work 
remaining. There is a large porch of Perpendicular date, 
within which is a Norman door with shafts; there is also on 
the north side the tympanum of a Norman door, in which is 

6 * 



68 



Transactions for the Year 1894-95. 



rude sculpture representing a figure with extended arms, one 
of which holds a cross. There is one Norman window on 
the south of the nave, and one on the north. One on the 
south seems to be Early Decorated; and one on the north, of 
two lancets with quatrefoil above. 

" The west window is Perpendicular of five lights, another 
Perpendicular on the south. 

" In the chancel, on the north is one single and one double 
lancet; on the south, two double lancets and one two-light 
Perpendicular, which is lychnoscopic. 

" The east window is odd, having three lancets with two 
circles above — the whole included under a general pointed 
arch. 

" The tower is early in its lower part, including two 
stages, and has large buttresses and obtuse single windows 
in the lower part ; in the second stage, two lancets ; the 
belfry story is late and debased, with battlement and four 
pinnacles. The arches within, from the tower to the chancel 
and nave, are Early English, or perhaps later alterations. 
The roofs are high and flagged with stone slate. A vestry is 
added on the north of the chancel. The churchyard is 
surrounded by fine trees, and on the north is a very 
picturesque Elizabethan mansion of stone." 

A spire steeple, dangerous by decay, was totally removed 
in 1622. 

The vestry which Sir Stephen Glynne speaks of, as added 
on the north side of the chancel, is said by others to have 
been originally a chantry chapel. 

On a monument in the chancel, date 1662, are the arms 
of the Wakeman family, "Vert: a saltire wavy Ermine," 
impaling "Argent: a chevron between three talbots' heads 
erased, Sable," for Hall. 

The great altar at Beckford was dedicated by Walter 
Bishop of Worcester, in the autumn of the year 13 15 (Sept. 
or Oct.), together with that at Overbury and others in the 
neighbourhood. 

In Picas of the Crown for this County in 1221 it is recorded 



Notes on the History of Beckford. 69 

how a certain strange knight with one attendant received 
hospitality in the ville of Bekeford, in the house of Fulco ; 
and in the course of the night they permitted six robbers to 
enter, and they bound Fulco and all his family, plundered the 
house, and hamstrung two Serjeants who came to help. 
(" Esgarataverunt duos servientes qui venerunt.") 

Also, Liolfus the son of Edric was found dead in the field 
of Estone (Ashton), and Walter Inger and Walter Vache 
found him : these not appearing were attached by Richard 
Wuloriche the Tithingman and his Tithing, and therefore in 
misericordia : no one is suspected, because he died of his 
infirmity. Judgment — infortunium (misadventure). In the 
Amercements of this " Eyre " : — " Hundredum de Tetbeldestane. 
De franco plegio Ricardi Wlfrich de Estone quia non habuit 
quem plegiavit — | m." 



BERKELEY MINSTER. 



By The Rev. C. S. TAYLOR, M.A., 
Vicar of St. Thomas the Martyr, Bristol. 

At first sight the interest of Berkeley seems to be almost 
entirely secular, centering in the Castle with its continuous 
history of eight centuries, and with the family whose fortunes 
have been connected with the Castle from its very foundation. 

But the Church came before the State in the history of 
Berkeley, as it has done in the history of England. There 
was a 'familia' or family at Berkeley before the family of 
Roger or of Harding, and there was a house at Berkeley the 
glory of which had passed away before a stone of Berkeley 
Castle was laid. 

And this earlier family prepared the way for that which 
should come after it, and built up the estate which we know 
as Berkeley Hundred in the far off days before the Norman 
Conquest, for Berkeley Hundred was a creation of the Church 
and not simply of the Civil Authority. When Gloucester- 
shire came into existence in the days of Ethelred the Unready, 
the Berkeley estate, under its spiritual head, though it was 
not quite the largest in the newly-formed shire, was the 
most compact of the great estates, as it was the largest estate 
in the shire at the date of Domesday, and as it is the largest 
estate in the shire now. 

Berkeley Minster came before Berkeley Castle, but we do 
not know who founded that Minster, and we cannot trace its 
early growth. It appears at once among the first of the great 
Churches of the district, as a Church of such dignity and 
influence that its first recorded Abbot became the Bishop of 
the Diocese. It perished more than eight centuries ago, but 
at any time during its existence the Abbot or Abbess of 



Berkeley Minster. 



7i 



Berkeley would have held a high place among the heads of 
that wonderful group of religious houses which lay between 
Worcester and Bath. Indeed, the names of only three of the 
heads of the Monastery are known, and of these one was the 
widow of an Ealdorman of the Huiccians, while the other 
two only left their home at Berkeley to take their seat on the 
Bishopstool at Worcester. 

Of all those noble Minsters to which the abounding 
generosity of the first energy of Huiccian devotion gave birth, 
the oldest and the greatest are with us still, the Cathedral at 
Worcester — the mother of them all, — and the sister founda- 
tions of Osric, the Minsters at Bath and Gloucester, in which 
Bishop's thrones have found a place in later days. Others 
there are, such as Evesham and Pershore and Winchcombe, 
which perished under Henry VIII. Others, such as West- 
bury and Bredon and Cleeve, which were absorbed into their 
mother Church at Worcester; or Deerhurst, whose estates 
went at the period of the Norman Conquest to enrich the 
Abbeys of Westminster and St. Denys, the noblest of the 
Royal foundations of England and France ; or lastly, the 
Minster at Berkeley, whose possessions were secularised at 
about the same period, after an existence of some three 
centuries. 

The earliest mention of the Minster of Berkeley is found 
in the Annals of the Anonymous Monk of Worcester in his 
entry of the succession of the seventh Bishop of Worcester, 
which runs thus: — "dcclxxviii. Wermundus VI. Wigorn 
Episcopus obiit: cui Thilherus Abbas de Beorclea successit." 1 

The first mention of Abbot Tilhere which I can find 
occurs in the earliest original grant of property in our shire, 
which is still extant. It contains a grant of ten cassates at 
Onnanford, now Andoversford, by Eanberht, Uhctred, and 
iEldred, three brethren, Subreguli of the Huiccians, to 
Headda, Abbot of the Cathedral Monastery at Worcester. 
The document bears the date February, 759, and is witnessed 
by King Offa; the three donors of the estate; Milred, Bishop 
1 Anglia Sacra,, i., 470. 



72 Transactions for the Year 1894-95. 

of Worcester; Abbots Tilhere, Cusa, and Tilberht ; and four 
others. 1 The name of Tilhere Abbas also occurs among the 
witnesses of a grant of three cassates at Huntenatun, by 
Aldred to Earl Beornhard, made between the accession of 
King Offa in 757 and the death of Bishop Milred in 775* 
Tilhere became Bishop of Worcester in 777, and died in 781. 
His name appears as an episcopal witness to nine documents,, 
including an original grant still extant of land at Sulmonnes- 
burg, or Bourton-on-the- Water, by Offa to his thegn Duddo 
in 779- 3 There are thus two documents still in existence,, 
both at the British Museum, to which this first of the Abbots 
of Berkeley set his hand more than eleven centuries ago. 

Thus we can trace the foundation of the Minster of 
Berkeley back almost to the beginnings of English Christianity; 
the Venerable Bede had died less than a quarter of a century 
before the first occurrence of Tilhere's name, and the bones 
of Osric, the founder of Huiccian Christianity, had been laid 
in his Minster at Gloucester only thirty years before. 

Nothing more is heard of the Minster at Berkeley for 
nearly half a century after Tilhere became Bishop of Wor- 
cester, and no mention can be found of any Abbot. It is by 
no means improbable that Offa took possession of its estates* 
as he certainly took possession of Gloucester after the death 
of the Abbess Eva in 767, and of Bath in 781. 

The Minster emerges early in the ninth century in con- 
nection with the family of Ethelmund, Ealdorman of the 
Huiccians. He was the son of Dux, or Ealdorman Ingeld, 
and had received a grant of land at Eastun, on the river 
Salwarp, from the Regulus Uhtred as far back as 767.* He 
succeeded to the dignity of Ealdorman about 792. In 8o2 r 
on the day of the accession of Egbert, King of Wessex, 
Ethelmund, at the head of the forces of the Huiccians, 
invaded Wessex, crossing the Thames at Kempsford, and 
was met by the men of Wiltshire under their Ealdorman 
Weoxtan. In the battle which ensued both the Ealdormen 

1 Cartularium Saxonicum, 187 ; this authority is referred to as C.S. 
2 C.S., 218. » C.S., 230. 4 C.S., 202. 



Berkeley Minster. 



73 



were slain, and the Huiccians were driven back to their own 
territory. 

Ethelmund was buried at Deerhurst, and as he had been 
slain in the service of the State, his widow Ciolburga was 
provided for by an appointment to the office of Abbess of 
Berkeley. There is no reason to doubt her fitness for the 
office, and her son Ethelric was a munificent benefactor to 
the Church. But at that time the monasteries were com- 
monly used as means of providing for ladies of high degree. 
The vacancy in the West Saxon throne to which Egbert 
succeeded had been caused by the fact that Brihtric, King of 
the West Saxons, had drunk from a poisoned cup which his 
wife Eadburga, a daughter of King Offa, had prepared in order 
to get rid of a courtier named Worr. The guilty Queen, 
driven from Wessex, took refuge at the Court of Charles the 
Great, who provided for her by appointing her Abbess of a 
house of nuns, from which she was before long expelled for 
gross misconduct. 

Eadburga's seclusion in a monastery would of course have 
partaken of the nature of a punishment, and no doubt at this 
time the monasteries were not infrequently used as reforma- 
tories. 1 Bishop Stubbs writes thus of the Anglo-Saxon 
monasteries at this period : "The royal and noble monasteries 
were clearly regarded as family benefices, for which the only 
requisite was the assumption of orders or the taking of vows ; 
they served as places of retirement for worn-out statesmen 
and for public functionaries — kings, queens, and ealdormen."* 

An apt illustration of the prevalence of the custom of 
lay-folk holding the headships of monasteries, is given in the 
Dialogue of Egbert, Archbishop of York 734-766. This is a 
treatise on various points of Church discipline, cast in the 
form of question and answer, in which the eleventh query and 
reply run thus: — "What say ye to this? Since some who 
hold monasteries of their own, dispose of them so unadvisedly 
that after their death two of either sex should hold a single 

1 Stubbs' Constitutional History, i. ( 257, nl - 
2 Constitutional History, i., 256. 



74 Transactions for the Year 1894-59. 

monastery together, or divide it equally, if they cannot agree 
to take part in it together ? " " Let the venerable congregation 
choose one of the two whom it desires to preside over them ; 
and with the advice of the Bishop, let this one be appointed 
Abbot. When he who was preferred is dead, let the second 
who was reckoned to be co-heir with him at first receive the 
government of the whole monastery which was before granted 
to him not wholly but in part, if at least in the opinion of the 
Bishop he be found worthy. But if aught shall be otherwise 
done, let a will of this kind be reckoned null and void ; and 
let any one who makes it, or consents to it, or accepts it, be 
Anathema." 

The reply to the seventh query also, which forbids any 
head of a monastery to receive a vagabond monk, distinctly 
implies that some of these heads were lay people, for it 
includes in the prohibition laymen who are known to preside 
over monasteries ("Quicunque vero ex laicis, qui monasteriis 
praesse noscuntur.") 1 

From this we learn that the practice of lay people holding 
the headship of a monastery was at any rate permitted by 
the English Church in the eighth century, though Archbishop 
Egbert was desirous of establishing the rule that no one 
should be so appointed who was not approved by the Bishop 
of the Diocese. Also we learn that, subject to his approval, 
it was possible for the owner of the monastery estate to 
appoint his successor, and that the head need not be of the 
same sex with the inmates ; indeed of course in the case of 
the double monasteries, which were common at the time, 
this could not be altogether the case. Thus it was that a 
monastery such as Berkeley might be ruled at one time by 
Ciolburga, an Abbess; and at others, by Abbots such as 
Tilhere and Ethelhun. 

It is easy to see that a loose system of this kind was very 
likely to lead to grave dangers, not only to right discipline, 
but also to morals, especially as the third Canon of the Council 
of Hertford, in 673, had discouraged dealings on the part of 
1 Councils and Ecclesiastical Documents, hi., 408, 406. 



Berkeley Minster. 



75 



Bishops with the affairs of monasteries. And there is only 
too much evidence to show that the evils which might have 
been anticipated had entered in full flood into the life of the 
English monasteries in the eighth century. The Council of 
Cloveshoe, held in 747, laments the decay of study in the 
monasteries and the worldly life of the inmates, and reversing 
the policy of the Council of Hertford, it directs the Bishops 
diligently to admonish the Abbots and Abbesses within their 
Dioceses that they set a good example to those under their 
care, and to see that they live rightly in all things according 
to their rule. With regard to monasteries under the rule of 
laymen, Canon 5 orders that: — "The Bishops visit the 
monasteries, if indeed it is right to call them so, which 
although in these times on account of the violence of the 
coveteousness of rulers can by no means be reformed to the 
standard of the Christian religion, that is to say those which 
are held by seculars, not indeed by the law of God, but by 
the presumption of human invention ; nevertheless, if it is 
necessary, the Bishops ought to enter there for the good of 
the souls of the inmates, and it is also necessary that among 
their other admonitions they take care that what is already 
enfeebled be not further endangered by lack of the services 
of a priest, though those who possess them are striving for 
this condition of things." 1 So that it is clear that in some of 
these houses, at any rate, not only was every pretence of 
living according to the rule of the Religious life laid aside, 
but even the observance of the services at the canonical 
hours had been discontinued. The monasteries had become, 
in fact, nothing more than well-endowed establishments for 
the enjoyment of a luxurious and pleasure-seeking career. 
Thus had English Christianity become corrupt within seventy 
years of the conversion of the men of Sussex under S. Wilfred, 
who were the last of our nation to accept the Gospel. 

These abuses had reached such a height at the commence- 
ment of the ninth century, that at the great Synod at 
Cloveshoe in October, 803, on the same day on which the 
1 Councils and Ecclesiastical Documents, iii., 364. 



76 Transactions for the Year 1894-95. 

Archbishopric of Lichfield was abolished, an Act was passed 
forbidding the election of lay or secular persons as heads of 
monasteries. Archbishop Ethelheard quoted a mandate of 
Pope Leo III. to this effect, and the Act was signed by the 
Bishop and some of the Abbots and Presbyters of each 
Diocese in the Province of Canterbury. In this Diocese the 
names are Deneberht, Bishop ; Hyseberht, Thingeferth, 
Paega, Freothomund, Abbots; Conferth and Seleraed, Pres- 
byters. Thingeferth was Abbot of Evesham. 1 

This would have happened shortly after Ciolburga 
became Abbess of Berkeley. She only held the office for five 
years, 2 but her tenure was one of considerable importance to 
the Minster, and it has, I think, left its mark on the map of 
the shire even to the present day. The period of her reign 
was evidently not altogether a peaceful one, and it left a 
legacy of dispute to be settled in after times. 

The difficulty arose in this way. In the last decade of 
the seventh century, King Ethelred had granted to Oftfor, 
Bishop of Worcester, thirty cassates at Henbury and Aust ; 
and probably, about thirty years later, Eanulf, grandfather 
of King Offa, had founded monasteries at Westbury-on-Trym 
and Yate. Offa had seized all these lands, probably on the 
ground that they were part of his family property. About 
791, however, he granted them all to Worcester Cathedral 
after the death of himself and his son Ecgfrid ; and in 794, 
he bestowed the life interest of himself and his son on Ethel- 
mund. 3 Offa and Ecgfrid died in 796. Ethelmund, who 
must have retained the land, was slain at Kempsford in 802, 
and his widow Ciolburga became Abbess of Berkeley. 

Ethelric, son of Ethelmund, was careful to obtain an 
acknowledgment of his right to deal with his hereditary 
property as he willed, at a Council held at Cloveshoe probably 
in 798, after the death of Ecgfrid, but during the life of 
Ethelmund. He then went on a pilgrimage to Rome; and 
on his return he made a disposition of his property at a Synod 

1 Councils and Ecclesiastical Documents, iii., 545. C.S., 312. 
2 Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, a.d. 805. 3 Q.S., 272, 273, 274. 



Berkeley Minster. 



77 



held at Acle in 804. 1 Among other estates, he left the land of 
forty-three holdings at Westminster and Stoce, that is at 
Westbury-on-Trym and Stoke Bishop, to his mother for her 
life, with reversion to Worcester Cathedral, in order that 
during her life she might have a protection and defence 
against the contention of the Berkeley people. Ethelric 
evidently considered that such a defence would be necessary, 
for he directs his mother to seek protection first at Worcester, 
then from the Archbishop in Kent, and if that should fail, 
then wherever she could obtain it. He left one copy of his 
settlement with Aldwulf, Bishop of Lichfield, and two more 
copies with two of his friends. 

Nothing more is heard of Ethelric, and it is possible that 
he pre-deceased his mother, who died in 807. 

In 824 a dispute between the family at Berkeley and 
Heaberht, Bishop of Worcester, who was in possession of the 
monastery at Westbury with its estate and title deeds, was 
settled at another Synod at Cloveshoe, and the property was 
declared to belong to the See of Worcester. 2 The importance 
which was attached to the decision is shewn by the fact 
that the attendance of clergy was larger than that recorded 
at any other Synod of the Anglo-Saxon Church. At the final 
settlement of the dispute at Westbury, no fewer than two 
hundred and ten priests were present. 

The precise nature of the claim which was made by the 
Minster of Berkeley is not clear. Bishop Stubbs has suggested 3 
that the Abbess Cynethritha, the daughter and heiress of 
King Kenulf, had succeeded Ciolburga at Berkeley, and had 
set up a claim to her private property on the part, of the 
Abbey. She was a bad woman, who was concerned in the 
murder of her brother Kenelm ; and she had retained large 
estates belonging to the See of Canterbury, of which her 
father Kenulf had deprived it ; and the fact that the settle- 
ment of the dispute relating to these Canterbury estates was 
discussed at the same Synod at which Westbury was adjudged 
to Worcester so far might suggest that the same person was 
1 C.S., 313, 314. 2 C.S., 379. 3 Archaological- Journal, xix., 250. 



78 Transactions for the Year 1894-95. 

responsible for the detention of the property of both Churches. 
It is not possible however to connect Cynethritha definitely 
with Berkeley. It will be remembered that Ethelric left to 
his mother Westbury-on-Trym and Stoke Bishop ; but the 
Synod at Cloveshoe only adjudged Westbury to the Cathe- 
dral, and Stoke was not recovered till sixty years later. 

The claim, however, was kept alive by the Bishops of 
Worcester, and in 883 the matter was settled by Alderman 
Ethelred, son-in-law of King Alfred. 1 On the petition of the 
family at Berkeley and in consideration of their giving up 
into his hands the twelve hides at Stoke, he freed all their 
estates from royal taxes or dues except the inevitable three. 
Then on payment of sixty mancuses of pure gold he leased 
the land at Stoke to Cynulf for three lives, to revert on the 
termination of the lease to Worcester. Thus the family at 
Berkeley obtained a remission of taxation, sixty mancuses of 
gold passed into the royal treasury, and the Cathedral was 
assured of the land at Stoke. The settlement was signed 
among others by King Alfred, Alderman Ethelred, and 
Ethelhun, Abbot of Berkeley, who succeeded to the Bishopric 
of Worcester in 915, and died in 922. This we learn from 
another entry in the Annals of the Monk of Worcester: — 
"Anno dccccxv. Werfertus XII. Wigorn : Episcopus obiit, 
qui dedit nobis Marnanclive. Cui yEthelhunus Abbas de 
Beorclea successit." 2 

Thus we have traced events in the history of the Minster 
at Berkeley through a space of about one hundred and fifty 
years from the first occurrence of the name of Abbot Tilhere 
in 759 till 915, when Abbot Ethelhun became Bishop of 
Worcester. How important the Minster at Berkeley was, 
and how great its power and influence were, is shewn by the 
fact that for two generations it maintained a dispute with the 
Cathedral over the inheritance of Ethelric, and it would appear 
that even in the end it was not completely worsted. For 
there are districts in the neighbourhood of Westbury still 
lying in Berkeley Hundred— Almondsbury, Elberton, Horfield, 
1 C.S., 551, 2 Anglica Sacra, i., 470 



Berkeley Minster. 



79 



P'ilton, and Kingsweston — which are very probably fragments 
of Ethelric's inheritance; for if the number of hides attributed 
to them in Domesday be added to the number of hides 
attributed to Westbury, Henbury, and their dependencies, 
the total is almost precisely coincident with the number of 
holdings mentioned in King Offa's grants already mentioned. 1 
It would seem probable therefore that Berkeley Minster had 
succeeded in gathering all its possessions into a single Hun- 
dred, as the Church of Deerhurst had done, or as the Cathe- 
dral of Worcester had collected the possessions of the ancient 
Monastery of Westbury, into the Hundred of Bernintrev. 

In this case, the Hundred of Berkeley as we now know it 
must have been formed before 1086, the date of Domesday, and 
after 883, when Stoke Bishop was assigned to Worcester. 
There can be no reasonable doubt that Berkeley Hundred 
does represent the possessions of the ancient Minster from 
which it derives its name ; and it formed a goodly inheritance 
indeed, being largely exceeded in what is now Gloucestershire 
only by the estates of Worcester Cathedral, and being 
equalled only by the estates of St. Peter's Abbey at Glou- 
cester, and those of the Church of Deerhurst. But in one 
respect the Berkeley domain surpassed that of either of its 
equals, it formed one compact estate with but few outlying 
portions, while the estates of its sister Churches were widely 
scattered. 

After the time of Abbot Ethelhun, we hear nothing more 
of Berkeley Minster till we reach the page of Domesday. It 
evidently did not become a Benedictine house under Bishop 
Oswald in the tenth century, as did its neighbours at Bath, 
Westbury-on-Trym, and Deerhurst ; no doubt, like the two 
Abbeys of St. Peter and St. Oswald at Gloucester, and the 
ancient house of Canons at Cirencester, it was held back 
from Benedictinism by the influence of Alderman Elfhere. 
And no doubt, also, its speedy destruction was the result of 
its escape from Benedictine rule. A great Benedictine house 
might be plundered for the benefit of another Benedictine 
1 Transactions, xvi., 224. 



So Transactions for the Year 1894-95. 



house, as Edward the Confessor plundered Pershore for the 
benefit of Westminster ; or it might be dismembered and its 
estates wholly given up to other Benedictine houses, as Deer- 
hurst was dismembered to enrich Westminster and St. Denys ; 
but it is incredible that if Berkeley had become Benedictine 
it could have been utterly secularised at the period when it 
was destroyed. 

The fate of Berkeley Minster is recorded on the page of 
Domesday, thus : " Gueda, mother of Earl Harold, held Wood- 
chester. Earl Godwin bought it of Azor, and gave it to his 
wife that she might be maintained from thence while he 
abode at Berkeley. For she was unwilling to eat anything 
from that manor on account of the destruction of the Abbey." 1 
It is clear from this entry that Berkeley Minster survived 
until the time of Earl Godwin, that he had a share in its 
destruction and profited by it, and that his wife, Gytha, dis- 
approved of the transaction so strongly that she refused even 
to eat anything that was taken from the estates of the 
plundered Church. 

Godwin rose to eminence very early in the reign of Cnut, 
for he signs as Earl in 1017, the second year of that king's 
reign, and he died on April 15, 1053. But it is not easy to 
fix a date for the destruction of the Minster at Berkeley, 
except that we may be fairly sure that it was after Godwin's 
marriage with Gytha in 1019, and before September, 1051. 
For at that time Earl Godwin had been summoned to appear 
before the Witan at Gloucester, at which place Siward, Earl 
of the Northumbrians, Leofric, Earl of the West Mercians, 
and Ralph, Earl of Worcestershire, gathered their forces; 
while Godwin and his sons collected the forces of their Earl- 
doms at Beverstone, which appears in Domesday as a 
dependency of Berkeley. As Godwin and his sons were Earls 
of the whole of England south of the Thames, and also ot 
Gloucestershire, Oxfordshire, and Herefordshire, Beverstone 
was an admirable trysting-place, as it was close to the Fosse, 
not far from the Ermine Street and Ikenild Way which con- 

x F, 164. 



Berkeley Minster. 



81 



verged upon Cirencester, and was also situated on Godwin's 
estate of Berkeley. 

Nothing is known of the circumstances under which 
Berkeley Minster ceased to exist, except that Earl Godwin 
was concerned in the matter, and that his wife disapproved 
of its destruction. The story that the Earl caused the ruin 
of the Minster by procuring the seduction of the nuns, and 
then making complaint of their misconduct to the King, is first 
found in the writings of Walter Map, who lived a century 
and a half later, and it may be safely dismissed as an idle 
tale. Mr. Freeman thinks that the story may have grown 
out of the circumstances of the ruin of the nunnery at 
Leominster. 1 In 1046, Swegen, son of Godwin, who was 
then Earl of Herefordshire, sent for Eadgifu, Abbess of 
Leominster, kept her with him for awhile, and then sent her 
home. The Church refused to permit him to marry her, as 
he wished to do, so he resigned his earldom, and went first to 
Flanders and then to Denmark. The monastery at Leo- 
minster was dissolved, and it appears in Domesday as a 
possession of the King, having belonged to Queen Edith in 
the days of King Edward. But there is no evidence that 
anything of this sort happened at Berkeley : Godwin had a 
bad reputation as a robber of Churches ; the Abingdon 
version of the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, which, however, is 
consistently hostile to his family, records his death in these 
words : — " Godwin then grew sick soon after he had landed ; 
and he afterwards departed ; but he did all too little penance 
for the property of God which he held belonging to many 
holy places." 

In this respect Godwin was no worse than other great men 
of his time. His rapacity was quite a sufficient cause for the 
ruin of Berkeley Minster without attributing misconduct to 
the nuns, of which no mention is made by any trustworthy 
historian, nor by any writer at all for more than a century 
and a half after the Minster had perished. 

With regard to the site of the Minster, there can be no 

1 Norman Conquest, ii., 556. 
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reasonable doubt that it stood at Oldminster, close to the 
railway, about half-a-mile east of Sharpness Station. A half- 
ruined cottage containing some thick walls, which might repay 
examination when it is finally pulled down, may contain some 
fragments of the ancient buildings ; and the owner told us 
about two years ago that where the railway sidings now are 
there were other substantial buildings and a pond, which 
not improbably represented a fish-pond belonging to the 
Minster. But nothing more is left of the home of the 
Abbots who would once have ranked as the equals of the 
Abbots of Evesham and Winchcombe, or of the house 
which once held its own in dispute with the Cathedral at 
Worcester. 

After the death of Earl Godwin, nothing more is known of 
Berkeley till the entry in Domesday, which was compiled in 
1086; there it is mentioned as a possession of King Edward 
and King William, both the ancient Minster and the owner- 
ship of Godwin are entirely ignored. It is mentioned that 
Earl William Fitzosbern, who left England at Christmas, 
1070, had placed five hides at Nesse which pertained to 
Berkeley outside the ferm, for the purpose of constructing a 
" castellulum." This castellulum was probably the germ of the 
present castle ; the seat of government of the Manor being 
changed with the change of ownership, exactly as at Bristol 
it was moved at the same period from the King's Barton at 
the east end of the Old Market to the newly-founded Castle 
at the west end. 

There is no trace of any Ecclesiastical ownership at 
Berkeley in the Domesday entry, except that Roger, the King's 
propositus held five hides of land which had belonged to 
Bernard the Priest but there is nothing to shew who Bernard 
was, or by what title he held the property. All spiritual title 
to the estate was as completely wiped out as it was from the 
Abbey lands in the time of Henry VIII. More than a century 
after the suppression of the Minster, mention is made in the 
Pipe Rolls of pensions to nuns from the revenues of Berkeley ; 
but there is no evidence at all to connect these payments with 



Berkeley Minster. 



8-3 



the ancient house of nuns, and they were in all probability 
charges of a later date. 

It will be interesting to conclude this paper with the trans- 
lation of the award of Alderman Ethelred, by which the land 
at Stoke Bishop passed finally into the possession of Worcester 
Cathedral, which as it is written in Anglo-Saxon is not 
generally accessible. 

After 3l preamble of the usual character, he proceeds : — 
"Wherefore I, ^Ethelred, by the inspiring grace of God, 
endowed and exalted with some part of the realm of the 
Mercians, for the love of God and for the forgiveness of my 
guilt and sin, and on account of the prayers of the Abbot and 
family at Berkeley, and also on behalf of all Mercia, I free 
them in perpetuity from the tribute which they needs must 
still pay into the King's hands, from the part which was still 
left unfreed, from the duty of rendering provision for the King, 
both in clear ale, and in beer, honey, cattle, swine and sheep. 
And this I did on account of their sacred prayers, and also 
because they have given up to me a part of their land in per- 
petual possession — that is to say, twelve hides at Stoke ; and 
thirty mancuses of gold they have also given me. 

" And that I free the Minster from all the payments which 
belong to the Lord of the people, little or great, known and 
unknown, except payments 1 due to others, and fortification 
work, war service, and bridge work ; and this I do with the 
leave and knowledge of King yElfred, and with that of all the 
Witan of the Mercians, both spiritual and temporal. And now, 
moreover, I grant that same land at Stoke, which is twelve 
hides, for three lives to Cynulf, son of Ceoluht, for sixty man- 
cuses of pure gold to set it free from all things as against 
King, Ealdorman or Reeve, from every service except war 
service, fortification work, and bridge work, and payment 
due to others, and naught shall be due as fine outside (the 

1 Angild. — This was the rate fixed by law at which certain injuries 
either to person or property were to be paid for. It was paid to the 
person injured or to his family, as the " wite " was the penalty paid to 
the State. 

7 * 



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district). 1 And we command that no man whether English 
or foreigner despoil Ceoluht of it in any matters during his 
life, because he has deserved it from the lords of the Mercians 
b}' true humility. 

" And now we command in the name of God Almighty that 
the above-mentioned freedom of the Minster at Berkeley, and 
also the grant of the land which we make to Cynulf for three 
lives, remain uninjured for ever, on this condition that after 
Cynulf's (time and that of) his two heirs that twelve hide land 
at Stoke be given without any contradiction to the Bishopstool 
at Worcester in perpetual alms for the good of Ealdorman 
iEthelred and of all the Mercians. Also we pray and intreat 
in the Name of the Holy Trinity that if any man there be who 
with evil will wills to break aught that is written in this char- 
ter, let him know that he does it against the favour of God 
and of all His Saints, and also of all those men both lay and 
spiritual who can think anything right or desire it. And 
let him make amends before the throne of the eternal Judge 
unless he is willing to make amends before with fair 
compensation to God and man. 

" Donein the year 883 ; witnessed by King yElfred; /Ethelred, 
Ealdorman of the Mercians ; Wilfred, Bishop of Lichfield ; 
Werferth, Bishop of Worcester ; Deorlaf, Bishop of Hereford; 
/Ethelhun, Abbot of Berkeley ; two ' Duces,' and nine others." 
The land-boundaries are given in volume xviii., pp. 301-2, of 
our Transactions. 

Authorities : — 

M.S.Cotton, Tiberius A. xiii.,f. 50. Kemble, Cod. Dipl. cccxiii. 

Heming, Cartulary, i., p. 129. Boundaries in vol. iii., p. 401. 

Thorpe, Diplomatarium, p. 129. Cartularium Saxonicum, 551. 

1 " & angilde wi$ othrum & noht ut to wite." Here a difference is 
made between angild and wite. The King could not remit either the 
penalty due to the injured person or that due to the State. The last five 
words are very difficult, and Thorpe does not explain them ; they may mean 
that a Berkeley man might not be sued for wite except in Berkeley, just as 
in later times no burgess of Bristol should plead or be impleaded out of the 
walls of the town on any plea, except pleas relating to foreign tenures 
which did not belong to the Hundred of the Town. 



THE DOMESTIC LIFE OF BERKELEY CASTLE 



Illustrated from the Berkeley MSS. 
By the Rev. THOMAS VEAL, Curate of Berkeley. 
Read at the Town Hall, Berkeley, August 13th, 1895. 

Throughout that period of English history which extends 
from Magna Charta to the Wars of the Roses, the Barons of 
England were the strongest power in the State ; and they 
may be said to have formed also the most prominent element 
in the social life of England. The monarch, after the sur- 
render made by King John at Runnymede, was, in an impor- 
tant sense, subject to the Barons. John and his successors 
struggled to free themselves from what he felt to be a yoke 
of bondage, and the stronger of them, like Edward I. and III., 
achieved a considerable measure of success; others of weaker 
calibre, like Edward II., were worsted in the conflict, and 
even lost their own lives in the attempt to curb their turbu- 
lent and powerful " subjects." The Commons — the trading 
classes of the towns and the smaller gentry, franklins and 
free tenants on the estates of the lords — were as yet not 
sufficiently strong to stand by themselves ; they had not 
indeed any desire to take part in the public affairs of the 
country, but looked up to the Barons as their natural leaders 
and reposed in them " an unwavering trust." 1 In the wars 
which arose out of the rival claims of the Houses of York and 
Lancaster to the Crown, the nobles, however, dashed them- 
selves one against another, shattered their own power, and 
thus enabled Edward IV. to lay the foundation of the " New 
Monarchy," which, under the Tudors, assumed a character 
of absolutism such as England had scarce ever known before. 

Berkeley has the almost unique distinction of possessing, 
what may be called, a living connecting link with those 
1 Green, Short Hist., p. 196. 



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times, in its Castle, retaining to-day, in all its main features 
the aspect it wore when the Barons virtually ruled this realm 
of England. And, moreover, in the Berkeley MSS. — compiled 
by Smyth with all the enthusiasm of a born antiquary, and 
with a keen, shrewd eye for what was of permanent and 
general interest in the collection of documents stored up in 
the Castle, to which he had access — we have a kind of 
literary telescope whereby we can look across the long 
interval which separates those far-off ages from our own, and 
see a good deal at least of the busy life which spent itself 
within the Castle walls, or found there its focus. The remark 
of Nieburh that it would be a great thing if the ancient 
Romans could be made to stand up living and moving before 
the eyes of the men of the present day, may be said to be 
realised in Smyth's treatment of the Lords of Berkeley and 
their affairs. 

The Lords of Berkeley exercised a quasi-regal authority 
over the large district extending from the Cotswolds to the 
Severn, of which Berkeley Castle was the centre ; and they 
had out-lying possessions at Bristol, in Somerset, across the 
Severn, and in other parts of the country. They were liable 
to be summoned at any time to attend the King in his wars 
with the due number of men-at-arms properly equipped. 
They depended for their own security and consideration upon 
the power they were able to muster in self-defence, or to 
hold in subjection the occupants of their manors ; hence the 
household at the Castle in those times was naturally a large 
one. 1 

" The household and standinge domesticall family of this 
Lord (Thomas II.,) lodged in house, consisted of 200 persons 
and upwards, ranked into their degrees of servants, knights, 
esquires, yeomen, groomes, and pages ; besides husbandmen, 
hindes and such other of lower condition." (1281-1321.) 

Even this large number, however, was surpassed in the 
time of this Lord's grandson (Thomas III.) under whom the 
murder of King Edward II. took place, and whose effigy is 
1 C.f. Shakespeare, Richard II., Act 11., sc. 3. 



The Domestic Life at Berkeley Castle. 87 

to be seen in the nave of Berkeley Church. " I am confi- 
dent," says Smyth, "that the mouthes of his standing house, 
each day fed, were 300 at least." This Lord went over to 
take part in the siege of Calais, when his retinue consisted 
of one banneret, six knights, thirty archers on horseback, and 
200 archers on foot. 1 (1326-1361.) 

In Lord Henry I.'s time there were seldom or never less 
than 150 servants. And later, under the same Lord, when 
the family possessions had been seriously curtailed so that in 
consequence the household servants had been "pared down" 
more than once, and all " unusefull drones " weeded out, the 
household consisted of threescore and ten persons of all 
sorts. 2 (1534-1613.) 

Let us now try and take a rapid glance at the inmates of 
the Castle. There were : 

(1) The Lord and Lady and their family. The Lord was 
the moving and controlling force of the whole large body 
sheltered within the Castle walls. Over them he possessed 
something akin to regal power, exercising not only the func- 
tions of master, but of magistrate and military captain. He 
directed the duties and movements of his retainers, held 
judicial enquiries, and punished evil-doers, even inflicting the 
capital penalty. His state and consequence were commen- 
surate with the position he held. Arrayed in robes of scarlet, 
adorned with fur, he took his place among his dependents on 
important occasions ; or clad in armour, he rode forth at 
their head when summoned to attend upon the King in 
battle ; or to the numerous hunting expeditions and tourna- 
ments in which the Lords of Berkeley have always delighted. 
The Lady, doubtless in dress and bearing, maintained a 
position suited to her rank, and received the deference which 
it was the design of the institutions of chivalry to inculcate 
and secure. Nevertheless, she was not above paying atten- 
tion to the every-day affairs of the inmates of the Castle and 
the tenantry. Amongst them, Joan, wife of Lord Thomas II., 
was pre-eminent. She was endowed with a strong character, 
1 Lives of the Berkeleys, ii,, p. 284. 2 Ibid., p. 364. 



88 • Transactions for the Year 1894-95. 

and at any time would have been a notable person. She is 
described as "a vertuous lady and great huswife, and a wise 
overseer of such household affairs as were proper to her sex 
and government." She was a thoroughly practical woman 
of business and an admirable manager during her husband's 
long absences from home. As soon as he was gone, she set 
herself to superintend her household, and the management 
and accounts of the farms. She spent day after day in riding- 
from one to another, especially devoting herself to the 
arrangement of the dairy, making enquiries as to the quantity 
of milk given by each cow, proper allowance being made for 
the time of year and the land on which it was kept. Her 
visits were no short passing calls, for she often stayed many 
hours and had a meal at the farm-house of the value of 3d. or 
4d., which was allowed to the tenant at rent-time; and some- 
times her attendants ate up a whole cheese of 2 lbs. weight, 
which was also charged for. She was in all things trusted 
by her husband, made her own contracts, and sealed with 
her own seal as if she had been a femme sole. When this lady 
was old, "weake and sickley," and could no longer lead the 
active life to which she had been accustomed, to amuse her- 
self and give her body the much-needed exercise, she had 
many billets of wood carried into her chamber, and there cut 
them into sticks for the use of the household. She was very 
particular about the saws for the work, which are charged in 
the accounts at 2d. a piece. It seems strange to find that 
this stirring, active woman was never known to travel more 
than ten miles beyond her husband's mansion. She died 
March xix., 1309, and was buried in St. Augustine's, Bristol. 

One at least of the Ladies Berkeley was distinguished by 
her skill with her needle, for " in the year of her husband 
(Maurice IV's.) sickness, shee made a newe gowne for herselfe 
of cloth, furred throughout with cony skins out of the kit- 
chen." 1 [Lady Elizabeth, wife of Maurice IV., died a.d. 1389.] 

Of another, however, we are told that she was " mild and 
devout," but " nothing active in her family." [Lady Margaret, 
1 Lives, i., p. 374. 



The Domestic Life at Berkeley Castle. 89 

wife of Thomas IV., died 15th year of King Richard IL, 
1391-2.] 

But of yet another, — " country huswifery seemed to be an 
essentiall part of this ladies constitution." [Lady Anne, wife 
of Thomas VI., died a.d. 1564.] 

The sons of the family seem to have been usually trained 
up at home ; and in their education, physical exercises, 
adapted to give skill, self-command, and courage in battle 
and tournament, constituted a large part. Such exercises as 
"the Pel — a post or stump of a tree, about 6ft. in height, 
which the youth — armed at all points — attacked vigorously, 
and while he struck or thrust at the various parts which were 
marked to represent the head, breast, shoulders, and legs of 
an antagonist, he was taught to cover himself carefully with 
his shield in the act of rising to the blow. Or the Quintain — 
where the attack was made on horseback. A pole or spear 
was set upright in the ground with a shield strongly bound to 
it, and against this the youth tilted with his lance in full 
career, endeavouring to burst the ligatures of the shield, and 
bear it to the earth. A steady aim and a fair seat were 
acquired from this exercise, a severe fall being often the con- 
sequence of failure in the attempt to strike down the shield. 
Sometimes, too, the young squires and pages were taught to 
career against each other with staves or canes ; and some- 
times a whole party exhibited on horseback the various 
evolutions of a battle, but without the blows or bloodshed of 
a tournament." 1 

But they were also trained to be good husbandmen. The 
Lords of Berkeley always attached great importance to this 
branch of industry; and to teach his sons order and frugality, 
Lord Thomas II. expressly instructed the reeves at his 
several manors that they were to " receive noe guests without 
his expresse letters." 2 

As to the other inhabitants of the Castle : — 

(2) Of Knights there were usually twelve, " often more." 
They had their liveries, — cloth of ray, scarlet, and furred* 
1 Pict. History of England, p. 649. 2 Lives, i., p. 168. 



9° 



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Each had daily wages allowed him, his " dyet," two servants 
and a page, and " allowances for the like number of horses." 

(3) Of Esquires there were twenty-four, "often more," 
whose age would range from 14 to 21 years. They also had 
their daily wages and food, with one man and a page, and 
allowance for their horses. 

(4) In addition to the above were the pages and under - 
servants, who also had their liveries furred with "cony skins, 
lamb-skin, and budge, each a degree under other." 

The interesting question suggests itself, how this large 
number of persons found accommodation within the Castle 
walls, as Smyth expressly says they did. This subject brings 
before us an aspect of ancient life, in regard to which the 
usages of our forefathers differed widely from ours. In the 
matter of sleeping room they were not exacting. The men- 
at-arms found shelter beneath a wooden shed which sur- 
rounded the courtyard of the Castle. It was only, indeed, at 
a comparatively late period that separate sleeping apartments 
came to be regarded as necessary or desirable. 

Doubtless the general characteristics of dwelling-houses 
in England in the ages following the Norman Conquest were 
reproduced in their main particulars here. 

" The great hall, the main feature of these buildings, 
served not only as a general living and eating room, but as a 
sleeping apartment for servants and guests ; while leading 
from the upper end of this, and built generally over the cellar, 
a room called the 'solere' chamber or ' solarium' afforded 
some degree of privacy for the heads of the household. These 
two rooms, when Necham wrote, constituted the whole avail- 
able accommodation ; and according to the Exchequer 
accounts of the time of Henry II., even the Royal Manors at 
Clarendon, Kensington, Woodstock, Portsmouth, and South- 
ampton were no better provided." 1 

This arrangement is exemplified, it will be noted, in 
Berkeley Castle, where the private rooms lead from the fur- 
ther end of the hall. The kitchen also at Berkeley Castle 
1 Quarterly Review, Jan. 1894, P- 9 8 - 



The Domestic Life at Berkeley Castle. 91 

occupies the usual position behind the screen, which crossed 
the lower end of the great hall and supported the minstrels' 
gallery. 

" As habits became less primitive, however, and a desire 
for privacy increased, additional rooms were added. The 
' solere ' chamber was supplemented by the ' withdrawing 
room ' and the ladies' ' bower,' and by the middle of the 
15th century an inclination was plainly showing itself among 
the higher classes to abandon the feudal custom of feasting 
in the hall with their retainers." 

Manners and customs that at one time marked the higher 
classes are apt to linger, especially in out-of-the-way places, 
long after they have been abandoned by those who originally 
used them, and these survivals are often important aids 
towards reconstructing a mental picture of bygone states of 
society. 

Canon Atkinson, in his delightful book, Forty Years of a 
Moorland Parish, tells us that when he first settled in the 
Cleveland district of Yorkshire, some fifty years ago, he found 
that in the farm-houses, whether occupied by tenant farmers 
or yeomen, "the master and his wife, their children whether 
under age or adult, and the servants male and female (the 
large proportion of them engaged in farm work), all lived 
together. They all sat down to the same table and partook 
of the same dish. Moreover, as to sleeping apartments — in 
these farm-houses there was but one long, low room parti- 
tioned into four compartments nearly equal in size ; partitions 
in construction and character merely, such as are found 
between the stalls in a stable, and barely 6^ ft. high, in 
which the whole household — master, mistress, children, 
servants of both sexes, found accommodation at night." 
Probably in this free mingling of various classes, and in the 
want of any sense or desire of privacy, we have an exemplifi- 
cation of the state of things in the great feudal establishments 
during the earlier history of feudalism in this country. The 
bulk of the inmates of the Castle doubtless slept hard, on 
benches with perhaps a bag of straw for a bed. Those of 



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Transactions for the Year 1894-95. 



higher rank, indeed, were more luxuriously provided for, and 
we read of quilts of feathers, cushions or pillows, sheets of 
linen, coverlets of cloth made of the hair of the badger, cat, 
beaver, or sable, as in use in early times. Still, there could 
not have been any strong temptation for the majority to act 
the part of the sluggard after day had dawned ; just as the 
absence of any very efficient means of artificial illumination 
must have implied the want of any inducement, as a rule, to 
sit up late at night. 

Hence the occupations of the day began early. Francis 
I; of France rose at five, dined at nine, supped at five, and 
was in bed again soon after eight. Under Henry IV., the 
Court dined at eleven. Under Henry VIII. of England, the 
Court dinner was served at ten, and supper at four ; and the 
custom seems to have been old, for Froissart mentions calling 
on the Duke of Lancaster at five in the afternoon, " after he 
had supped." These hours probably give a generally correct 
idea of how our feudal ancestors allotted their days. 

The Berkeley MSS. give abundant information as to the 
fare of those times. 

Provisions were brought to the Castle from the reeves or 
bailiffs of the demesne lands of the various manors belonging 
to the Lord, and the vast quantities thus delivered, and care- 
fully enumerated in the accounts of the time, seem to have 
filled Smyth with amazement, and he laboured so hard at 
these accounts to make sure that his calculations were correct 
that he tells us "wherein to the akeing of mine eyes I con- 
tinued sixteene houres obstinate." The result seemed so 
incredible after all that he had recourse to " and old profane 
tale" which he says "eased mee." The tale is to the effect 
that an old priest in the end of the reign of King Henry VIII. 
was reading in the Gospel for the Day the miracle of the 
feeding of the 5000, but inadvertently read 500 instead. The 
clerk observing the error, privately told him that his book 
had 5000. " I know well enough," said the priest, " but my 
parishioners will scarcely believe me, though I say but 500." 
" In like sort," continues Smyth, " my readers like those 



The Domestic Life at Berkeley Castle. 93 

parishioners or priest would returne on mee, if I prevent 
them not in myself ; but less labour it is to believe me in this 
than to re-examine my calculation." 

"I verily think," he continues, "that noe two of the 
greatest houskeepers in this kingdom, amongst the nobility 
at this day, spend so much in grosse provisions of beoffe, 
mutton, swines flesh, bread, beere, poultry, pigeons, and 
eggs, as this Lord (Thomas III.) in his standinge house 
usually did." This passage will serve to show the nature of 
the food which the denizens of Berkeley Castle in those days 
ate, as well as to illustrate the healthy vigour of their diges- 
tive organs. 

The numbers of sheep reared were very great, and the 
adaptation of the Cotswold Hills for them was fully recog- 
nised. At Beverston, in the 7th year of King Edward III., 
the Lord of that day sheared 5775 sheep, "which were going 
in those manors thereto adjoining." 

Goats, too, were extensively reared. Herds of these 
animals were kept across the Severn and adjoining the Forest 
of Deane, and in the Chase of Micklewood, in Alkington, 
with an officer to superintend them, called the " master 
goat-herd." From these herds 300 kids in each year came, 
when least, to the larder. An enormous number of pigeons, 
too, were kept at each manor house. From Hame alone there 
came 2151 young pigeons. In Lord Thomas II. 's time, two 
manors alone supplied 18,000 eggs, 1000 pigeons, 288 ducks, 
1000 fowls, 300 pigs, 315 quarters of wheat, and 304 quarters 
of oats. 

We also hear of geese, ducks, peacocks, hens, capons, and 
chickens in great proportions; of many thousands of eggs 
yearly from one place ; "great store of hony and wax and 
small nutts" (whereof from the copyholders of Ham he had 
15 bushels each year). Of great proportions of " wheat, rye, 
barley, oates, pease, beanes, and ffetches ; " of apples and 
psars, whereof "great quantities of cider and perry were 
yearly made." 

It appears that the household drank perry, which was 



94 Transactions por the Year 1894-95. 

made at the orchards of Slimbridge and Hurst ; and fourscore 
quarters of apples and pears were gathered in one year. 

The accounts which were kept at the farms in Lord 
Thomas II. 's time are surprising, when we consider the low 
state of education at the time. Every item was entered of 
things used or sold during the year ; how many animals were 
born, died, or were given away, and an exact balance struck 
with what remained at the end of the year. From these 
records we learn the exact value of farm stock in those early 
days. We find that wheat was 2s. to 5s. per qr., an ox was 
worth 10s. to 12s., a fat porker 2s., a lamb iod., a goose 3d., 4 
pigeons id., and 20 eggs id. And the wages were small in 
proportion ; even an esquire had only 3d. a day, diet in the 
house, a horse kept for him and a boy to attend on it, and 
two suits of clothes trimmed with fur. For greater economy 
all these clothes were made at home, and the materials 
supplied from the flocks. 

In only one item does anything like extravagance appear 
in this Lord's time, and that is in the prices given by Lord 
Berkeley for his horses. But then, as now, there was no 
better judge of a horse than the Baron of Berkeley; and you 
may be sure, whether in war, or at the chase, or in the 
tournament, there was no man better mounted than he, for 
he gave £100, 100 marks, £50, down to £5 for steeds which 
were to carry him and his retainers in peace or war. His 
sons do not seem to have had the pick of his stable, for the 
horse which Sir Thomas, his son, rode in a Scottish cam- 
paign, and which was killed under him, was paid for by the 
King at the estimated value of 8 marks ; but it is described 
as a "dun curtail horse with white head and a black mane," 
and such a peculiar-looking beast was not likely to command 
a high price. 

Mention is made of a vineyard at Berkeley in the 41st 
year of King Edward III.— one of the not unnumerous indi- 
cations of the somewhat extensive cultivation of the vine in 
England in former days, until doubtless the progress of 
commerce made the procuring of the superior wines of France 



The Domestic Life at Berkeley Castle. 95 

&c, relatively easy and cheap. The Lords of Berkeley were 
not, indeed, dependent upon their home-grown vines for 
wine. In May, of the 18th year of King Edward II. the 
King gave to Lord Maurice III., for his good service, two 
hogsheads of wine "yearly for his life out of the port of 
Bristoll, and a warrant to his officers there to deliver them 
accordingly." Maurice IV. had a ship of his own for the 
bringing, amongst other things, of "forren wines and wares 
needfull for his use." 

In regard to these expeditions for the supply of wine, a 
singular incident is recorded, very characteristic of the times. 
King Edward IV. writes to Lord Thomas IV. to complain 
that "divers of this Lord's men and servants in a shipp of 
his sailing towards Burdeaux " had violently set upon one of 
the carraks of some Genoese merchants licensed by the King 
to bring their wares into England. The merchants' carrak, 
called the St. Mary and St. Bridget, was laden with wines 
and other merchandise, and was sailing towards London. 
Lord Berkeley's men carried the ship into Milford Haven, 
and took away the wines and other merchandise. The King 
required the Lord to cause restitution to be made, or "him- 
self to come and answer the same before his Privy Counsell 
forthwith." It was an easier thing for kings even to give 
orders than to achieve their due execution, and Smyth says 
that the sequel to these high-handed proceedings was that 
the servants of this Lord, " S r - John Greyndore and others of 
Bristol did the wrong, made restitution for part, but went 
away with a great part of the rest of Jenoa goods ! " 

This incident serves to show how largely the accepted 
principle for the guidance of conduct in those times was : 

" The good old rule, the simple plan, 
That he may take who has the power, 
And he may keep who can." 

Another illustration of the same temper of mind I may 
perhaps bring forward, by the way, for the edification of these 
democratic days. When Lord Maurice II. determined to 
form the present Whitecliffe Park, he found himself much 



96 Transactions for the Year 1894-95. 

hampered in arranging with the tenants and freeholders 
whose lands he wished to enclose in the park, and who were 
not amiable enough to accept the terms he offered. "After 
some labour spent," says Smyth, "he remembered (as it 
seemeth) the adage : ' multa non laudantuv nisi prius peracta : ' 

* many actions are not praiseworthy till they bee done ' ; he 
therefore on a sodaine resolutely enclosed soe much of each 
man's land unto his said wood as he desired; maketh it a 
park, placeth keepers, and storeth it with Deere. . . They 
seeing what was done, and this Lord offeringe compositions 
and exchanges as before, most of them soon agreed, when 
there was noe remedy ; and hee soon after had theire grants 
and releases of land and comon as hee at first desired ; 

* unguentum pungit, pungentem vusticus ungit : ' 'it is not for a 
Lord too long to make curtesey to the clowted shoo.' Those 
fewe that remained obstinate, fell after upon his sonne with 
suites, to theire small comfort and less gaines." 1 Smyth sums 
up this Lord's character thus : " hee was a Lord that would 
make way for his will, which was often the rule by which he 
walked ; breake hee might, bend hee would not." 2 

Amidst the agricultural occupations of wider range which 
were pursued on the Berkeley estates, the humbler one of 
gardening was not neglected. 3 The accounts record the 
profits of the Castle Gardens at Berkeley in the reign of King 
Edward III. Though I have not been able to find any 
information as to what was grown there, except apples and 
pears and " hearbes." " Stockes or fruit trees " were yearly 
planted or grafted. What was not required for the use of 
the Castle was to be sold at the best market. Nothing was 
too small to escape notice. Money was made of the herbs in 
the garden, the stubble from the corn lands, the crop and 
sets of witheys, and the offal of old hedges, besides nuts and 
honey; and even when Lord Thomas II. was in London 
attending to his Parliamentary duties, he kept two men and 
four horses constantly employed, fetching bread from Wen- 
den, one of his Essex farms where much corn was grown. 
1 P- J 40. 2 i., p. 151. a ] ( p> 365> 



The Domestic Life at Berkeley Castle. 97 

Berkeley Castle gathered to itself the harvest of the 
waters as well as of the land. We read of fishing wears at 
Arlingham, which King John took away from the Lord of 
that time, who had taken part with the Barons of Magna 
Charta against the King. Leases were granted of rocks or 
fishings in the Severn by Lord Maurice II., who reserved to 
himself, as his rent, all the fish that should be taken therein 
•on Fridays (1243-1248). 

A special officer called " Piscator de Berkeley " had charge 
of the fisheries at Arlingham, where Lord Thomas II. usually 
spent his Lents, because of "the better and neerer provision 
of fish." Moreover, we are told that of ancient custom the 
Constable of Berkeley Castle was, upon the first Sunday in 
Lent, allowed a salmon for his dinner. 

On the whole, therefore, the inmates of the Castle must 
have fared sumptuously, and one can very well admit that 
Smyth has good grounds for the remark he makes in one 
place, that "no moneys were paid so cheerfully as to the 
steward of the kitchen." 

This profusion probably contrasted in marked manner 
with the scanty fare of the* peasantry around, especially of 
the free labourers and smaller tenants. "I have no penny," 
says Piers the Ploughman, referring to the long interval 
from harvest-tide to harvest-tide, "pullets for to buy, nor 
neither geese, nor pigs ; but two green cheeses, a few 
curds and cream, and an oaten cake, and two loaves of 
beans and bran baken for my children. I have no salt 
bacon nor no cooked meat collops for to make, but I have 
parsley and leeks and many cabbage plants, and eke a 
cow and a calf, and a cart-mare to draw afield my dung 
while the drought lasteth, and by this livelihood we must all 
Jive till Lammas-tide, and by that I hope to have harvest in 
my croft." 1 

From old books of cookery and the illustrations of MSS. 
we can form a pretty correct idea of what the feasts in the 
Hall of Berkeley Castle were like, especially on important 

1 Green's Short Hist., p. 250. 
8 

Vol. XIX 



9 8 



Transactions for the Year 1894-95. 



occasions as when the King paid a visit here, as he some- 
times did. Henry III. was here twice. 

The fire was in the middle of the room, the smoke finding- 
egress through louvres still to be seen in the roof, an arrange- 
ment which, in many houses, continued in use after the fire 
in the middle had been supplemented by open chimneys at 
the sides. 

The high table stood on a raised dais, on the further side 
of which, overlooking the company, sat the Lord and Lady 
with their most honourable guests. Long tables, at right 
angles to this, ran down the room, at which sat the retainers, 
the Lord and Lady thus literally eating in the presence of 
his household. " Everything pertaining to the service of this 
table was conducted with a ritual of almost ecclesiastical 
exactness. The duties of carver, server, and cup-bearer were 
held to be very honourable ones, and could be discharged by 
men of high rank ; and in great establishments, the butler 
who presided over the buttery, the pantler who presided 
over the bread-closet, the porter, and the officers of all the 
several household departments had each his own contingent 
of grooms and yeomen." 1 

The laying of the table, though in an empty hall, was 
conducted with reverential observance ; special ceremonies 
attended the placing of the bread and salt by the pantler in 
front of the seat of honour. The salt occupied a place at the 
lower edge of the high table, and "below" this were the seats 
of those of inferior rank. 

It would be tedious to recount all the functions performed 
by the various attendants, whose bows and genuflections 
must have resembled a solemn dance. The entry of the 
guests, their washing before taking their seats at the "ewrie" 
by the side of the room ; the tasting of every dish and every 
drink by the proper official, to ensure their not having been 
poisoned; the singing by the ministers of the Church of some 
" proper or godly carroll " as grace; the carving of each 
several dish according to the most minute and precise rules ; 
1 Quarterly Review, Jan., 1894, P- 85. 



The Domestic Life at Berkeley Castle. 99 

and the handing of the " great covered cup" to the Lord by 
the cup-bearer. The company ate off trenchers, sometimes 
off pieces of bread cut from loaves called "trencher-loaves." 
Each person was provided with a napkin and a spoon. He 
used the knife which he was accustomed to wear. Forks had 
not yet come into use: that fingers preceded them is a well- 
authenticated historical fact. They were not generally used 
till the 17th century, though gold and silver ones were 
occasionally kept for special purposes ; yet to employ them 
was generally regarded as effeminate. 

Dogs and cats were allowed to pick up bones and portions 
of food which the company threw to them among the rushes 
which covered the floor, in place of a carpet. In the middle 
of the table might be placed some marvellous product of the 
cook's ingenuity, such as a swan, peacock, or pheasant 
dressed with their feathers, their beaks and feet gilt. Lord 
Henry I., in the second year of Queen Elizabeth, kep his 
Christmas at Yate, with great pomp and solemnity, as "the 
extraordinary guilded dishes, the vanities of cookes' arts 
. . well declare : whereof one was a whole bore inclosed in a 
pale workmanly guilt, by a cook hired from Bristol." 1 Of the 
same Lord — whose career belongs to the period 1534- 
161 3 — we are told that such was his "humanity," that in 
"times of Christmas and other times, when his neighbour 
townships were invited and feasted in his hall, hee would in 
the midst of his dinner rise from his own, and going to each 
of their tables in his hall, cheerfully bid them welcome ; and 
his further order was having guests of honor of remarkable 
ranke that filled his own table, to seat himself at the lower 
end ; and when such guests filled but half his bord, and a 
meaner degree the rest of his table, then to seat himself the 
last of the first rank, and the first of the latter, which com- 
monly was about the midst of the long table neare the salt." 
When Lord Thomas II. and Lady Berkeley were at home, 
they seem to have entertained their friends and neighbours 
with princely hospitality ; and many were the long pro- 

1 ii., p. 287. 
8 * 



IOO 



Transactions for the Year 1894-95. 



cessions of guests who rode under the old gateway at Berkeley 
Castle, and their other mansions; and the Abbot and Convent 
of Augustine's, Bristol, the Abbot and Convent of St. Mary's, 
Kingswood, and many others were feasted with all manner of 
good things, and with plenty of fish (for those who might not 
eat flesh meat) brought from the celebrated weirs of Rodly, 
Giron and Puthouse; and we are told how the poor monks, 
who had nothing else to give, freely gave their prayers and 
blessings upon Lord Berkeley and all his family. But his 
hospitalities were not confined to great entertainments in the 
Castle Hall, for when the Lords of Sudely, d'Anteney, the 
Abbots of Cirencester, Llanthony, or Flaxly, and any others 
should be passing through his manors, " the farm-houses 
were their homes and the graneries their hostelries." Long 
lists appear in the household accounts of the pigs, geese, 
capons, and pigeons, wheat and oats which were used in 
entertaining strangers, whether the Lord was at home or not. 
The poor who lived on his manors were the constant 
recipients of his kindness and care; and in years of scarcity 
he lent them wheat and oats out of his own granaries, to be 
repaid in kind after harvest, when the price was less than 
half. 

A harper who repeated stories and poems, accompanying 
them with his instrument, was a common musical attendant 
at dinners, and minstrels and mountebanks had free access 
to the hall to amuse the guests. At the marriage feast of 
Lord Thomas IV., the minstrels were paid 40s. These feasts 
often lasted a very long time. When the Florentine Poggio 
Bracciolini visited England in 1420, we are told he found 
himself in company with wealthy uncultured nobles, who 
spent chief part of their life in eating and drinking, and 
during these dinners, which sometimes lasted four hours, he was 
obliged to rise from time to time and bathe his eyes with 
cold water to keep himself awake. 1 

Roast joints did not play so important a part in these old 
banquets as is often supposed. Indeed the touching faith 
1 Villari's Life of Machiavelli, i., p. 89. 



The Domestic Life at Berkeley Castle. ioi 

which the average Englishman places in his roast beef as the 
historic dish of his country is, after all, like some other 
popular beliefs, groundless. It is nothing, indeed, but a 
modern superstition. The absence of forks made the eating 
of meat from joints very inconvenient ; it has been thought 
that such did not become common till towards the end of 
Queen Elizabeth's reign. As a matter of fact, the "greater 
number of mediaeval cookery recipes are for stews and purees 
of minced and pounded meats, variously combined with flour, 
rice, eggs, dried fruits, wine, and other ingredients." " Hew 
horn (them) smalle and grind horn well," is the oft-repeated 
injunction of these books on the cook's art. 

Doubtless there was not much refinement about these 
old banquets, but anyone who remembers Thackeray's 
description of a dinner party in the reign of Queen Anne, 
given in his lecture on Steele, will see that it was a very long 
time before the tastes and manners of people improved very 
much. 

I might go on to gather up the various particulars con- 
tained in the Lives of the Berkeleys on a number of other 
matters more or less connected with the domestic life of the 
Castle. I can do no more now though than give a hasty 
summary of some of these. 

The education of the younger members of the family, 
and their marriages : — After hearing so much as we have 
heard of late years about the evils of early marriages in India, 
it is somewhat startling to find that these old nobles esteemed 
it a prudent and just thing to get their sons and daughters 
married at the age of seven or eight years. 

Their amusements — as tournaments, which were not always 
the peaceful and harmless exercises that poetic imagination 
has represented them : 

" Where throngs of knights and barons bold, 
In weeds of peace high triumphs hold ; 
With stores of ladies, whose bright eyes 
Rain influence and judge the prize." 

For in the year 1279, Lord Roger de Mortimer went from 



102 



Transactions for the Year 1894-95. 



London to Kenilworth, in Warwickshire, with a hundred 
knights "well armed, and with as many ladies going before 
them singing songs of mirth and joyfullness, where for three 
whole days they held spear plays, justs, and turniaments in 
their arms ... in such an outrageous manner and with 
such slaughter of noble gentlemen and others, that their 
turniaments were by divers decrees of ye Church forbidden, 
upon payne that whosoever therein were slayne, should want 
Christian buriall in Church or churchyard." 

Amongst those who lost their lives on this notable occa- 
sion was Maurice, eldest son of Lord Maurice II. and elder 
brother of Lord Thomas II. 

Hunting, as might be expected, held a prominent 
place in the amusements of the Lords of Berkeley, 
wherein they were not always careful to keep within the 
limits of the game laws then existing, for we find, for 
example, Lord Thomas I. presented before the King's 
Justices in Eire for having killed a stag in the Forest of 
Deane, and amerced, though for the offence he obtained the 
King's pardon. 

Falcons and hawks, who played havoc with the poultry 
on the neighbouring farms, furnished another kind of 
amusement. 

A feature of the domestic life of the Castle, that appears 
singular to us, is the presence of felons as prisoners, who 
sometimes were hanged there, and sometimes contrived to 
make their escape, when the Lord was called upon to account 
for their disappearance to the King. 

Excitement of another kind was provided when a neigh- 
bouring Lord took upon him to attack the Castle, as 
happened in the time of Lord James I. Lord Lisle having 
first of all hired one of the Lord Berkeley's servants, by name 
Rice Tewe, came to the Castle early in the morning, when 
Rice Tewe let him in, "with great numbers of people warlike 
arrayed, and these took the said Lord James and his fower 
sons in their beds, and kept them in prison in great dures by 
the space of eleven weeks : they all that time knowing no 



The Domestic Life at Berkeley Castle. 103 



surety nor certainty of their lives, but ever awaiting the hour 
of their creuell death." 

The Castle Chapel is an important element in the life of 
the place, wherein at one time John of Trevisa, one of the 
earlier luminaries amongst English writers, translator of 
Ralph Higden's Poly chronic on, was chaplain. The services 
there were evidently carefully performed with the elaborate 
ritual which characterised the mediaeval Church. Lord 
Thomas IV. gave to the Chapel within Berkeley Castle one 
pair of "satten vestments, one missale, two chalices, and one 
pair of cruets." But what shall we say to this? Lord 
James I., successor of the preceding, having borrowed 22 
markes of a certain Mr. Nicholas Pointz — " for assurance 
whereof he pawned to him one guilt massebook, a chalice of 
silver weighing 18 ounces, a chesipull with stolys and fanons 
of red sattin, 3 aubes, 3 amices, one white autercloth with 
crosses of black silk therein, with one valence fringed sewed 
thereto, a red cloth of gold, one cloth of red palle to hang 
afore an aulter of the same, another cloth of the same for 
a reredote, and 2 ridles of red tartryn." 

This took place during the keenly-contested lawsuits in the 
15th century, and was occasioned by a letter from Lady 
Berkeley, who had been in London defending her Lord's 
interest, and who wrote to say that her circumstances were 
so distressful that unless he sent her money she must " sell 
her horse and come home on her feet." 

To provide her with the means necessary to her comfort- 
able return, the Lord took the curious measures just related. 
And upon this transaction Smyth makes an equally curious 
comment: "Hereby this family seeth the true fidelity of 
mariage in a just husband to a correspondent wife, who would 
rather seem to disfurnish God of the ornaments of His wor- 
ship, than leave her necessitous estate unsupplyed." 

These details, culled almost at random from the pages of 
Smyth's volumes, will serve to show what important side- 
bights those books throw upon the life of the middle ages, 
loth within and without the Castle walls, — a life so like and 



104 Transactions for the Year 1894-95. 

yet so unlike to our own, — and may perchance suggest to- 
some how much that is interesting and instructive may be 
derived from a personal study of them, for, as the late Mr. 
Freeman says, " After all, human life is not essentially 
changed by railways, or excise, or newspapers, or even by 
the property tax. . . Natural selection and the survival 
of the fittest have not done away with sin and sorrow, and 
whatever evolution may have done in the producing of new 
types, these new types have not swept away the old. 
And as there is no history in which we do not find a sym- 
pathy, there is none in which we do not find a lesson." 



TWO BRISTOL CALENDARS. 



Communicated by Alfred E. Hudd, F.S.A. 

An ancient manuscript, endorsed on the last folio, "A 
Catalogue of the Maiors, Prepositors, BaylifTs, & Sheriffs of 
the City of Bristoll, with some remarkable occurrences there, 
from the first yeare of K. Henry the 3 d - 12 16, to the 5 th 
yeare of K. James, 1608," is in the Bristol Museum, where 
it has been preserved since the early part of the present 
century. It is written upon 18 strips of vellum, 8£ inches 
wide, and of an average length of about 31 inches. 

The whole appears to be the work of a single scribe, who 
has not only adopted the curious orthography of the original,, 
but has apparently closely imitated the old handwriting, which 
is throughout much more like 15th than 17th century script. 
The manuscript is in excellent condition, with the exception 
of a few lines of writing which have faded to a pale brown 
colour, apparently from exposure to the light. 

In the introduction to his Memoirs of Bristol, the Rev- 
Samuel Seyer says : " It is well known that there is in 
Bristol a number of Manuscript Calendars or Chronicles,, 
containing a list of the Magistrates of each year, and an 
account of such events as happened under each. * * * 
Most of these, but not all, were written within the last 200 
years, but they are evidently derived from more ancient 
copies, transcribed by various hands, having generally a great 
similarity, but many particular differences. The originals of 
them were probably the Registers kept by the Religious in 
their Convents, particularly that kept by the Kalendaries of 
Christ Church ; and they have been enlarged, contracted and 
altered according to the fancy of each copyist. * * * Several 
of the older are written on narrow rolls of vellum ; one of 
them is in the City Library. * * * Probably 40 or 50 still 
remain, chiefly in families of long continuance in Bristol, of 
of which about 20 have passed under my inspection." 1 "Far 
the best which I have met with, is one written by William 
Adams, as far as a.d. 1639, in the possession of C. J. 
Harford, Esq. ; but the most remarkable is one written by 
1 Seyer's Memoirs of Bristol, Int. x. 



106 Transactions for the Year 1894-95. 

Robert Ricart, Town Clerk in the reign of Edward IV., care- 
fully preserved in the Town Clerk's office. * * * These 
Calendars frequently vary one from another, one, two or 
three years. The cause of this variation is usually the 
different times of beginning the year ; for some of the com- 
pilers of them began the year with the election of the Mayor, 
others with the day of the King's Accession, and others at 
other times, which necessarily throws the events into different 
years. This difficulty is not peculiar to our Bristol Calendars." 1 
The editor of the edition of The Maire of Bristowe is 
Kalendav, printed by the Camden Society in 1872, quotes 
Seyer as to the numerous manuscript Calendars formerly 
preserved in Bristol, and says, in a foot-note, " I have not 
been able to find any of these." We have been more fortu- 
nate, as in addition to the Calendar now printed, two others, 
also in the Bristol Reference Library (Queen's Road), have 
been examined, as well as another in the possession of Mr. F. 
F. Fox, of Yate House, which he has kindly allowed us to 
print. These are : — 

i. Bristol Museum MSS. No. 655. A Calendar, with 
notes on the history of Bristol, from a.d. 1203 to 1740, 
compiled about the latter date, by Andrew Hooke. He 
published two parts of a work called " Bristollia," which 
was never completed, and was chiefly compiled from this 
manuscript. 

ii. Bristol Museum MSS. No. 712. A Manuscript Calen- 
dar from a.d. 1220 to 1774. The first portion, to a.d. 1683, 
is older than the rest, the continuation to 1774 being 
apparently by Captain William Mathew, who seems to have 
acquired the MS. in 1722. 

iii. A calendar contained in a manuscript book in the 
possession of Mr. F. F. Fox, of Yate House, which contains 
the names of the City Officials down to the year 1814. This 
list agrees very closely with that in the Hooke MS. mentioned 
above, but it is not precisely the same. The Hooke MS., for 
instance, omits the officers for 1262, and also the officers for 
the whole series of years from 141 1 to 1447, probably in con- 
sequence of the loss of two leaves of the MS. ; in several 
places also where the margins of the leaves of the Hooke MS. 
are defective, the list belonging to Mr. Fox gives the full 
names. In many instances also the spelling of the names 

1 Ibid, xi. 



Two Bristol Calendars. 



107 



differs even where the word in the Hooke MS. is clearly 
written. Other differences are shewn in the following list. 
Hooke MS. reverses officers of 1284 and 1285, and omits 
Mayor for 1501 : — 

1395 Gives Roger Tucker for Reg. Taylor. 

1467 ,, Wm. Wickham — Wm. Wickland. 

1476 „ Philip Caple — William Caple. 

1487 ,, Jno. Easterfield, Jno. Chester, Jno. 

Walash, Nichs. Browne. 

1540&1541 „ Will. Spicute. 

J 555 Bedder for Upholder. 

1565 ,, Jno. Jones — Wm. Jones. 

1565 & 1568 „ Yeand — Young. 

1576 Upholster — Upholder. 

1592 ,, John Young — James Young. 

It would appear therefore that the list belonging to Mr. 
Fox cannot have been copied from the Hooke MS., but that 
it must be a copy of a list closely allied to it. It agrees with 
the Hooke MS. in the trades assigned to the different Officers. 
Careful enquiries were made for the list mentioned by Mr. 
Seyer as having been in the possession of C. J. Harford, Esq., 
with a view to its use for this paper, but unfortunately it was 
not possible to obtain any ^definite information with regard 
to its present whereabouts. 

If the dates of the various Mayors, Sheriffs, &c, as given 
in these lists be compared with the lists given by Ricart, 
Barrett and others, they will be found to vary considerably. 
At present it is impossible to compile a correct list, or to 
attempt to reconcile these differences. We have in Bristol a 
considerable number of deeds and manuscripts from the 13th 
century downwards, upon many of which the names of the 
contemporary Mayors, Sheriffs, &c, appear as witnesses. It 
would be possible from these to compile a list that would be 
trustworthy, so far as it went, but even then it would be far 
from complete. But until this has been done, it will be 
helpful to possess the two lists which follow, in addition to 
those given in Barrett's History and Ricart's Calendar, as 
giving — for what it may be worth — additional manuscript 
evidence with regard to the succession of the Officers of the 
City. It was not thought necessary to bring down the list 
belonging to Mr. Fox to a later date than 1608, as the printed 
lists can be relied on for years after that time. 



io8 



Transactions for the Year 1894-95. 



MS. IN BRISTOL MUSEUM. 
In the Yeare of our Lorde 1216, and in the first yeare of King Henrie 
the 3, was one Maior and 2 prepositors apointed. 

King's 

anno Maiors Prepositors Reign, 

DOMINI FFOR BRISTOLL. PREPOSITORS. HENRIE 

III. 



1216 
1217 

1218 
1219 



1222 

1223 
1224 
1225 
1226 
1227 

1228 

1229 

1230 
1231 

1232 
J233 

1234 
1235 

1236 

1237 
1238 
1239 

1240 
1241 
1242 

1243 
1244 

1245 

1246 

1247 



Adam le page 
Marten underyate .. 
John hatholl ... 
Robert Houlbilst 
Roger Stainbie 
Walter Monbraye ... 
John de Bred wick ... 
James de Rowborowe 
Walter de Winton ... 
Hugh de Fareford .. 
John de Marsfield .. 
Hugh Longe ... 
Nicholas Heyhome .. 
John Burslaunce 
Henry de Berwyke 
Elias Springham 
Walter le Fraunces ... 
Richard Ay lard 
Jordaine Browne 
James le Ware 
Richard Horston 
Phillip Powlet 
Thomas Weston 

Roberte Bele 

Robert Scaffane 
William Clark 
James Blowse 
William Spakeston ... 
Ralph Monjoye 
Elias de Axbridge 
Richard Forstall 
Richard Ay lard 



Stephen Stankin, Rinold Hasard ... 1 
Richard Martin, Heugh upwell ... 2 
Richard le palme, John le Snowe ... 3 
John Oldham, Henrie Vynpeine ... 4 
Peter le goldsmith, Robert de Monmoth 5 
John de Romney, Phillip le Storke ... 6 
Robert de Weston, William Daxe ... 7 
Thomas le Spicer, Walter de Ubley ... 8 
Robert Martyn, John Mathelam ... 9 
Richard de Burie, John de Bradwas ... 10 
William Colpeck, Nicholas Coker ... n 
Alexander Rope (?), Henry de Camen 12 
William Tyard, Richard Bryan ... 13. 
Richard de Portberie, Walter le Haile 14 
Ralph Alslupe, Walter le Reade ... 15 
John de Cardiff, John Atwaule ... 16 
Henry le Wallis, Thomas de Pederton 17 
Gilber le Plomer, Thomas le Chalner 18 
Thomas Updiche, John Ergles ... 19 
William Clark, John Beleyter... ... 20 

William Gould, Richard Burie ... 21 
Thomas Aylward, Roger Cantoke ... 22 
Richard Osmunde, Phillip de Callan 23 
William de Chelton, Henry Cheyner... 24 
William Morland, Richard Frenshe ... 25 
Wm. de Belomomouth, Robt. Killmana 26 
John Nework, William Farington ... 27 
William de Lighte, Robert Parment... 28 
Paull Cutt, Roger Snake ... ... 29 

John de Santa Barba, Richard de Tilley 30 
David le Wight, Richard le Lempster 31 
William Tonarde, John Northfolk ... 32 



In this yeare the Inhabitants of Reedcliffe were In Corporated to the towne of Bristoll, 
Sr. Willm. Bradstow being then Abotte of St. Augustin's. Also this yeare was the River 
that is now called the Key digged, for before the Port was at the shambles whence 
St. Marie's Port takes name. This yeare the Bridge of Bristoll was begun to be builded. 



1248 
1249 
1250 
1251 
1252 
1253 



Rainold de Paines 
Geffrie le White 
John Adrian ... 
Roger Burie ... 
Elias Longe ... 
Thomas Rowse 



John Weston, Walter Benekham ... 33 

Walter Tropine, William Snake ... 34 

Walter Talmage, Henry Farneham ... 35 

Thomas Norwode, John Cornhill ... 36 

Robert Belemont, Gilbert Marlbridge 37 

John Atwode, John at Knowle ... 38 



Two Bristol Calendars. 



109 



MS. OF MR. F. F. FOX. 



A Catalogue of all the Mayors, Baylifs, Prepositors, or 
Seneschals and Sherifs that have been in the City of Bristol 
from the 1st year of the reign of King Henry 3rd : 



Years. Mayors. 

1216 Adam le Page 

1217 Martin Undergate .. 

1218 John Arthall 

1219 Robert Holburst 

1220 Roger de Stanley 

1221 Martin Mombray 

1222 John De Bradwick .. 

1223 James De rowbrough 

1224 Walter De Winton .., 

1225 Hugh De Fairford .. 

1226 John De Maxfield .. 

1227 Henry Longe 

1228 Nichs. Hayhome 

1229 John Bracelane 

1230 Henry Barwicke 

1231 Elias Springham 

1232 Walter De Francis .. 

1233 Richard Ay land 

1234 Jordin Brown 

1235 James Lettard 

1236 richd. Hurstone 

1237 Philip Powlett 

1238 Thomas De Weston 

1239 Robert de Beale 

1240 William Clark 

1241 Wm. Sparkstone 

1242 John Veale 

1243 Ralph Moyne 

1244 Walter Nesham 

1245 Elias de Axbridge .., 

1246 richard Frostall 

1247 richard Ayland 



Prepositors. 
Stephen Hankin, Regenald Hazard. 
Richard Martin, Hugh Upwell. 
Richd. le Palmer, John Snow. 
John Ouldham, Henry Winpeny. 
Peter A. Goldsmith, Robert le Monmouth. 
John De Romney, Philip de Storke. 
Robert De Weston, William Daxe. 
Thos. De Spires, Walter De Ubley. 
Robt. Martin, John Marthlam. 
Richard De Bury, John De Bradware. 
Wm. Colepeck, Nics. Hoocker. 
Alexr. Pope, Henry de Carman als. Camen. 
Wm. Gyarde, Richd. Bryan. 
Ricd. de Portbury, Walter de Hayle. 
Ralph Hestloop, Walter De reade. 
John De Cardiff, John At well. 
Henry le Wallis, Thos. le Pedderton. 
Gilbert Plomer, Thos. le Chalinor. 
Thos. Upditch, John Ergless. 
Wm. Clarke, John le Beliter. 
Wm. Gould, Ricd. de Bury. 
Thomas Ayland, Roger Catorke. 
Richard Osmond, John de Galton. 
Wm. le Clinton, Heny. le Chiner. 
Wm. de Bellamond, robert Killmanan, 
Wm. de Leigh, robt. Pyrment. 
Thos. riffs, richd. Haskell. 
Paul Cutt, Roger Strake. 
Ralph Nuxton, John Walker. 
John de St. Barbara, Ricd. de Tilley. 
David le Wright, richd. de Lemster, 
Wm. Tonnard, Johne Northfolk. 



1248 reynold de Spencer 

1249 Galfridus - 

1250 John Adrian 

1 25 1 Roger de Bury 

1252 Elias Longe . . . 

1253 Thomas Rowse 



John Weston, Walter de Burkam. 
Walter Trapey, Wm. Snake. 
Walter Dal mage, Henry Ferneham. 
Thos. de Norward, John Cashill. 
Robert de Bellemont, Gilbert de Malbridge. 
John Atwood, John at Knowle. 



no 

ANNO 
DOMINI 

1254 
1255 
I256 

1257 
1258 

1259 
I260 
I26l 
1262 
1263 
I264 
1265 

1266 
1267 
1268 
1269 
1270 
1271 

1272 
1273 
1274 

1275 
I276 

1277 
1278 
1279 
I280 
I28l 
1282 
1283 
I284 
1285 
1286 
I287 
1288 
1289 
I290 
1291 
1292 
1293 
1294 

1295 
1296 



Transactions for the Year 1894-95. 



Maiors 
ffor bristoll. 

Rainold Wighte 
Henry Adryan 
Thomas Bens 
Rainold de White ... 
Adam le Barckham ... 
Roger Stockes 
Roger de Burie 
Clement Romney 
William de Glocester 
John Line 

Robert Killmayne ... 
Adam de Berkham ... 

Thomas Rous 
Henry Adryan 
Stephen Orneston ... 
Thomas Selbye 
Simon Clark 
Robert Mauncell 

Roger Fisher .. 
Raph Palden 
John Wishe ... 
Richard de Wellis ... 
Peter de Keinshame... 

Thomas de Hamlesoo 
Gerard de Frances ... 
Simon de Bardney ... 
John Ledyard 
Roger de Tavernor ... 
Peter de Romdie 
William Beandfloure 
Nicholas Hornecastle 
Thomas Coker 
Richard Magotfield 
Roger Grafton 
Richard le Draper ... 
Richard Magotfield... 

Roger Turtle 

Thomas de Tillie 
Walter le Fraunces ... 
Simon le Bourton ... 
Simon le Borton 
Simon le Bourton ... 
William Randolfe ... 



Prepositors. 



King's 
Reign. 
Henrie 



Ralph Oldam, William Hazildene . 
Hugh Michaell, William Sevar 
Robert Schirley, William Frebody . 
Thomas Eldisham, Robert Pickerage 
Roger Pepir, Thomas Winfild 
John Hertshorne, Robert Hornbye . 
Ralph Bryde, Steven Cooke ... 
Thos. Tremwich, Richard de Ruschton 
Thomas Havingfield, Geoffry Usher.. 
Henry Puxton, Robert Treworth 
Thomas Capron, William Chadborn 
Raph Bawdwyne, John Exull 

Stewards. 
Reinald Ricard, John Peperton 

John Wilye, Hugh Michaell 

John Legate, Peter Martre 
Simon Adryan, Roger Draper... 
Richard de Risrin, Thomas Haselden 
Roger de Canto, William Berdwick .. 



III. 

39 
40 

4* 

42 
43 
44 
45 
46 

47 
48 

49 
50 



Robert Snoward, Simon de Wedmore 
John Salsekene, Raph de Axe... 
Simon Adrian, William de Marman ... 
John de Portished, Robert Longcastle 
Robert, de Kings woode, 

Rainolde de Shew ... 
Robert Trewlove, William de Skriven 

John Bryan, Nicholas Oke 

John Hodd, Thomas Coston ... 
John de Cardiff, Robert de Welmarsh 
William de Widmore, Robert Goldinge 
Richard Stoke, Gilmyne Boyre 
Richard Tombrell, William Wickwell 
Henry Horncastle, Geoffry Senell 
Thomas de Weston, John Tonie 
William Hawden, Thomas Prestley 
Thomas Roiston, John Bemington 
John de Chedder, John le Longe 
Simon de Bourton, Wm. de Randolf 
Hugh de Lambrige, John Fraunces 
Walter Glennye, Simon Bycrofte 
Geffrie Godishall, John le Tanner 
John Snowe, John Chedder ... 
John Snow, John Cheddar 
Robert de Oterye, William de Rouboro 
Thomas Updich, Robert Holborch .. 



5i 
52 
53 
54 
55 
.. 56 

EDWARD' 
I. 

I 



13 
14 
15 
l6 

*7 
18 
19 
20 



23 
24 
25 



Two Bristol Calendars. 



nr 



Years. Mayors. 

1254 Reynold de White . 

1255 Henry Adrian 

1256 Adam de Barkhaine 

1257 Roger de Storkes .. 

1258 Clement de rumney 

1259 William Gloucester 

1260 John de Lyne 

1261 Robert Halemanan . 

1262 Adam de Barkham 

1263 Thomas Rowse 

1264 Henry Adrian 

1265 Stephen Orneston 



FOX MS. 

Prepositors. 
.. Radulph Ouldham, Willm. Hazeldame. 
.. Hugh Mitchell, Wm. Seraver. 

Robt. Shierely, Wm. Freebody. 

Thos. Eldysham, Robt. Pickeridge. 

Roger Piper, Thomas Winkfield. 

John Hartshorne, Robert Hornby. 
.. Ralph de Byred, Stephen de Cooke. 
.. Thomas Frenwick, Richd. Rushton. 

Thomas de Hannefield, Galphy Usher. 
.. Harry de Puxton, Robert Trenworth. 
.. Thomas Capron, Wm. Chadbourn. 
.. Ralph Baldwin, John Quyall. 



1266 Thomas Selby ... Reynald Richard, John Buxon. 

1267 Simon Clarke ... John Wisey, Hugh Mitchell. 

1268 Robert Mansell ... John Legate, Peter Martin. 

1269 Roger Fisher .. . ... Simon Adrian, Roger Draper. 

1270 Ralph Paldian ... Richard Ryston, Thos. Hazaldeane. 

1271 John Norsey ... ... Roger de Cant, William de Broadwick. 

Edwd. 1. 

1272 Robert de Willis ... Robert Suswart, Simon Whedmore. 

1273 Peter de Keynsham ... John Salkin, Ralph de Axe. 

1274 Thomas de Hameldon Simon Adrian, William Marina. 

1275 Gerald le ffrances ... John de Portshead, Robert Longgraftle. 

1276 Simon de Bardney ... Robert de Kingswood, Reynold de rowe. 



1277 John de diffarde ... Robert Truelove, Wm. de Serevin. 

1278 Roger de Tavernor ... John Bryant, Nich. Atoake. 

1279 Peter de rumney ... John Hoddy, Thos. Caston. 

1280 William Beanslure ... John de Cardiff, Robt. Wethmarshe. 

1281 Nicholas Harncastle Dewidmore Williams, Robt. Golding. 

1282 Thomas Corker ... Richard Atoke, Gwilliam de Boyce. 

1283 Peter de Rumney ... Richd. Tombrell, Wm. Wrathall. 

1284 Richard Mangersfield Thos. de Weston, John Tomney. 

1285 Do. do. ... Harry Harncastle, Galfridus Snell. 

1286 John de Ware ... William Howden, Thomas Priestley. 

1287 Roger de Gretton ... Thomas Royston, John Bannington. 

1288 Roger le Draper ... John de Cheddar, John le Long. 

1289 Richard Mangersfield Simon de Burton, Wm. de randolph. 

1290 Roger Turtle Hugh de longbridge, John de ffrancis. 

1291 Thomas de Tilley ... Walter Glennis, Simon ricaroot. 

1292 Walter de Francis ... Walter Godshalf, John de Taverner. 

1293 Simon de Burton ... John Snow, John de Cheddar. 

1294 Do. do. ... Robert Henry, Nich. de rowborough. 

1295 Do. do. ... Robt, Stordey. Wm. de rowbourough. 

1296 William Randolph ... Thomas Upditch, Robert Holburst. 



112 



Transactions for the Year 1894-95. 



ANNO MAIORS 

DOMINI FFOR BRISTOLL. 

1297 J°hn Snowe 

1298 Richard Magotfield.. 



Stewards. 



King's 
Reign. 
Edward 
I. 



John de Longe, Adam Welyshott ... 26 
Geoffry Godishall, William Maryne ... 27 



1299 
1300 
1301 
1302 
1303 
1304 
1305 
1306 



1327 
1328 
1329 
1330 
1331 
1332 
1333 



Roger Turtle 
Thomas de Tullie .., 
Walter Adrian 
Thomas de Lagrame 
Simon Burton 
Simon Bourton 
William Randolfe .. 
John Snow ... 



John Fraunces, Hugh de Langbrige ... 
Richard Colpit, William Glistenbridg 
Robert Bostock, John Horsfall 
John Tyke, Robert Benfloure ... 
William Updich, Robert Horehurst ... 
Robert Ottwey, Nicholas Roberowe ... 
John de Cheddar, John de Longe 
Nicholas Burton, Thomas Berdwick... 



28 
29 
30 
3i 
32 
33 
34 

35 
Edward 
II. 



1307 


John Tanner ... 


. William Olifle, Gilbert Pokerell 


T 


1308 


John le Tanner 


. Robert Ottery, Adam Wellischot . . 


2 


1309 


William Randolphe.. 


. John Romney, Walter Tropine 


3 


1310 


John Dusler ... 


. Thomas le Spicer, Robert Randulphe 


4 


1311 


William Hore 


. John Beanflower, Thomas le Spicer ... 


5 


1312 


John le Tanner 


. Laurence de Carye, Richard White ... 


6 


1313 


Rainold Paynes 


. Richard Winemoney, John le Honte... 


7 






Bayliffes. 




1314 


William Randolfe .. 


. Robert Halburst, John Welshot 


8 


1315 


Robert Passoure 


. Richard Colepike. Henry Winpeny ... 


9 


1316 


Richard Torile 


. John Frannceys th' elder, 








Hugh Langbridge ... 


10 


1317 


Roger Torill ... 


. Thomas Spicer, John Ramsey 


11 


1318 


Richard Tillie 


. Richard Panis, Richard White 


12 


1319 


Richard Tillie 


. W T illiam Havingfield, Hugh Prowte ... 


13 


1320 


Richard Tillie 


. Gilbert Pockerell, Clement Turtle ... 


14 


1321 


Richard Tillie 


. Gilbert Pockerell, Clement Turtle ... 


15 


1322 


William de Axe 


. Robert de Battelburie, 








Geoffry de Wrax 11 


16 


1323 


John de Keinsham .. 


. Everard Frannces, Steven Spicer 


17 


1324 


John Romsey 


. Gilbert Pockerell, Henrie Exton 


18 


1325 


John Romsey 


. John Frannces, Walter Prentice 


19 



1326 Roger Turtle. 



Roger Turtle... 
Hugh Langbridge 
John fraunces 
John Axbridge 
Roger Turtle... 
Roger Turtle... 
Edward ffraunces 



Robert Gien, Everard ffraunces 

Robert Gien, Everard ffraunces 
John Rainie, Nicholas ffree 
John Atwall, Henry frampton 
Roger Plust, Henry frampton 
Stephen Spicer, Henry Babcarie 
Stephen Spicer, Henry Babcarie 
Joseph Rainye, Thomas Torine 



Edward 
III. 



Two Bristol Calendars. 



Years. Mayors. 

1297 John Snow ... ... 

1298 Richard de M angers- \ 

field J 

1 299 Roger Turtle ... 

1300 Thomas de Tilley ... 

1 301 Walter Adrian 

1302 Simon de Burton 

1303 Thomas de Longreve 

1304 Simon de Burton 

1305 Do. do. 

1306 William Randolph ... 



FOX MS. 



Prepositors. 



Edwd. 2. 

1307 John Snow 

1308 John Taverner 

1309 Do. do. 
J310 Wm. Randolph 

131 1 John de Cellar 

1312 William Hore 

1313 John le Tavernor 



1314 Reynold de Reynor ... 

1315 William Randolph ... 

1 3 16 Robert de Pastower 



1317 
1318 

1319 
1320 
1321 
1322. 



Richard Towsill 
Roger Torthill 
Richard de Tilley 
Do. do. 
Do. do. 
Wm. de Axe ... 



John de long, Hugh de longbridge. 

Jeffrey Godshalf, Wm. de Marinor. 

John Le ffrancis, Hugh de longbridge. 
Richd. de Colepit, Wm. de Glastonbury. 
Robert Bostoke, John Harshall. 
Robert de Ottery, Nichs. de Rowborough. 
John Tyke, Roger Beanflower. 
Wm. Upditch, Robt. de Holehurst. 
Robe/t de Ottery, Nichs. de rowborough. 
John de Cheddar, John de Long. 



... Nicholas de Burton, Thos. de Bardwicke. 
... Wm. de Ollife, Gilbert de Bucharell. 
... Robt. de Ottary, Adam Wellyshould. 
... John Rumney, Walter Frossina. 
... Thomas Speare, Robert Randolph. 
Bayliffs. 

... John Beanflower, Thomas le Spicer. 
... Lawrence de Cary, Richard de White. 



Richard Winnyman, John de Hunt. 
Robert Holeburst, John de Welleysholt. 
Richard Colepike, Henry Winpenny. 

John ffrancis Senr. , Hugh de langbridge. 
Thos. le Spire, John de Romsey. 
Ric. de Pains, rd. de White Ironmonger. 
Wm. Hangfield, Hugh de Prout. 
Gilbert Puckerill, Clemens Turtell. 
Robert de littlebury, Jeffery de Wraxall. 



1 3 2 3 J onrl de Kainsom ... Everard de Francis, Stephen de Spicer. 

1324 Johnderumseya/msj Gilbert Puckerill, Henry Easton. 

rumny j J 

J 3 2 5 J onn de rumsey do. John de Francis, Walter Prentice. 



1326 Roger Turtle . . . 
Edd. 3. 

1327 Do. do. 

1328 Hugh Langbridge 

1329 John le Francis 
I 33° J°h n d e Axbridge 

1 33 1 Roger Turtle 

1332 Do. do. 

1333 Ed. le Francis 

Vol. XIX. 



.. Robert Guyn, Everard de Francis. 

Do. do. 
.. John Reyney, Nichs. Fres. 
. John Atwell, Harry de Frampton. 
. Roger Plustel, Harry Babcary. 
. Stephen le Spicer, Harry Babcarrie. 

do. do. 
. Joseph de Riney, Thos. Turpine. 

9 



i-i4 

ANNO MAIORS 
DOMINI FFOR RRISTOLL. 

1334 Roger Turtle... 

1335 Hugh Langbridge 

1336 Roger Turtle... 

1337 Edward Fraunces 

1338 Stephen Spicer 

1339 Edward ffraunces 

1340 Roger Turtle... 

1 34 1 Roger Turtle... 

1342 Robert Wrington 

1343 Stephen Spicer 

1344 Stephen Spicer 

1345 Robert Gien ... 

1346 Robert Gien ... 

1347 Robert Wrington 

1348 John Spicer ... 

1349 Robert Gyen... 

1350 John Spicer ... 

1351 John Spicer ... 

1352 John Cobyndon 

1353 Richard Spicer 

1354 Richard Spicer 

1355 Thomas Baker 

1356 Rinold French 

1357 Walter Frampton 

1358 Raynold French 

1359 Thomas Babkere 

1360 Robert Cheddar 

1 36 1 Richard Brayndum. 

1362 Robert Cheddar 

1363 Walter Darbie 

1364 John Stoke ... 

1365 Walter frampton 

1366 John Stoke .. 

1367 Walter Darbie 

1368 John Bathe ... 

1369 Ellis Spill ... 
I 37° John Bathe ... 

1 371 Richard Spicer 

1372 Willm. Caninge 



Transactions for the Year 1894-95 



Bailiffs. 

... James Rainye, Peter Teistine ... 
... Stephen Spicer, Thomas Torpine 
... Richard de Calne, Walter Pelivile . 
... Thomas Tillie, John Lexam ... 
... Robert Wrington, John Spicer 
... Thcmas Torpine, John Cobinton 
... James Tillie, Thomas Blanket 
... Thomas Torpine, Thomas Blanket . 
... John Curtes, William Hannie... 
... William Hannie, Thomas Albon 
.. William Haynis, John Albin ... 

.. John Nele, James Tillie 

.. Robert Godymar, William Hannie .. 

.. Roger Banner, Walter Wenelake 

.. John Cobyndon, Robert Prentis 

.. Edmund Blankett, J n °- de Castellcarie 

.. Rinold ffrench, William Combe 

.. Walter Darbie, Robert Chedder 

.. John Castell Carie, Thos. de Coventre 

.. Robert Atwell, John Stoke 

.. John Stoke, Richard Deane ... 

.. Richard Heminge, John Cobington .. 

.. Walter Darbie, Thomas Ichinge 

.. Richard Brandon, Geffery beaneflowr 

.. John Soore, Henry Vyell 

.. Walter Darbie, John Stokes ... 

.. Elias Spell, William Sommerwell 

.. Walter Darbie, Willm. Caninges 

,. Elias Spell, Henry Willeston ... 

.. Henry Willeston, Willm. Wodrowe ... 

,. William Haile, John Bate , 

.. John Sloo, Henry Willeston ... 
. William Sommerwell, John Kene 
. William Dagon, John Blunte ... 

. John Blunte, John Vyell , 

. William Caninges, John Vyell 

,. Thomas Benpenie, Henry Vyell 
. John Hyninge, John Preston ... 

first Sherife. 
. John Vyell. Thorns. Sampson, 

Walter Stodley 



King's 
Reign. 
Edwards 
III. 

• • 9 
.. 10 
.. 11 
.. 12 

• • 13 
.. 14 

• • 15 
.. 16 

•• n 
. 18 
. 19 
. 20 



25 
24 

25 
26 
27 
28. 
29 
30- 
31 
32 
33 
34 
35 

3& 
37 
3& 
39 
40 

4i 
42 

43. 
44 
45 
46 



47 



This yeare was the ffirst Sheriffe that ever was in bristoll, for ffirst there was a maior, 
and two Prepossitors, and two Aldermen, and after a maior and two stewards, then a 
maior and two bayhffs, the one for the kinge, the other for the towne, as it hath continued 
ever since, except two yeares ffollowinge. 

V In the second column the first name is that of the Sheriff, the other two names, 
being those ot the Baihrfs. 



Two Bristol Calendars. 



Years. Mayors. 

1334 Roger Turtle ... 

1335 Hugh Langbridge ., 

1336 Roger Turtle ... 

1337 Everard le Francis . 

1338 Stephen le Spicer 

1339 Everard le Francis . 

1340 Roger Turtle ... 

1341 Do. do. 

1342 Robert de Wrington 

1343 Stephn. le Spicer 

1344 Do. do. 

1345 Robt. Gyne ... 

1346 Do. do 

1347 Robert Wrington 

1348 John le Spicer 

1349 Robert Gwyne 

1350 John Wyumbe 

1351 John Spicer ... 

1352 John Cobbington 

1353 Richd. Spicer 

1354 Do. do. 

1355 Thomas Babcary 

1356 Reynold de French . 

1 357 Watkin Frampton 

1358 Reynold de French , 
x 359 Thos. Babcary 

1360 Robert de Chedar . 

1361 Richard Brandon 

1362 Robert Cheddar 

1363 Watkin darby 

1364 John Stooke ... 

1365 Watkin Frampton 

1366 John Stokes ... 

1367 Watkin darby 

1368 John de Bath .. 

1369 Ellias Spilley... 
I 37° John de Bath... 

1371 — Spicer 
Mayors and Sheriffs. 

1372 Wm. Canings 
John Vy ell 



FOX MS. 

Prepositors. 
. Joseph de Riney, Peter Testine. 
. Stephen le Spicer, Thomas Turpine. 
. Ricd. de Calne, Waltr. de Pillevelle. 
,. Thos. de Tilly, John de Laxam. 
. Robert de Wrington, John le Spicer. 
,. Thomas Turpine, Jno. de Cobbington. 
. James Tilley, Thomas Blankett. 
.. Thomas Turpine, Thomas Blankett. 

John Curtice, Wm. Haney. 
. Wm. Haynes, Thomas Alborne. 

Do. do. 
,. John Neall, James de Tilley. 
,. Robt. Codmore, Wm. Hanney. 
. Roger Bonene, Walter Wenlake. 
,. John Cobbington, Robt. Prentice. 
,. Edmund Blankett, John de Castlecary. 
.. Reynild de French, Wm. Coombe. 
.. Walter darby, Robt. de Cheddar. 
.. John de Castlecary, Thos. de Coventry. 
.. Robert Atwell, John Stocke. 
.. John Stocke, Robt. de deane. 
.. Richard Hemmings, John Cabington Junr, 
.. Walter darby, Thomas Inhinge. 
.. Rich. Brandon, Jeffery Beanflower. 
.. J6hn Sour, Harry Uxwell. 
.. Watkin Darby, John Stockes. 
.. Ellias Spilly, Wm. Summerwell. 
.. Watkin Darby, Wm. Cannings. 
.. Ellis Spilly, Harry Wellistone. 
.. Harry Wellistone, William Hayle. 
.. Wm. Woodrover, John Batte. 
.. John de Stowe, Harry Wellistone. 
.. Wm. Sumerwell, John Keen. 
.. Wm. Dagon, John Blunt. 
.. John Blunt, John Vyal. 
.. Wm. Cannings, John Vyall. 
.. Thos. Bawpeny, Harry Vyall. 
.. John Inhinge, John Preston. 

Baylifs. 
.. Thomas Sampson, 
.. Walter Studley. 



*** In the first column the first name is that of the Mayor, the second that of the 
Sheriff. 

9 * 



n6 



Transactions for the Year 1894-95. 



ANNO MAIORS 
DOMINI FFOR BRISFOLL. 

1373 William Caninges 

1374 Walter frampton 

1375 William Caninges 

1376 Walter Darbie 



Sheriff and Bailiff. 

John Vyell. Thomas Sampson, 

Walter Stodley 

Thomas Bepeny. No bayliffes 

Henry Vyell. No bayliffes ... 



King's 
Reign. 
Edward 
III. 



.. 49 
■ • 50 



.. William Somerwell. Wm. Combe, 

Tho. Knape ... ... ... ... 51 

This yeare it was ordayned that the Maior and Bailiffes should be chosen by the 
•Counsell upon hollirode daie, and on St. Michell's daie tack there oths, in the geald Haull 
of brist. before the Commons, of the said towne, and in the afternone, all the wol- of the 
Councell to go to Gether to St. Michell's church and there to offer Reverentlie to the 
Saint. (Hooke's MS. gives fuller details.) 

Richard 
II. 

.. Walter Stidshill. Tho. Sampson, 

Walter Stodley 
.. Will. Combe. Will. Erlingame, 

John Stainis... 
.. Tho. Knape. John Stains, 

John Barstabull 

.. Will. Somerwell. Robert Candeir, 
Will. Caninges 



1377 Tho. beupenie 

137S Elias Spill ... 

1379 John Stockes... 

1380 Walter Darbie 

1 38 1 Will. Caninges 

1382 Ellias Spill ... 



John Candeir. Walter Seim, 

John Preston 
John Caninges. Will 111 . Warmister, 
John Stains ... 

1383 Thorns. Beupeine ... Rbt. Caudeir. John Somerwell, 

Peter Briroghe 

Thos. Tomsone. John Younge, 

Will m . Draper 

John Somerwell. Raynold Tucker, 

John Bright 

Petter Baughe. Willm. ffrome, 

Thom. Haie... 

W m . ffrome. Thom. coulstone, 

John Swelt 

Willm. Wilfford. Thos. Haie, 

John Stevens 

J no . Barstabull. Jn°- Barnboro 11 , 

Jn°- Haveringe ... ... ... 13 

Thorns. Haie. Robert Dudbrock, 

Jn°- Selwoode 14 

Jn° Hanboro. Jn°- Burton, 

Richard Hansforde ... ... 15 

Thorns. Hare. Robert Dudbrock, 

Jn°- Selwoode 16 

*** In the second column the first name is that of the Sheriff, the other two names 
bein^ ihose of the Bailiffs. 



1384 Walter Darbie 

1385 Will m . Caninge 

1386 Thom s - Knape 

1387 Will m . Somervell 

1388 John Vyell ... 

1389 Will 111 . Caninge 

1390 Ellias Spellie... 

1 39 1 Thos. Knape ... 

1392 Thos. Knape .. 



3 
4 
5 
6 

7 
8 

9 
10 



Two Bristol Calendars. 



117 



Years. Mayors & Sheriff: 
x 373 Wm. Canings 

John Vyell 
1374 do. Frampton 

Thomas Bewpeny 
x 375 Wm. Cannings 

Harry Vyal ... 
1376 Watkin darby 

Wm. Sumerwall 



FOX MS. 

Bailiffs. 
... Thomas Sampson, 
... Walter Studley. 
... No Baylif this year. 

Do. do. 

... Wm. Coombe, 
... Thomas Knape. 



Rd. 


2. 




I 377 


Thos. Bewpeny 


, .. X IltJllldo OdIII Uotjll, 




vvatKin leasani 


"Walter ^fnrHfv 


!37 8 


rLllias bpiiiey... 


... Wm. Earlingham, 




Wm. LoomD ... 


... John Staines. 


J 379 


J Ollll OlULKCS ... 


... J Uilll OLCdVCD, 




i XXOIIldb xvud.pt; 


... J vJUIl J_>dloldUlC 




Walter darby... 


... IVUUL. ^dLLLllllCl , 




Wm. Somerwell 


, .. 1 U11I1 v^dlllllllgo. 


I38I 


Wm. Cannings 


. .. Walter Seymor, 




Jno. Caddmer 


, ,, J Oil 11 XTlCbLUU. 




■Ciiidb opmey... 


... I wxiii uLcavco, 




Jno. Cannings 


... Will. VV dl IlllblCX . 


*3 8 3 


Thomas Bewpeny 


. ,. Jno. Somerwell, 




Robt. Cadiner 


Peter Bray rough. 


1384 


Walter Derby 


... John Young, 




Thos. Sapton... 


... Wm. Draper. 


1385 


Wm. Cannings 


... Roger Tucker, 




John Somerwell 


... John Bright. 


1386 


Thos. Knappe 


... Wm. Frome, 




Peter Bryrough 


... Thos. Athay. 


1387 


Wm. Somerwell 


.. Thos Colestone, 




Wm. Froom ... 


... Jno. Snell. 


1388 


John Vyall 


... Thos. Athay, 




Wm. Wooford 


... John Stephens. 


1389 


Wm. Cannings 


... John de Banbury, 




John Barstable 


... John Havering. 


1390 


Ellias Spiley ... 


... Robt. dutbroock, 




Thos. Athay .... 


... Jno. de Sellwood. 


I39i 


Thos. Knape ... 


... John Burton, 




John de Banbury 


... Richard Hawkford. 


1392 


John Cannings 


... Thomas Norton, 




Walter Seymore 


... richard Book worth. 



*** In the first column the tirst name is that of the Mayor, the second that of the 
Sheriff. 



ji8 



ANNO MAIORS 
DOMINI. FFOR BrISTOLL. 



Transactions for the Year 1894-95. 

Sheriff and Bailiffes. 



King's 
Reign. 
Richard 
II. 



1393 


John Caninge 


... Walter Seymore. Tho. Norton, 
Richard Brockworth 


17 


1394 


John Somerwell 


... Jno. Haveringe. Willm. Solers, 

Thos. Blunte 


18 


1395 


Willm. ffrome 


... John Stevens. John Preston, 

John Castell 


19 


1396 


J no . Barstabull 


... Rainold Tucker. Rob*- Dudbrock, 

J no . Sodburie 


20 


1397 


Thorns. Knape 


... Willm. Warmister. Rob*- Brokworth, 
John Hardwick 


21 


1398 


Willm. Banberie 


... John Preston. Willm. Solers, 

Henrie Backarell 


22 






Henri: 








IV. 


1399 


John Caninges 


... Robert Barter. John Sodburie, 
John Lemell... 


1 


1400 


Tho. knap 


... Tho. Blunte. Tho. Glowster, 
Geffery Barber 


2 


This yeare was The Lord Spencer beheaded at the Heigh Cross in Brist. 




I401 


Will. Frome ... 


... Robert Dudbrook. John Selie, 
Marke William 


3 


1402 


John Barstabull 


... Tho. Norton. Richard Painis, 
Simon Allgood 


4 


1403 


John Stephens 


... John Selie. Nicholas Exeter, 

Tho. Yonge 


5 


1404 


Tho. Knape ... 


... Tho. Glouster. John Droice, 
Adam Yninge 


6 


I4°5 


Robert Dudbrok 


... John Droice. Gilbert Roce, 
Robert Russell 


7 


1406 


John Barstabull 


... Marke William. John Cleve, 
John Newton 


8 


1407 


John Droice ... 


... John Fisher. James Cox, 

David Dudbrok 


9 


1408 


Tho. Blunte ... 


... Tho. Yonge. Robert Shippard, 

John Spine 


10 


1409 


John Fisher ... 


... John Cleve. John Sharpe, 
John Licester 


11 


1410 


John Droice ... 


... James Cockes. John Sutton, 

Will. Bendley 


12 


1411 


John Selie 


... Nicholas Exeter. Robert Col veld, 

Wat. Parle 


13 


1412 


Thos. Yonger.. 


... John Spine. Will. Stephens, 
David Ruddock 


14 


I4 T 3 


John Cleve ... 


... John Sharpe. William Barret, 

Thomas Bendie 


15 



*** In the second column the first name is that of the Sheriff, the other two names 
being those of the Bailiffs. 



Two Bristol Calendars. 



119 



Years. 
1393 

1394 

^395 

1396 

J397 

1398 



Mayors & Sheriffs. 
John Somerwell 
John Havering 
Wm. Froom ... 
John Stains ... 
John Barstable 
Regld. Taylor 
Thos. Knappe 
Wm. Warmister 
John Banbury 
Wm. draper ... 
J no. Cannings 
robt. Baxter ... 



Henry 4. 

1399 Thos. Knappe 
Thos. Blunt 

1400 Wm. Froom ... 
Robt. Dudbrook 

1401 Jno. Barstable 
Thos. Norton 

1402 Jno. Stephens 

John Selly 

1403 Thos. Knappe (died) 
John Barstable 
Thos. Gloucester 

1404 Robert dudbrook 
Jno. droyse ... 

1405 Jno. Barstable 
Mark Williams 

1406 John droyse ... 
Jno. Fisher ... 

1407 John Blount ... 
Thos. young 

1408 John Fisher ... 
John Clave ... 

1409 John Deoyse ... 
James Cookes 

1410 John Selly 
Nichs. Exeter 

1411 Thomas Young 
John Spine ... 

1412 John Cleave ... 
John Sharp 

Henry 5. 

1413 Thomas Norton 

John Newton... 
In the first column the first 

Sheriff. 



FOX MS. 

Bailiffs. 

Wm. Sillar, 

Thos. Blunt. 

John Preston, 

John Castle. 

Robt. dudbroock, 

Jno. de Sodbury. 

Robt. Brookworth, 

John Hard wick. 

Jno. Preston, 

Harry Buckeral. 

John le Mannor, 

John Sodbury. 

Thomas Gloucester, 
Galfridus Barber. 
Mark Williams, 
Jno. Sally. 

Richd. Baynes, 
Simon Allgod. 
Thomas Younge, 
Nichs. Exeter. 
John droyse, 
Adam Inhinge. 

Robert Russell, 
Gilbert Joyce. 
Jno. Cleave, 
Jno. Newton. 
James Cook, 
david dudbrook. 
Jno. Spice, 
Robt. Barstable. 
John Sharp, 
John Leycester. 
John Sutton, 
Wm. Beanly. 
Robt. Clovild, 
Walter Parley. 
Wm. Stephens, 
david ruddock. 
Thomas Hendy, 
Wm. Barrett. 

Wm. Westerleigh, 
Walter Milton. 

name is that of the Mayor, the second that of the 



120 



ANNO MAIORS 
DOMINI FFOR BRISTOLL. 



Transactions for the Year 1894-95. 

Sheriffs and Bailiffs. 



1414 Tho. Norton ... 

1415 John Droice ... 

1416 John Sharpe ... 

1417 Tho. Blunte ... 

14 18 Robert Russell 

1419 John Newton... 

1420 James Cockes 

1 42 1 Tho. Yonge ... 



... John Newton. Walter Tucker, 

Will. Westerley 

... Robert Russell. John Milton, 

John Draper 
... Will. Bentlie. Roger Lendowne, 

Wal. Milton 

... John Liceter. John Bourton, 

Nicholas Denishe ... 
... John Leceter. Tho. Hallway, 

John Langley 
... John Bourton. Henry Gildney, 

Tho. Fish 

... David Buddock. Richard Trinadge, 

Jo. Cotten 

... Roger Lewdewe. Richard Advois, 

Edmund Browne 



King's 
Reign. 
Henrie 
V. 



1422 John Spine ... ... Nicholas Bagood. Tho. Erie, 

John Peris ... ... ... ... 9 

This yeare died the foresaid Sheriffe Nich. Bagood, and John Milton succeaded 
his yeare. 

1423 Mark William ... Rich. Trenode. John Luche, 

Rich. Alexander ... ... ... 10 

Henrie 
VI. 



1424 


John Bourton 


... Thomas Halwey. John Sharpe, 
John Hoike 


1 


1425 


John Leceiter 


... Thomas Earle. Walter Pouer, 
John Sneth .. 


.. 2 


1426 


John Cliffe ... 


... Robert Colvild. Clement Bagood, 

Hugh Witford 


•• 3 


1427 


Robert Russell 


.. Nicholas Moshey. Andrew Berill. 
John Saire ... ... ... 


.. 4 


1428 


John Newton 


... John Sharpe. John Tawbut, 
John Trewet 


•• 5 


1429 


Roger Lendon 


... Henry Gildney. Richard Foster, 

John Alberton 


.. 6 


1430 


John Bourton 


... John Shipward. Will. Dunstone, 
John Papnam 


•• 7 


1431 


John Leciter ... 


... Hugh Witford. John Spine, 
Nicholas Freme 


.. 8 


1432 


Richard Freinard 


... Clement Bagot. John Spicer, 

Nicholas frome 


.. 9 


1433 


John Sharpe ... 


... Rich, Arfoice. Will. Caninges, 
William Norris 


.. 10 



=V In the second column the first name is that of the Sheriff, the other two names, 
being those of the Bailiffs. 



Two Bristol Calendars. 121 



Years. Mayors & Sheriffs. 

1414 John droyse ... 
Robert russell 

1415 John Sharp ... 
Wm. Beanly ... 

1416 Thomas Blunt 
davd. dudbrook 

1417 Robert russell 
Jno. Leycester 

1418 John Newton... 
Jno. Burton ... 

1419 James Cookes 
david ruddock 

1420 Thos. Young . . 
Richd. Lavender 

1421 John Spin 
Nichs. Baggot died 
John Milton ... 

Henry 6. 

1422 Mark Williams 
Richard Trade 



FOX MS. 

Bailiffs. 

John Draper, 

John Milton. 

Nicholas Baggs, 

Thomas Skyward. 

John Burton, 

Nichs. dennis. 

Roger Lavender, 

Walter Sermon. 

Thomas Holloway, 

John Langley. 

Harry Goldney, 

Thomas Fish. 

Richard Treade, 

John Catton. 

Richard Asfield, 

Edmund Brown. 



Thos. Curie, 
John Peirce 



1423 


John Burton 


... John Leach, 




Thos. Holloway 


... ricd. Alexander. 


1424 


John Leycester 


... John Sharpe, 




Robert Clovield 


... John Hooke 


1425 


John Clive 


... Walter Powell, 




Thos. Earles ... 


... Jno. Sneath. 


1426 


Robt. Russell... 


... Clemt. Baggott, 




Nichs. Dennis 


... Hugh Whitfield, 


1427 


John Newton 


... Andrew Perrill, 




John Sharpe .. 


... John Earle. 


1428 


Roger Lavender 


... John Talbott, 




Harry Goldney 


... John Tryott. 


1429 


John Burton ... 


. . . Roger Foster, 




John Shephard 


... John Alberton. 


1430 


John Leycester 


... Wm. dunstone, 




Hugh Whitfield 


... Jno. Popnam. 


1431 


Richard Trenade 


... John Spicer, 




Clemt. Bagot... 


... Nichs. Froom. 


1432 


John Sharpe ... 


... Thos. Norris, 




Richd. Arfoys 


... Wm. Cannings. 


1433 


John Fisher 


... John English, 




Nicholas Foster 


... Thomas Markes. 



V* I11 the first column the first name is that of the Mayor, the second that of the 
Sheriff. 



122 



Transactions for the Year 1894-95. 



ANNO MAIORS 
DOMINI FFOR BRISTOLL. 

1434 John Fisher ... 

1435 Tho. Holway... 

1 43 6 John Milton ... 

1437 Richard Forier 

1438 Clement Bagot 

1439 Hugh Whit ford 

1440 John Sharpe ... 

1 44 1 Nicholas Frome 

1442 William Caninges 

1443 Clement Bagot 

1444 John Standley 

1445 John Sheppard 

1446 Nicholas Hill... 



Sheriffs and Bailiffs. 

Rich. Forte. John English, 

Thomas Marke 
Tho. Fishe. Richard Roper, 

John Standley 

John Spicer. Nicholas Hill, 

William Clinche 
Walter Power. Will. Codder, 

John ffoord 

Nicholas frome. Tho. Baull, 

Thos. Hore ... 
Will. Caninges. John Costen, 

Thomas Meade 

Rich. Roper. Will. Paine, 

John Sheppard 

John Standley. John Whitford, 

William Howell 

John Sheppard. Nicholas Stone, 

Robert Sturmie 
Nicholas Hill, Rich. Hatter, 

Richard Haddon ... 
Will. Codder. Will. Seirmott, 

Will. Pownam 
John Forde. Phillip Meade, 

Thomas Rogers 
John Bolton. Rich. Marshaull, 

Richard Bailie 



King's 
Reign. 
Henrik 
VI. 



23 



This yeare Reedcliffe steeple was thrown downe wth thunder, and did much hurte in 
divers places. 

This yeare Henrie the 6 came to Bristoll, was presented with £200, and the maior 
(it is in the yeare followinge). l 



1447 Rich, foster .. 

1448 Rich, foster .. 

1449 John Bourton 

1450 Will. Caninges 

1451 John Bourton 

1452 John Standley 



... John Troite. William Dam, 

William Talbot 24 

... Thos. Haull. William Rolfe, 

John Wicam ... ... ... 25 

... Will. Paine. John Estmond, 

John Bennet ... ... ... 26 

... Thomas Hore. Will. Spencer, 

Rich. Alberton ... ... ... 27 

... Roger Sturmie. Will. Dillinge, 

John Sharpe 28 

... Rich. Hatter. Robert Jackes, 

John Hopper ... ... ... 29 



1 Part of this entry is illegible. See Barrett's Bristol, pp. 679, 680, and Bush's 
■Charter, p. 36. 

V* In the second column the first name is that of the Sheriff, the other two names 
being those of the Bailiffs. 



Two Bristol Calendars. 



123 







FOX MS. 


Years. 


Mayors & Sheriffs. 


Bailiffs. 


!434 


Thomas Holloway . 


. Richard roper, 




Thomas Fish... 


. John Stanley. 


T 435 


John Milton died 


\T J _ 1_ _ 1 _ TT,'11 

. JNicnolas rim, 




Nichs. Dennis 


.. Wm. Clinish. 




John Spicer ... 




x 436 


Richd. Korster 


"\S7m r^A A IV 

. wm. L^ouaar, 




Walter Power 


. Jno. Fourd. 


J 437 


Clement Bagot 


. T homas Hore, 




Nicholas Froom 


. I nomas r>all. 


1438 


riugn wnitneia 


. Thomas Mead, 




Wm. Cannings 


. John Gosling. 


J 439 


John Sharpe ... 


. Wm. davy, 




richard rooper 


. . John Shipward. 


1440 


Nichs. Froom 


. . John Whitiord, 




John Stanley ... 


. wm. rloweii. 


1441 


Wm. Cannings 


. . Nichs. Stone, 




John Shipward 


xvODt. oturney. 


1442 


ciemont ±5agot 


. . Kicnd. Hatter, 




Nichs. Hill 


.. Richd. Hadden. 


M43 


John Stanley ... 


. . Wm. Seirmont, 




Wm. Cadder ... 


. . Wm. downey. 


1444 


John Shipward 


.. Philip Meade, 




Jno. Foord 


.. Thomas rogers. 


1445 


Nichs. Hill ... 


.. Richard Marshall, 




John Boulton... 


.. Richard Bayly. 


1446 


Richard Forster 


.. Wm. deane, 




John Tryett ... ' • 


.. Wm. Talbot. 


1447 


Richard r orster 


"\A7t-v-i T? 0 1 nil 

. , wm. xvaipn, 




TVinc "Rail 


. . John Wickham. 


T A A « 

144s 


John Burton ... . 


. . John Eastmond, 




Wm. Pavey ... . 


.. John Bennett. 


1449 


Wm. Cannings 


.. Richd. Alberton, 




I nos. Hoare .. 


.. wm. bpencer. 


1450 


John Burton ... 


.. John Sharpe, 




Robt. Sturmey 


.. Wm. Dilling. 


1451 


John Stanley ... 


.. Robert Jukes, 




Richd. Hatter 


.. John Hopper. 


1452 


Wm. Coddar ... 


.. Thos. Asher, 




Thos. Meade.. 


.. Wm. rains. 



V* In the first column the first name is that of the Mayor, the second that of the 
Sheriff. 



124 Transactions for the Year 1894-95. 

Sheriffs and Bailiffs. 



anno Maiors 
domini ffor e-ristoll 



1453 Will. Codder... 

1454 Robert Sturney 

1455 Rich. Hatter ... 

1456 John Sheppard 

1457 Will. Caninges 



King's. 
Reign. 
Henrie 
Vi. 



. Thos. Mede. Tho. Ash, 

William Rainis 30 

,. Will. Howell. Tho. Kempson, 

Nicholas Longe 31 

. Philip Meade. Will. Hutton, 

John Cogan 32 

. Tho. Rogers. John Bagott, 

Robert Bolton 33 

. Will m . Dane. Henry Chester, 

John Jaie senior ... ... .. 34 

This yeare queene Margarett came to Bristoll wth manie Nobles and gentlemen. 

1458 William Coddar ... John Wicam. John George, 

Robert Bolton 35 

This yeare died Robert Bolton, and John Magwy was chosen in his Rome, l 

1459 Phillip Meade ... John Bagot. John Hawkes, 

John Jaie junior ... ... ... 36 

This yeare the Maior would have taken Thomas Talbot Esquier, and putt him in, 
prison for beating of John Wythe, Bcher, but he withstode the Maior, and exeschaped 
out of Temple gate. 

1460 Tho. Rogers Robert Jakes. John Seint. 

John Gaiwode 



1461 Will. Caninges 



Tho. Kempson. Will. Wedinton, 
Lewes Moris 



•• 37 



38 
Edwa. 
IV. 



1462 


Phillip Meade 


... Will. Spensar. Robert Strainge, 
Henry Browne 


1 


1463 


Will. Wicam ... 


... Rich. Alberton. Geoffery Griffith, 
John Foster ... 


.. 2 


1464 


John Sheppard 


... John Hawkes. Will. Birde, 
Walter Coston 


• 3- 


1465 


Will. Coddar... 


... John Cogan. John Exon, 

Will. Rokes 


• 4 


1466 


Will. Spensar 


... George Mersar. John Sheppard, 

Edm. Washcot 


• 5. 


1467 


Will. Caninges 


... John Gaiwode. Tho. Rowley, 
Walter Grimsteede... 


. 6- 


1468 


Robert Jakes ... 


... John Hepar. Will. Wikam, 
John Scriven 


• 7 


1469 


Phillip Meade 


... Robert Strainge. Jo. Goddard, 
Jo. Langcotten 


. 8 


1470 


John Sheppard 


... Will. Birde. Henry Vaughan, 
John Poke ... 


• 9 



1 Hooke's MS. says " Robert Ball, Bailiff, died, and John Milton succeeded." 

*** In the first column the first name is that of the Mayor, the second that of the: 
Sheriff. 



Two Bristol Calendars. 



125 







FOX MS. 


Years. 


Mayors & Sheriffs. 


Bailiffs. 


1453 


Robt. Sturney 


. Nicholas Long, 




Wm. Howell ... 


. Thos. Keynsham. 


*454 


Richard Hatter 


.. Wm. Hatton, 




Philip Mead .. 


. John Cogan. 


1455 


John Shipward 


. John Bagott, 




Thos. rogers ... . 


. XVULH. J30U1LVJ11. 


1456 


Wm. Cannings . 


.. Harry Chester, 




Wm. dyan 


. John Jay Sen. 


*457 


Wm. Coddor ... 


.. J onn Lreorge, 




John Wickham 


. Robt. Ball died, J. Milton 


1458 


Philip Mead ... 


.. John Hawkis, 




John Baggot ... 


.. John Jay Junr. 


1459 


Thos. Rogers 


. John Gaywood, 




Robert Jakes ... 


. John Saynt. 


1 460 


Wm. Cannings 


Wm. Widdington, 




Thos. Keynsham 


.. Lewis Morris. 


Edwd. 4. 




1461 


Phillip Mead... 


. Robert Strange, 




Wm. Spencer 


. Harry Brown. 


1462 


John Wickham 


.. John Forster, 




Richd. Alberton 


.. Galfrid Grifith. 


1463 


John Shipward 


.. Wm. Bird, 




John Hawkes... 


.. Watkin Coston. 


1464 


Wm. Spencer 


.. John Shipward, 




Geo. Mercer 


.. Ed. Westcote. 


1465 


Wm. Codder... 


.. Jno. Eyton, 




John Coggan ... 


.. Wm. Roaks. 


1466 


Wm. Cannings 


. Walter Glainseed, 




John Gaywood 


. Thomas rowley. 


1467 


Robert Jaques 


. Wm. Wickland, 




John Hopper... 


.. Jno. Scriven. 


1468 


Philip Mead ... 


.. Jno. Langeston, 




Robt. Strange 


.. Jno. Goddard. 


1469 


John Shipward 


.. Harry Vaughan, 




Wm. Bird 


.. John Poake. 


1470 


Thos. Keynsham 


.. John Stephens, 




Harry Chester 


.. Wm. dookat. 




John Sheppard 





*** In the first column the first name is that of the Mayor, the second that of the 
Sheriff. 



126 



Transactions for the Year 1894-95. 



ANNO 


Maiors 


Sheriffs and Bailiffs. 


DOMINI 


FFOR BRISTOLL. 


1471 


Thos. Kempson 


... Henry Chester. John Stephens, 
Will. Ducket 




Henrie Chester died and John Shepard kept out his yeare. 


1472 


John Hawkes... 


... Will. Widdington. Jo. Prinke, 
Jo. Esterfielde 


1473 


John Cogan ... 


... John Jaie. John Gourney, 

John Alberton 


1474 


Will. Spensar 


... Edmund Westcote. John Swaine, 
Thos. Flexall 


J 475 


Robert Strainge 


... John Forster. Will. Rowley, 
Thos. Hexton 


1476 


Will. Birde ... 


... Thos. Rowley. John Snige, 
Richard Sherman ... 


1477 


John Bagotte... 


... Will. Wicam. John Chester, 

Phillip Cabull 


I478 


John Shepard 


... Henry Vaughan. Jo. Badcok, 
Clement Wilshere ... 


1479 


Will. Spensar 


... John Steven. John Drewes, 
Richard Bonde 



King's. 
Reign. 
Edwa.. 
IV. 



13 



I 4 



15 



16 



17 



This yeare Thomas Norton l accused the Maior of Treson. the said Maior of 
volluntarie will yealded himself to newgatte, untill the matter came to the hearing of the 
Kinge, when it was heard, the King commended the Maior for his trewe service, and 
gave the said Norton litell thankes. 



1480 Edmund Wescote 



1482 



William Widdington , 
John Fostar ... 



John Powke. Jo. Griffith, 

Jo. Woswall 

Will. Ducket. Robert Bonack, 
Jo. Hounslowe 

John Pinke. Will. Regent, 
John Langforde 



19 



1483 Robert Strainge 

1484 Henry Vaughan 

1485 Will. Wicam ... 



Jo. Esterfild. Henry Dale, 
Tho. Baker als. Spicer 



John Stephens. John Vaughan, 
Will. Gaunsell 

John Swaine. John Heminge, 
Will. Spisar 



1486 Henry Vaughan 2 

1487 Will. Wicano 



, 22 
Rich. 
III. 



Henry- 
VII. 



Richard Shewman. Phillip Rugston, 

Hugh Jones 1 

John Snigge. John Jaie, 

Thomas Appowell ... ... ... 2 

This yeare the Kinge came to Bristoll, one Corpus Xti. eave. The maior with 300. 
burgesses went and met him in Reedfield all in grene, and at the Crose in New Market 
the clergie mete him in there best copes. At Newgatt receved with children singing and 
organs, thirdley reed, at St. Jones gate, and last by the Abote of St. Augustines. 3 

1 This Thomas Norton dwelt in the old House in St. Peter's Churchyard, now called 
St. Peter's Hospital. 

2" Edmund Westcot died 15 days alter his election as Mayor, and H. Vaughan 
succeeded." Hooke's MS. 

3 See Evans's Chronological Hist. Brist. p. 121, a.d. i486; and also Hooke's MS., a.d. 
1485. 

*** In the second column the first name is that of the Sheriff, the other two names, 
being those ot the Bailiffs. 



Two Bristol Calendars. 



127 



Years. Mayors & Sheriffs. 

147 1 John Hawkes - 
Wm. Wedington 

1472 John Coggan... 
John Jay 

1473 Wm. Spencer 
Ed. Westcott... 

1474 Robt. Strange 
John Foster ... 

1475 Wm. Bird 
Thos. Rowley 

1476 Wm. Baggott 
Wm. Wickham 

1477 John Ship ward 
Harry Vaughan 

1478 Wm. Spencer 
John Scryven 

1479 Edmd. Westcott 
John Pope 



FOX MS. 

Bailiffs. 

John Prihke, 

Jno. Easterfield. 

John Gurney, 

Jno. Gregory died. J. Alberton. 

John Swaine, 

Thos. Flexall. 

Thos. Haxton, 

Wm. Rowley. 

John Sugge, 

Richard Sherman. 

John Chester, 

Wm. Caple. 

Clement Wiltsheir, 

John Baddok. 

Jno. druce, 

Ricd. Bond, 

John Griffith, 

John Waswold. 



1480 Wm. Warrington 
Wm. deckett ... 

1481 John Foster ... 
John Pynke ... 

1482 Robert Strange 
James Easterfield 

Edwd. 5th. 

1483 Henry Vaughan 
Jno. Stephens 

Richd. 3rd. 

1484 Wm. Wickham 
Jno. Swyne 

1485 Edwd. Westcott 
Henry Vaughan 
Richd. Sherman 

1486 Wm. Wickham 
Jno. Snigg 

1487 Jno. Easterfield 
John Snigg ... 



John Huntslow, 
Robt. Bonocke. 
Wm. Regent, 
Jonn Langford. 
Thos. Spicer, 
Wm. Spencer. 

Jno. Vaughan, 
Wm. Gounsell. 



Jno. Heming, 
Wm. Spencer. 
Philip Kingston, 
Hugh Jones. 

Thos. Powel, 
John Jay. 
Thos. Powel, 
John Jay. 



*** In the first column the first name is that of the Mayor, the second that of the 
Sheriff. 



128 Transactions for the Year 1894-95. 

1488 John Esterfild 

1489 John Pink 



King's 
Reign. 
Henrie 
VII. 

John Chester. Nicholas Browne, 

John Walshe ... ... ... 3 

Clement Wilshere. John Howell, 

John Hurler ... ... ... 4 

This yeare the Kinge sent for the Maior and two Bailiffs to London because the BailiJs 
took certain Irishmen with Irish monie and putt them in newgate. 

1490 Robert Strainge ... Thorns. Baker. Robert Forttie, 

John Tailor ... ... ... ... 5 

Willm. Regent. Richard Vaughan, 

George Mullons 6 

Henrie Dale. John Foster, 

David Cogan 7 



1491 John Stevens... 

1492 William Duckett 



1493 Clement Wilshere ... Jno. Drewes. Edward Dawes, 

Jno. Poplie 8 

Clement Wilshire, Maior, departed this liffe on St. John's daie, and was worshippffullie 
buried, and John Haucks was chosen in his place. 



1494 


Henrie Vaughan 


... Phi. Riguston. Phi. Grene, 
Thorns. Kemys 


9 


1495 


Jno. Esterfield 


... Mathew Jubbes. John Estbie, 






John Rowlande 


10 


1496 


Willm. Regent 


... Nicholas Browne. David Leisand, 




Jo Morgan, brewer 


11 


1497 


John Drewes ... 


... Henry Brewer als Jones. Tho. 






Vaughan, Jno. Elliot 


12 


1498 


Henry Dale ... 


... Richard Vaughan. John Spensar, 
William Lane 


13 


1499 


Phillip Ringstone 


... Johnjaie. Jno. Vaughan, Tho. Wescote 


14 



1500 


Nicholas Browne 


... Phi. Greene. Rich. Hobie, Walter Rise 

Shiriffes. 


15 


1 501 


Rich. Vaughan 


... Hugh Elliot, John Batten 


16 


1502 


George Molens 


... Thomas Parnell, Thomas Snigge 


17 


1503 


Hugh Jones ... 


... John Collad, John Cabull 


18 


1504 


Henry Dale ... 


... Richard Americk, Willm. Bedford ... 


19 


1505 


David Phillips als.\ 
Cogan j 


.. Willm. Geffery, Edmond Pinson 


20 


1506 


Roger Daws ... 


... Thomas Smith, John Harris, 

Tho. Elliot 


21 




Thomas Elliott died, and Thomas Smith l served out his yeare. 




1507 


Phillip Kingstone 


... William Edwardes, John Atwells 


22 




Phillip Kingstone, Maior, died, and Richard Vaughan succeeded him. 




1508 


John Vaughan 


... John Edwardes, bruer, Simon Greves 


23 



1509 Richard Hobie ... Jno. Mathew, draper, William Nele, 

pointmaker ... ... ... ... 24 

1 Thos. Snigge— Hooke's MS. 
*** In the second column the first name is that of the Sheriff, the other two names 
being those of the Bailiffs. 



Two Bristol Calendars. 



129 



Years. Mayors & Sheriffs 

1488 Jno. Pynke ... 
Clement Wiltshire 

1489 Robert Strange 
Thos. Spicer ... 

1490 John Stevens... 
Willm. Regent 

1491 William Docket 
Harry Dale ... 

1492 Clemt. Wiltshire 
Jno. Hawkes ... 
Jno. Drew 

1493 Harry Vaughan 
Philip Kingston 



FOX MS. 

Bailiffs. 

... John Holler, 

... John Howell. 

. . . John Taylor, 

... Robert Terly. 

. . . Richard Vaugh an , 
... Geo. Mullins. 
... David Cogan, 
... Jno. Fisher. 
... Jno. Papley, 
... Roger Davis. 

... Philip Green, 
... Thos. Raynes. 



1494 Jno. Easterfield 
Mattw. Gubbe 

1495 William Regent 
Nichs. Brown 

1496 Jno. Drew 
Hugh Jones ... 

1497 Henry Deal ... 
Richard Vaughan . 

1498 Philip Kingston 
Jno. Joy 

1499 Nichs. Brown 
Philip Green ... 

Mayors. 

Chosen the 

1500 George Mullins 



.. Jno. Rowland, 
.. Wm. Eastby. 
.. David Lison, 
.. Jno. le Morgan. 
., Thos. Vaughan, 
.. Jno. Elliot. 
.. Wm. Lane, 
.. Jno. Spencer. 
.. Jno. Vaughan, 
.. Tips. Westcott. 
.. Richd. Hobby, 
.. Walr. Rees. 

Sheriffs. 
15 Sepr. & sworn in the 29 Sepr. 
.. Hugh Elliott, Jno. Button. 



1501 Richd. Vaughan ... Thos. Pennant, Thos. Snigg. 

1502 Hugh Jones ... ... Jno. Collos, Jno. Cable. 

1503 Henry Deal ... ... Richd. ap Merrick, R. Thorn, Wm. Bedford. 

1504 David Coggon ... Wm. Jeffries, Edmond Person. 

1505 Roger Davis Thos. Elliott, Thos. Snigg, Jno. Harris. 



1506 St K VaSgh 0 an died 'l Wm. Edwards, Jno. Atwell. 



1507 Jno. Vaughan 



Jno. Edwards a Brewer, Simon Jarves. 



1508 Richd. Hobby 

Heny. 8th. 

1509 Jno. Cable 



Jno. Mathews, Draper, William Neale, 
Pointmaker. 

Jno. Williams, Jno. Wilkins Whitawer. 



*** In the first column the first name is that of the Mayor, the second that of the 
Sheriff. 

IO 

Vol. XIX. 



130 



ANNO 
DOMINI 



15" 
1512 

1513 
1 5 I 4 



Transactions for the Year 1894-95. 



Maiors 
ffor bristoll. 



1510 John Cabull ... 



John Popley ... 
John Rowland 
John Elliot ... 
William Bedford 



Sheriffs. 



King's 
Reign. 
Henry 
VIII. 



Jno. Williams, bruer, John Chapman, 

waiter 1 

Robert Hutton, Raph Apprice ... 2 

John Hutton, Humfrey Browne ... 3 

Thomas Dale, Thomas Brooke, tucker 4 

John Shipman, William Owsley ... 5 



1515 Robert Thorne ... John Ware, Richard Tonnell ... ... 6 

Naileheart. This yeare deceased Jno. Nailor, Abotte of St. Augustins, who new buylte 
most pt. of the Church, and after him was chosen Mr. Elliot, who was Staled the 4th of 
October, 1515. 



1 5 16 Roger Dawes .. 



William Vaghen, Richard Habington 7 



1 517 John Vaughan 



Thomas Pacie, grocer, Edward Paine, 
tucker .. 



1518 Robert Hobie ... John Rep, John Drewes ... ... 9 

This yeare decesed Robert Hobie on the Annunciton of our Ladie which was 
Thursday in Passion weeke, and John Jaie was chosen in his place. There was an owell 
costome in the m'kett that only one did paie ob for pitchinge there, paing to the prison 
of Newgate, wherefore one Richard Habington gave a livelihode for order to the said 



preson. 
1519 

1520 
1521 
1522 



So broke of that owell costome. l 



John Edwardes 

John Williams 
Roger Dawes... 
John Shipman 



1523 John Rowland 2 



John Haule, merchaunt, Willm. Dale 

Poticarie ... 

Clement Base, Robert Salbridge 
William Shipman, Robert Aventre 
Robert Elliot, Roger Cooke, tanner 

William Chester, Gilbert Cogan 



1524 John Wilkins... 

1525 John Hutton ... 

1526 Richard Abington 

1 527 Thomas Brooke 

1528 John Ware ... 

1 529 Richard Tonnell 

1530 John Shipman 

1531 Thomas White 

1532 Thomas Pacie 

1533 Clement Base 

1534 William Shipman 

1535 Roger Cooke ... 

1536 John Hutton ... 

1537 Richard Abington 

1 The Hooke MS., under the date 

" i5iS - frjov" 0 "'}^- 

Hobby dyed and Joy supplyed. 

Whereas there was a custom in Bristol for Reelif of the prisoners in Newgate that 
every person of the country that brought anything to sell should pay to the Goaler for 
pitching down every pot or sack one half-penny, but because the Goalers turned it to 
their own profitt, therefore Mr. Richd. Abbington with the consent of this Mayor, Mr. Joy, 
to reform this Abuse, and so ease the Country people, did put down this disordered cus- 
tome, and the said Mr. Abbington of his own cost purchased for the prisoners a perpetuall 
stipend to find them victuals, wood and straw." 

2 "John Rowland died, and Wm. Wooley succeeded." — Hooke MS. 



Robert Chepman, John Davis... 
Thos. Gefferies, John Springe... 
Henry White, John Gervis 
George Badram, David Larence 
Thomas Nash, David Hutton... 
Nicholas Thorne, John Thorne 
William Kelk, Thomas Silk ... 
George Haull, Nicholas Freman 
William Care, John Mauncell... 
John Smith, William Pike 
William Appowell, Anthonie Paine 
John Brampton, Nicholas Wodhous 
Thomas Harte, John Northall 
Richard Prin, Thomas Moore 



[516, gives:— 

John Reepe, 
John Druce, 



Sheriffs. 



13 

16 

18 
19 

20 



23 
24 

25 
26 

27 
28 



Two Bristol Calendars. 



131 



FOX MS. 



Years. 


Mayors. 


. Sheriffs. 


1510 


Jno. Popley ... 


... Robert Hallan, Ralph Aprecks. 


I5II 


Jno. Rowland 


... Jno. Hatten, Humphrey Brown. 


1512 


Jno. Elliot 


... Thos. Deal, Thos. Brook. 


1513 


Wm. Bedford 


... William Wolsey, Jno. Shipman. 


1514 


Robert Thorn 


... Jno. Ware, Merchant, Richard 




Draper. 


1515 


Roger Daws ... 


... Richd. Abbington, Wm. Vaughan, 



1516 ?ih h n d Jay 0bby . died '} *»■ R ^ *■* ^ 

1517 John Edwards ... Jno. Howell, Mercht.,Wm. Deal, Apothecary. 

1518 John Williams, Brewer Clement Base, Robert Sailbridge. 



1519 Roger Dawes Wm. Shipman, Robt. Aventry. 

1520 Jno. Vaughan ... Thos. Pacy, Mercer, Edwd. Paine. 

1521 Jno. Shipman ... Robert Elliott, Roger Cook, Tanner. 

1522 Jn w^ 0 Wo a ok d ey died '} Gilber ' C ° Sgan ' Wm ' CheS ' er ' Pointmaker ' 

1523 ' Tl Cha^man mS '.."'"' 5 } Robert Chapman, John David 

1524 John Hutton Thos. Jeffries, John Springis. 

1525 Richd. Abbington ... Henry White, Jno. Jarvis. 

1526 Thos. Brook Geo. Bathram, David Laurence. 

1527 Jno. Ware, Merchant Wm. Nash, Brewer, David Hutton, Grocer. 

1528 Richd Tonnell, Draper Nichs. Thorn, John Thorn, Merchants. 

1529 John Shipman ... Wm.Yealke, Mercht., Thos. Silk, Cardmaker. 

1530 Thos. White George Hawle, Robt. Adams, Tanner. 

1531 Thos. Pacy, Mercer ... Wm. Carry, Jno. Mancell. 

1532 Clemt. Base ... ... Jno. Smith, Wm. Dickes. 

1 533 Wm. Shipman ... Wm. ap Powel, Anthony Pyne. 

1534 Roger Cook, Tanner... Jno. Bramton, Nich. Woodhouse. 

x 535 J no - Hatton, Draper Thos. Heart, Mercht. , Jno. Northol.Pewterer. 

1536 Richd. Abbington .., Richd. Prim, Thos. Moor. 

1537 ^alfer 65 ' 61 "' 1°^"} Thos - Winsmore, Rowland Coper. 



IO * 



132 

ANNO 
DOMINI 



Transactions for the Year 1894-95. 

King's 

MAIORS SHFRTFFq REIGN. 

FFOR BRISTOLL. SHERIFFS. HENRY 

VIII. 

1538 William Chestar ... Thomas Winsmoore, Rowland Cooper 29 
This yeare was putt downe the iiii. orders of Fryers in Bristoll, and also the Imagges 
of Saintes, and pillgrimages, in all Ingland besides. 

Thos. Gefferis ... David Harris, William Jaie ... 
John Springe... ... William Rowley, William Yonge 



1539 
154° 

154 1 Robert Elliot 

1542 Roger Cooke.. 
This yeare Bristoll was made a Citie. 

This yeare was the first Bishopp apointed for Bristoll, with a dean and sixe cannons, 
and tock possession 14th daie of August, and was worthelie receaved. 



William Spratt, Richard Mors 
Richard Wattey, Robert Saxie 



30 
3i 
32 
33 



1543 Henry White : 



William Ballard, William Pepwall ... 34 



1544 Thomas Pacie ... Francis Codrington, Thos. Lannsdown 35 

1545 Nicholas Thorne ... John Gourney, Roger Jones 36 

1546 Robert Adams ... Richard Davis, William Carre ... 37 



1547 William Carie 



John Awells, Thomas Jocam 



.. 38 
Edward 
VI. 

I 



1548 John Smith ... ... Thomas Harris, William Tindall 

1549 William Pikes ... John Matho, Edward Teinte ... ... 2 

This yeare the 19 of Maie, a companie of Bristol people of the Citie, made a tumoult 
or Rising, and pulled downe all Inclosures about the Citie, and did with stand the Maior 
and Rulers, for wch. most pt. weare punished with Imprisonment here in Newgate, and 
some sent to London, where they laie longe in prison. 2 

1550 William Jaie ... ... Edward Prim, John Stones ... ... 3 

This yeare the 26 daie of Aprill, 1550, there was a peace proclaymed in birstoll 
betwene England, France and Scotland. 
This yeare the Towlssey was buylded. 

1551 David Harris... ... Roger Phillpot, Thos. Seward ... 4 

This yeare was purchased a Faire in Temple Strett in Bristoll to be houlden on the 
25 daie of January, and so endure vii. daies. 

1552 Roger Cooke ... ... William Jones, Nicholas Williams, 

als. Wodhouse ... ... ... 5 

1553 William Chester ... — Tyson, Anthonie Standback ... 6 

QUEENE 

Marie 

1 554 John Northall ... John Pikes, John Pikes Junior ... 1 
This yeare there was a Free scolle buylded in bristoll by Sir Thomas White of Lon- 
don, who also gave 20oo£ to the Citie to purchase landes to the use of the pore Clothiers 
of the Citie of Bristoll and other places. 3 

1555 John Smith ... ... Giles White, John Cutte ... ... 2 

This yeare weare Sartayne men hanged, drawne, and quartered, in this citie for making 
ofbademonie. There names were John Walton, Gilbert Shether, White and Hoddie; 
there Ptes. was sett upon divers pts. of the Citie. 

1556 William Yonge ... Thomas Shipman, John Griffeth ... 3 



1557 



Robert Saxie. 



George Snige, William Butler 



1558 William Pepwall ... William Tucker, Arthur Ricardes ... 5 

This yeare died Paule Bushe the first bishope of bristoll, and was buried at St. 
Augustin's the xviiith of October, 1558. 

This yeare also died Doctor Owen, the 19 of October, who was borne in bristoll and 
was Physision to Queene Marie. 

1 " Henry White died, and John Keep succeeded." — Hooke MS. 

2 This riot was in "the Marsh," now Queen's Square. — See Hooke MS. 

3 See Evans' Citron. His., pp. 145 and 149.— 1555 and 1566. 



Two Bristol Calendars. 



133 



FOX MS. 

Years. Mayors. Sheriffs. 

1538 Thos. Jeffries ... David Harris, Wm. Jay, Apothecaries. 

J 539 John Springe Wm. Rowley, Wm. Young. 

1540 Robt. Elliot, Mercht. Wm. Sprat, Merchant, Robert Morce, Baker. 

1 541 Roger Cook, Tanner... The Sheriffs the same as last year. 

1542 Thos. Parry Senr. ... Francis Coddrington, Thos. Landsdown. 



1543 H Ke r e y p W Hl g be t rd J ° hn } Wm " Ballard ' Wm " Pa P wa11 ' Grocer - 

1544 . Nichs. Thorn. . .. Jno. Gurnay, Roger Jones, Grocer. 

1545 Robt. Adams, Tanner Wm. Carr, Mercht., Richd. Davis, Baker. 

1546 Wm. Carry, Draper... Jno. Wells, Sope maker, Thos. Joakim, als. 

Jocham. 

Edwd. 6th. 

1547 John Smith ... ... Thomas Harris, Wm. Tindal. 



1548 Wm. Pikes Edwd. Tainte, John Mathew. 

1549 Wm. Jay, Apothecary Edwd. Prinn, Jno. Stone, Brewer. 



Apothecy. 

} Roger Philips, Grocer, Thos. Steward. 

1551 Roger Cook, Tanner... Wm. Jones, Nicholas Williams. 

1552 Wm. Chester, Points ™ u ~ . , 

maker ( Thos. Tyson, Anthony Standback. 

Mary. 

1553 Thos. Northal, ^ Jno. Pikes, Mercer, Thos. Pikes, Merchant, 

Pewterer ... / 2 Brothers. . . 

1554 Jn°- Smith Giles White, John Cuffe. 



1555 Wm. Young, Grocer Thos. Shipman, Mercht., Jno. Griffiths, 

Upholder. 

1556 Robert Saxey, Draper Geo. Snigg, Mercht., Wm. Buttler, Shoe- 

maker. 

1557 Wm. Pepwell, Grocer Wm. Tucker, Draper, Arthur Richards, 

Glover. 

1558 Robert Adams.Tanner Jno. Brown, Merchant, Jno. Prewit, Tanner. 



134 



Transactions for the Year 1894-95. 



ANNO 
DOMINI 



Maiors 
ffor bristoll. 



Sheriffs. 



Queen's 
Reign. 
Elizabeth. 



1559 Robert Adams 



... John Browne, John Pruett 



1 



Mr. Robert Adams being Maior was sent for by the Queen's Councell upon Infor. of 
some of his owne unhonest burgesses. Butt he was well discharged and thereon met him 
at Marshfeild 300 horsemen, and 200 footmen for joye. He kept a Comon table, going and 
coming. He had his men in livere with the Stuard and Chambarlyne. 

1560 Roger Jones ... ... Thomas Chester, Thomas Kelk ... 2 

John Willis was chosen sheriffe for the yeare to come, who reffused yt Sweringe he 
was not worth 2oo£ and gott the Queen's letters for his discharge and was nevertheless 
thought to be worth soo£. 

1561 William Carre ... Nicholas Soudley, George Higgins ... 3 

This yeare the Maire took order for the Releving of the pore of the cittie to keepe 
them from going abrode to men's dores, towardes wen. the Dean and Prebendaries of St. 
Augustin's gave 40 marks a yeare. 

1562 John Pikes Thomas Colleston, John Wade ... 4 

1 5^>3 John Stones John Robertes, William Belshere ... 5 

1564 Nicholas Williams ... Richard Davis, Thomas Yonge ... 6 

1565 Anthony Standback... Edmund Jones, Thomas Slocombe ... 7 

This yeare one Mr. Reede the townes Attorney erected a Wyne Mill on Brandon 
hill, where before St. Brandon's Chapell stode. 

This yeare there was a great Plague in Bristoll, The number that died from September 
in Anno 1564 untill September 1565 was 2070. 

1566 John Northall ... William Yonge, John Jones ... ... 8 

William Yonge being chosen one of the sheriffes, kept himself out untill new-yeare's 
daie. 

This yeare came 700 suldiers in August to go to Irland against pt. of this 

souldiers made a tumult with the watchmen for wch. cause there Generall having 
M'shall authorite condemned 4 of them to die on a gibett put up in the High Strett, ther 
nams weare Herringe; Silverton ; Luens; Caro Garett, the drommer, and a Gouldsmith 
prentise of bristol, but afterwards pardoned. 

I 5^>7 John Cutte Philip Langley, Thomas Aldworth ... 9 

This yeare there was 3 ships of Bristoll being fuliie laden, spoiled by French rovers. 

1568 William Pepwall ... Dominic Chester, Walter Pikes ... 10 
This the Ducke of Norffock came from Bath to Bristoll, the 23 of Maie, the morrowe 

after went to Redcliffe and hard a sermon and from there to Temple Church to here the 
bells Rynge to see the shaking of the Tower. 

1569 John Stones Robert Smith, Thomas Kirkland ... 11 

This yeare Robert Smith died and Richard Davie was chosen in his place. The said 
Davie died the 9 of August, and Richard Yonge was Chosen in his place and served out 
the yeare. 

1570 Thomas Chester ... Thomas Rowland, Richard Cole ... 12 

This yeare the Earle of Bedfforde came to Bristoll and his sone, with manie knights 
and gentlemen, and remayned vii. daies at Mr. Higgins in Smal strete. 

1571 William Tucker ... William Hickes, John Barnes 13 

This yeare the markett in St. Thomas street was purchased for a Woll mk'tt to be 
houlden on y Thursdaie for ever, if god p'mytte. 

1572 John Stones Randalffe Hassaie, Thomas Warren... 14 

This yeare the Countis of huntington came from Ragland to Bristoll with a goodlie 
Companie, and Lodged at Mr. Thos. Chester's in broodstreete. 

This yeare one John Kinester a sherman, kild his wiffe, and gave her 25 woundes and 
then cast her out at Wyndow, for wch. fact he was hanged. 

1573 John Browne William Gittons, Robert Kitchinge ... 15 

1574 Thomas Keble ... Edward Porter, William Birde ... 16 

This yeare the 13 daie of August 1574, the Queen's Matie. came to bristoll, and departed 
the 20 of the same month and laie at Sir John Younge's howse. 



Two Bristol Calendars. 



135 



FOX MS. 

Elizabeth. Mayors. Sheriffs. 



1559 Roger Jones, Grocer Thos. Kelke, Mercht, Thos. Chester. 



1560 Wm. Clare, Mercht. Micl. Sandy, Apothecary, Geo. Higgiris 

Mercer. 



1561 John Pikes ... 



1562 Nichs. Williams, ) Thos. Young, Sopemaker, Richd. Davis, 

Taylor ... j Draper. 

1563 John Stone, Brewer .. . Wm. Belchier, Mercer, Jno. Roberts, 

Draper. 

1564 Arthur^Standback, j Edwd . Jone s, Thos. Slocomb, Draper. 

1565 Jn pewt 0 ere h r a11, } Wm " Young ' Wm " Jones - 



1566 John Cutt Philip Langley, Grocer, Thos. Aldsworth, 

Mercht. 



1567 Wm. Papwell ... Dominick Chester, do., Walter Pikes, Draper. 

1568 John Stone, Brewer ... Thos. Brickland, Robert Smith died, Richd. 

Curry died, Richd. Young. 



1569 Thos. Chester, Mercht. Richd. Cole, Mercer, Thos. Rowland, Mercht. 

1570 Wm. Tucker, Draper Wm. Hicks, Mercht., Jno. Barns, do. 



1571 Jno. Stone, Brewer ... Thos. Warren, Sope maker, Randal Hassell, 

Tucker. 

1572 John Merchant ... Wm. Gittens, Robt. Kitchen, Merchts. 



1573 
!574 



Thos. Kelke, Merct. Edward Porter, Wm. Bird, Drapers. 
Geo. Snigge, Mercht... Wm. Salthorn, Robt. Houlton. 



136 Transactions for the Year 1894-95. 



ANNO MAIORS. 
DOMINI FFOR BRISTOLL. 



Queen's 

Sheriffs. Reign. 



Elizabeth.. 

1 575 George Snigge ... Robert Halton, William Salterne ... 17 
This yeare there was a Plage in bristoll. 

This yeare was order taken in bristoll for orphanes and there goodes. The 23 of 
June 1575, died John Stones, Alderman, three times Maior. 

1576 John Pruette ... ... Michael Pepwall, Nicholas Blake ... 18 

1577 John Wade ... ... John Ashe, Richard Ashhurst .. ... 19 

1578 Thomas Colstone ... William Hopkins, Walter Standfast... 20 

1579 John Robertes ... William Pruett, Raph Dole ... ... 21 

1580 Thomas Yonge ... George Badram, Francis Knight ... 22 

1581 Thomas Slocombe ... William Parphey, William Yate .. 23 

This yeare went certaine souldiers from Br. to Ireland to the Lord Graie being 
Generall who with the helpe of the Erie of Ormunde and Sir Wm. Wintel wth. pt. of the 
navy being then there supressed the Rebellious Romans that came thither against the 
queen's fources. 

1582 Phillip Langley ... Bartholomew Cooke, 

Humphrey Andrewes ... ... 24 

This yeare was the Citie of Bristoll divided in government to a xi. aldermen. 

1583 Thomas Aldworth ... John Webbe, Thomas Pollington ... 25 
This yeare deceased the Chamberlyne, named (Mr. Holton) and in his place was 

chosen Nicholas Thorne. 

This yeare deceased and laie unburied at one instant, three aldermen, viz.: Thomas 
Chester, Thomas Kelke, they both being shireffes together. The third was Mr. William 
Tucker, alderman. 

1584 Walter Pikes Walter Davis, William Ellis 26 

1585 Thomas Rowland ... Rice Jones, Richard Kelk 27 

1586 Richard Cole... .... Henry Gouth, John Harte 28 

1587 William Hikes ... Edward Longe, John Hopkinge ... 29 

1588 John Barnes William Vawre, Raph Hurte 30 

1589 Robert Kitchen ... Nicholas Hobbes, John Oliver ... 31 

1590 William Birde ... John Whitson, Christopher Kedgwin 32 
This William Birde, Maior, gave at his dethe £500 towards the mayntence of the- 

hospitall in Bristoll ; also this yeare the hospitall was buylded, and xii. poore children 
placed in yt. 

1591 William Hopkins ... Hugh Griffin, George Snowe 33 

1592 Walter Standfast ... Thomas James, Walter Williams ... 34 

1593 Thomas Aldworth ... Richard Mayer, John Yonge 35 

This yeare died Sargeant Hannam, Recorder of Bristoll, and George Snygge Esquier 
was chosen Recorder in his place. 

1594 Michael Pepwall ... John Barker, Richard Smith 36 

1595 Fraunces Knighte ... Thomas Pitcher, Matthew Haviland... 37 

This yeare on the 24 of Aprill came General Norris 1 to Bristoll, with 50 great horses 
and passed to Irlande. 

1596 William Parphet ... Richard Rogers, John Slye ... ... 38 

This yeare there was 300 trayne souldiers chosen in the Citie of Bristoll, Mr. John 
Hopkins being appointed M'Master and John Oliver, merchant, Captaine. 

1 Hooke's MS., " Morris." 



Two Bristol Calendars. 



137 



FOX MS. 

Years. Mayors. . Sheriffs. 

1575 Jno. Priest, Tanner... Michl.. Papwell, Mercht., Nichs. Blake, 

Soapmaker. 

1576 John Wade, Upholder John Ashe, Sopemaker, Richd. Althurst. 

1577 Thos. Collston, Mercer Wm. Hopkins, Fishmonger, Walter Stand- 

fast, Mercht. 

1578 John Roberts, Draper Wm. Prewett, Draper, Ralph Deal. 

1579 Thos. Young, Soap-) Geo. Botheram, Merchant, Francis Knight, 



maker ... f do 

1580 Thos. Slocombe 



DrapIr C ° mbe ' } Wm> Parb y e ' Wm - Yeats - Soapmaker. 
1851 Philip Langley, Grocer Barthw. Cook, Goldsmith, Jno. Andrews^ 

Hooper. 



1582 Thos. Aldworth, 1 Thos. Phollington, Mercht. Jno. White, 

Mercht. ... / Draper. 

1583 Walter Pikes, Mercht. Walter Davis, Grocer, Wm. Ellis, Merchant. 



1584 Thos. Rowland, \ -r>- T t>- i_j -v n 

Mercht J -^- lce <J° nes » Richd. Kelke. 

1585 Richd. Cole, Mercer... Henry Gough, Mercht., Jno. Heart, Draper 

1586 Wm. Hickes, Mercht. E*dwd. Long, Draper, Jno. Hopkins, Mercht. 

1587 John Barons, Mercht. Wm. Vawer, Cork cutter, Ralph Heart, 

Grocer. 

1588 

1589 W T m. Bird, Draper ... Jno. Witson, Mercht., Christopher Kedgwin, 

Grocer. 

1590 Wm^Hopkins, Fish- j Q eo Snow, Draper, Hugh Griffith, Mercht. 

1591 Walter ^Stanfast, j Thos j ameS) Walr williamS) Merchants. 

Mercht. 3r ! h ' } Richd - Ma y Senr - James Youn ^' Mercht - 

1593 Michl. Papwell, do. .. Jno. Barker, Mercht., Richd. Smith, Tanner. 



1594 Francis Knight, Mercer Matlhw. Haviland, Mercer, Thos. Pitcher, 

Draper. 

*595 Wm. Parfyt, Vintner Richd. Rogers, Jno. Sly, Sopemaker. 



1596 Wm. Yate, Sopemaker Jno. Butler, Draper, Robt. Aldworth, 

Mercht. 



Transactions for the Year 1894-95. 



anno Majors Sheriffs C 

DOMINI FFOR BRISTOLL. S — S - EmIImTH 

1597 William Yate John Butcher, Robert Aldworth ... 39 



1598 John Webbe John Eglesfield, Richard George ... 40 

This yeare the weeke before St. Jamstide there went 800 souldiers from Bristoll to 

rlande against Tyrone. 

1599 William Ellis .. ... William Carie, Abell Kitchin... ... 41 

This yeare the weeke after Paulstide 1000 ffottmen and 100 horsmen redie furnished 
to Irlande ; also the 29 of March went 1200 pitmen (pikemen ?) more. 

1600 John Harte ... ... William Colstone, John Harrison ... 42 

This yeare (died ?) John Harte and Rice Jones, merchant, was chosen Maior in his 

place, who served out the yeare. 

This yeare came from Irland to Bristoll 800 souldiers. 

1601 John Hopkins ... John Boulton, Thomas Hopkins ... 43 
This yeare the 23 of Januy. was shipped from Bristoll to Irland 400 Souldiers. 

This yeare was the Cundit at the Key new buylded at the charges of viz. the pshe. £10. 
John Barker, merchant, gave £25 ; the executors of Alderman Kitchin gave £10. William 
Hopkins and Thomas Hopkins, brothers, gave one ton of ledd, and the rest the Chambre 
paide. 

1602 William Vawre ... William Hopkins, John Fowens ... 44 
This yeare was shipped from Bristoll to Irlande, manie souldiers at severall tymes, to 

the number of 2000. 

This yeare the Cunditt of All Hallowes was new buylded at the charges of the Church 
stocke with new pipes of leed from the head springe. 

1603 Raph Hurte ... ... John Aldworth, Thomas Farmer ... 45 

In this yeare in the mounth of Julie, 1603, began the gretest plage that ever was in 
Bristoll, which continewed untill the mounth of Januarie 1604, and died the number of 
3000 and more. 

James I. 

1604 John Whitson ... William Barnes, George Richardes ... 1 



1605 Christopher Kedgwyne William Cole, George Hannington ... 2 

1606 Thomas James ... John Rowborowe, John Guye, Vic. ... 3 
In the begininge of this Maior's yeare, Sir George Snigge being Recorder of the Citie 

of Bristoll, gave over his place and in his rome Mr. Hide, a Councellor, was chosen 
recorder. 

This yeare there was a parliament held. Mr. Thomas James then being maior was 
chosen burgess for the Citie and did suplie the places. 

The 2 of April 1606 there was drowned going abord a shipp in Kingrode called the 
Concorde which was boundings for Newfoundland^, 12 men and boies being of the shipes 
companie 

The 7 of Maie 1606 there was a woodbushel cast awaie comminge from Chepstow to 
Bristoll, wherein weare 36 parsons. 4 of them was saved and 32 drowned. 

This yeare there was a star seen in the Ellement in St. James weeke, at none daies: 
also this yeare there was a sowe varowed a pigg which had an eye in the midell of the 
forheed. 

1607 John Barker ... ... Thomas Parker, John Doughtie, Vic. ... 4 

This yeare the Mayor died the daie beffore election daie for the year ffowinge,2 and 
Mr. Richard Smith, alderman, was chosen mayor ffor the rest of his tyme which was but 
xiiii. daies. 

One Tuesdaie being the 20 of Januy. 1606 there was such a floud by means of a hie 
Springe, in Bristoll, and all the countries aboute, that the tyde did ryse in some places 12 
ffotte above the ordynarie height, by whch means the citizens sustained great losse of 
goodes and in the mores, in , and lowe grounds of the Country aboute c iryed awaie 

manie houses, and manie people weare drowned, and greate store of catle loste. God of 
his Infinite mercie deffend and keepe us from the licke againe. 

One Wensdaie beinge the iiiith of ffebrarie 1606 at neight there was an earth quake in 
manie places of the Citie, and Countrys aboute to the amasement of manie people. 

This yeare much Shipe wracke befell one the Seas to Bristoll men and to other places 
of the lande. 

This yeare the new Slipe at the lower ende of the Keye was new buyldei and manie 
places of the key new repayred. 

This yeare there was a ffaire gallerie erected and buyht in St. Austyn's Church for 
the maior and his Bretherene with the rest of the Common Counsell to heare Sermons. 
1607-1608 Mathew haviland . Robert Rogers, Arthur Needes, Vic... 5 

This yeare the price of Corne began to rise in England, butt by the Mayor of Bristoll 
and other merchaunts that caused store of danske3 corne to be brought in, the prise was 
still kept downe. 

1 Boats from Wales were so called. 
2 John Barker died 13 Sept. 1607; see Mathew's Chronicle, Bristol Library, No. 712. 
3 i.e. Dantzic. 



Two "Bristol Calendars. 



139 



FOX MS. 

Years. Mayors. .. ; r : Sheriffs. 

1 597 John Webb, Draper... Jno. Eaglesiield, Mercer, Richd. George, 

Brewer. 

1598 Wm. Ellis, Mercht. ... Wm. Carry, Draper. Abel Kitchen, Mercht. 



1599 Jno. Heart, Draper, 

died ... V Wm. Colston, Mercht., Jno. Harrison, Mercer 

Rice Jones, Mercht. J 

1600 Jno. Hopkins, Mercht. Jno. Bolton, Thos. Hopkins, Merchts. 



1 601 Wm. Vawer, Card 



maker ^ j Jno. Towings, Wm. Hopkins, Merchts. 



1602 Ralph Heart, Grocer . Thos. Farmer, Vintner, Jno. Aldworth, 

Mercht. 

James 1st. 

1603 Jno. Whitson, Mercht. Wm. Barnes, Tucker, Geo. Richards, Point- 

maker. 

1604 Christogher^Ked- j Wm Coke> Mercht f G Harrington, Brewer. 

1605 Thos. James, Mercht. Jno. Rowborow, Jno. Guy, Merchants. 

1606 Jno. Baker, Mercht. 1 * 

Richd. Smith, I Thos. Parker, Jno. Douty, Mercht. 

Tanner 



1607 Mathw. Havyland 



Robt. Rogers, Sopemaker, Arthur Needs, 
Draper. 



140 Transactions for the Year 1894-95. 

FOX MS. 

1226 This year S*- ffrancis the Patron of the Fryer Monasteries came to 
Bristol. 

1231 Richard Abbot of Keynsham died, and Sir John of Swainshead 
succeeded. 

1257 This year so great a famine that one Bushell of Wheat was sold for 
16/-. 

1 31 1 This year a Charter was purchased for the King to have two. 
Bailiffs in the Town of Bristol. 

1 316 This year was such a dearth and famine with such mortality that 
the living were scarce sufficient to bury the dead. The Prisoners 
in the Prison in Bristol did pluck and teare those that were 
newly brought in, and devoured them half alive. 

1325 This year Sir Hugh Spencer the Elder was executed at Bristol and 
hanged in chains of Iron in Bristol. 

1 37 1 This year the King granted to the Town of Bristol to have a 
Sherrief and two Bayleys besides the Mayor. The Sherrief to be 
for the King, and the Baylifs for the Worshipfull town of Bristol 
for there was a Mayor and two Prepositers and two Aldermen 
for two Justices, after that two Baylifs instead of the two 
Prepositers and now a Sherrif with the two Bayliffs. 

1441 W m - Cannings the Mayor for this year with the help of others of the 
town of Bristol kept Masons and Workmen to repair and beautify 
cover and glaze the Church of S*- Mary Redcliff which his 
grandfather had founded in the reign of Edward the 3rd. 

1470 This year the Prince and Duke of Somersett and the Lord 
Somersett were in Brtstol from whence they went to Tewksbury 
and vanquished the Queen, King Henry's wife, and took her and 
her son prisoner. 

1473 This year the Earl of Oxford was imprisoned in Newgate at Bristol, 

1478 Thomas Norton Esq. dwelling in S*- Peter's Churchyard accused 

the present Mayor of High Treason which was done out of ill 
will for as soon as the King understood the truth thereof he set 
the Mayor at liberty who had of his own good will yealded 
himself prisoner so soon as he was charged, he remained 
prisoner 13 days until he had a King's letter sent unto him 
honourably with great love and favour being highly commended 
by the King for his wisdom. And the said Norton was severely 
checked by the King. 

1479 This year one Symbart caused Robert Marks of this City to accuse 

Mr. Robert Strange who had been Mayor for making money and 
sending it over sea to the Earl of Richmond wherefore the King 
sent for him and committed him to the Tower where he remained 
7 or 8 weeks but when the truth was known, and his Innocency 
appeared his accuser Robert Marks was had to Bristol and 
there hanged drawn and quartered for his false accusation. 
1483 This year there was a great flood in this City which did much 
damage. Upwards of 200 people were drowned in the Marsh 
and great quantities of corn and cattle carried away. This 
happened at an Eclipse of the Moon. 

1526 This year Wheat and Malt were sold at i2d. per Bushel in Bristol. 

1534 This year the price of Wheat rose from 8d. and gd. to 2/- and 2/4 
per Bushel. 

1544 This year there was a great plague in this City which lasted a year. 

1545 This year a Mint for Coining Money was set up in the Castle, and 

a Press for Printing. 



Two Bristol Calendars. 141 

FOX MS. 

1 550 Wheat was sold for 4/8 per Bushel which greatly distressed the Poor 

of this City. But the Mayor wisely ordered that the Bakers 
should bake bread at a certain price for the Inhabitants. 

1551 This year was a Pestilence in this City which raged from Easter to 

Michaelmas, which carried off many hundreds every week. 

1554 This year Wheat sold at 6/8 per Bushel. 

1555 Wheat sold at 5/- per Bushel. 

J556 Wheat sold for 8/- per Bushel, and at the latter end of the year for 

22d. per Bushel. 
1 557 Wheat sold at 1/- per Bushel. 

1564 This year a very hot Plague lasted the whole Year in this City which 
carried off upwards of 2500 people, and at Christmas was a very 
great frost, so that the river was frozen over at Hungroad, and 
people went over on foot to St. Georges. 

1580 On Tuesday in the Easter there was a shock of an Earthquake in 
this City. 

1585 The price of Wheat was 7/- per Bushel, but the Mayor procured 

some from Dantzic which was sold at 4/-. 
1587 The 12th of August Wheat was sold at 5/- per Bushel, but on the 

19th of the same month it fell to 22d. 
1596 Wheat 20/- per Bushel, Malt 8/-, and Rye 10/- per Bushel. The 

Corporation during this dearth maintained a number of poor at 

their houses according to their respective abilities to prevent an 

Insurrection which they were apprehensive of. 
1604 This year the plague ceased in this City and was computed from the 

28th July 1602 to 20th of February 1604 there died of the 

Pestilence 2440 Persons. 
1606 Richard Smith paid his fine for refusing to serve the Office of 

Mayor for the ensuing year. 
1609 Wheat was sold at 6/8 and Rye at 5/4 per Bushel, but there arrived 

at this port from Dantzic and other places 34,629 Bushels of 

Wheat, 73,770 Do. of Rye, and 4040 of Barley which was sold as 

follows, — Wheat 4/-, Rye 3/-, and Barley 2/6, per Bushel. 



ROMAN 



AN 
AND 



ACCOUNT OF 
MEDIEVAL 



REMAINS 



found on the 
Site of The Tolsey at Gloucester in 1893-4. 

By M. H. MEDLAND, F.R.I.B.A. 

The writer of this article wishes it to be distinctly under- 
stood that the materials for the same were, except otherwise 
stated, provided by Mr. W. Donovan, Clerk of Works to the 
Wilts and Dorset Banking Company, who was on the spot 
during the whole of the time that the demolition of the old 
buildings was going on ; and, further, that it was at the 
expressed wish of the Honorary Secretary to the Society 
that he (the Compiler) has undertaken the arrangement of 
the materials so carefully collected by Mr. Donovan. 

The sincere thanks of Archaeologists are due to Mr. 
Donovan for the care and interest he has taken in keeping 
a record of the discoveries made, and for thus giving the 
means of adding a valuable chapter to the history of the 
ancient City of Gloucester. 

Before describing what has been discovered, it will be 
as well to recall what was known and surmised of the 
buildings which have occupied the site, as recorded by local 
historians. 

Ancient records show that the Tolsey, which stood on a 
portion of the site of the ancient Forum or Capitol, was in 
the possession of the citizens before Gloucester was made a 
Mayor's Town, in 1483. When Gloucester was made a 
Mayor's town, the Tolsey was selected as the Council 
Chamber. A rental of the borough in 1455 contains the 
following entry : " The Stewards of the town of Gloucester 



An Account of Roman and Medieval Remains. 143 

hold and occupy the corner tenement near the + on the 
Western and Southern side, which was let with two shops 
near the door of All Saints' annexed to the same." Fos- 
brooke says: "The Tolsey was the place where the Lord 
of the Manor received his dues. It was anciently employed 
for the public affairs of the City. In 1565 1 a new building 1 
was erected, consisting of a Council Chamber and room 
under it. In 1602 it was rebuilt, and in 1648 enlarged by 
the conversion of All Saints' Church adjacent into a court 
for the Sheriffs and public purposes. The staircase was 
built, on the site of the Chancel, leading to a room over it 
and to the Council Chamber. The place was enlarged by 
the purchase of some land between the Church and the 
street. This Tolsey consisted of a wooden piazza below, 
with grotesque figures over the capitals, an overhanging" 
storey with immense sashes, and a balustrade above. The 
building has been much improved by removing the piazza, 
and it consists now of a brick building with stone ornaments 
and large sashes. Below is the Lobby and Court of Quarter 
Sessions, and above the Council Chamber." Rudge says : 
" This building was ancieiltly employed as it is now for the 
public affairs of the City. It then consisted only of the 
Council Chamber and the room under it (which were erected 
in 1602 upon the demolishing of a former edifice erected in 
1565) till 1648, when the north wall of All Saints' Church 
was taken away and the whole Church converted into a 
Court for the Sheriffs and public purposes. On the site of 
the Chancel was built the staircase leading to a room over 
it and to the Council Chamber. By the purchase of some 
land between the Church and the street the place was 
enlarged. In 1685 the chamber over the Sheriff's Court 
was made into a Chapel where King James II. in his pro- 
gress 1686-7 attended divine service according to the Roman 
Catholic form, sitting on a throne erected for him at the 
expense of the City : and hence it obtained the denomination 
of the King's Chapel. It is stated that this was the first 
1 Fosbrooke erroneously says 1665. 



144 Transactions for the Year 1894-95. 

public celebration of Mass after the Reformation. Soon 
after the Revolution in 1688 most of the furniture in the 
Tolsey was burnt or otherwise destroyed. The ancient 
Tolsey which was taken down in consequence of the passing 
of an Act of Parliament consisted of a wooden piazza below 
with antic figures over the capitals, an overhanging storey 
with immense sashes and a balustrade above — it receded in 
two sides of a triangle from the High Cross. The building 
last erected has been much improved since, and particularly 
hy the taking down of a piazza which projected a con- 
siderable way and much narrowed that part of Southgate 
Street. In its present state, though bearing no marks of 
grandeur or elegance, it is, however, convenient and well 
adapted to the purposes for which it was designed. On the 
ground floor is held the Quarter Sessions and in the Council 
Chamber above is despatched the ordinary business of the 
City and Corporation. The City arms adorn the pediment 
in front." 

The last Tolsey was decided upon and erected in 1750-2. 
In 1 75 1 there was a Council meeting to give a pulpit and 
reading desk to Saint Aldate's, so that there is no doubt the 
Mayor had a chapel and chaplain. 1 For what reason they 
were discontinued is not known, unfortunately the record 
was not kept, but in future minutes there is a reference to 
a resolution that the Council should attend the Cathedral 
instead of the Mayor's Chapel. In 1754 the bell, formerly 
belonging to the Chapel, was sold to the Parish of S*- Aldate 
for £2:2:0. See footnote 2 . 

I am indebted to Mr. Charles Dancey, of Gloucester, 

Memoranda from Corporation Records, per Mr. C. Dancey : 

1 1751, Dec. 23rd. "Whether this Corporation will give to the 
parishoners of S*- Aldate's towards seating and furnishing their new built 
Chappie, the Pulpit and Reading Desk lately used in the Mayor's Chappie 
at the Tolsey ? 

"All for it." 

2 1754. "Received of the Parish of S** Aldate for the 

Bell formerly belonging to ye Chapel at the Tolsey £2 2 o " 



PLATE I. 




ARMS OF THE CITY OF GLOUCESTER. 
1 




TOLZEV, 1750-2. 



PLATE II 




SEVENTEENTH CENTURY TOLZEY AND HIGH CROSS. 



cd 




Plate v. 




ALL SAINTS' CHURCH, SOUTH WALL. 



PLATE VIII. 




ANGLO-SAXON HEAD. 




SANCTUS BELL. 



ELATE I 




L.AVARS AND CO.. BRISTOL 



PLATE XI. 




COPPER ORNAMENT WITH THE ARMS OF THE ABBEY OF 
ST. PETER dr» ST. PAUL. 




OSCULATORY. 



(•AVARS AND CO. 



BRISTOL, 



PLATE XII 




FLINT &> STEEL ARROW HEADS &> BULLETS. 




BOSS OF ROMAN SHIELD 



UAV&ne AMD CO. 



BHI8TOU 



ifatkes at ^xxWxtntxoxxn. 



FEUDAL ENGLAND. HISTORICAL STUDIES ON THE XIth 
and XIIth CENTURIES. By J. H. Round, M.A. London: Swann, 
Sonneschein & Co. 1895. Pp. xvi. and 587. 
This book consists of two groups of essays: Part I., Territorial Studies, 
consisting of eight essays, all bearing more or less on Domesday Book, its 
origin and its results; and Part II., Historical Studies, twenty-three 
essays on various matters ranging in time between the Norman Conquest 
and the reign of Richard I. ; the connecting link being apparently Mr. 
Freeman, who comes in for some measure of reprobation in nearly all of 
them. It is well to say at once that the book is a storehouse of the results 
of wide and careful research, and that, whether he agrees with Mr. Round 
in his controversies with Mr. Freeman or not, anyone who is interested in 
the effects of the Norman Conquest on the tenure and taxation of land in 
England will find the work one which will well repay careful study. 

With regard to the essays relating to Domesday Book, Mr. Round 
draws special attention to two results to which he conceives that his 
researches point. First that the assessment of knight service was based 
on the five-knights unit, irrespective of area or value, and that the original 
assessment of land was based on the five-hides unit, not calculated on area 
or value. But he is careful to point out that the two systems are uncon- 
nected : the five-hide system being Anglo-Saxon, and of early date ; the 
five-knight system being of Norman introduction, and of independent 
origin. The second point to which the author draws attention is the fact 
that the Survey reveals the existence of two separate systems in England 
co-extensive with two nationalities, the original Jive-hides of the Anglo- 
Saxon in the south, and the later six carucates of the Danes in the north. 

To take first the point that the original assessment of land was based on 
a five-hide unit. Now, there is no doubt that Mr. Round has collected on 
pp. 44 — 69 a quantity of instances from various shires in which the number 
of hides in various Hundreds and Manors is divisible by five. But he has 
made no attempt to show what proportion these five-hide units bear to the 
whole number of units ; there would of course be very many Hundreds and 
Manors the hidage of which would be divisible by three or four, and a 
smaller number of which the hidage would be expressed in multiples of 
ten. Indeed, of course in large gifts there would be a tendency to the use 
of round numbers, and ten and its divisors two and five would thus be 
likely frequently to appear. 

If we test Mr. Round's theory by the Gloucestershire Record, it seems, 
scarcely to agree with the facts of the case. There were forty-one 



i6o 



Transactions for the Year 1894-95. 



Hundreds in the shire, and of these only nine are credited with a hidage 
exactly divisible by five ; the same number show a hidage divisible by 
four, eight are divisible by six, ten by three, and eight by ten. There does 
not appear to be any distinct preponderance of a five-hide unit. An ex- 
amination of the hidage of the Manors composing the Hundreds leads to 
much the same conclusion. Nine Hundreds contained more than one 
hundred hides a piece; and of the Manors included in these great 
Hundreds, twenty-three contained a hidage divisible by ten, ten by six, 
forty-six by five, twenty-five by four, and thirty-five by three. There can 
be little doubt that the five-hide unit has a great advantage, because five is 
the half of ten ; and probably it would appear to most people that the pre- 
ponderance of five over four and three as a factor of the hidage is not so 
pronounced as to justify the conclusion that the Domesday record for 
Gloucestershire reveals an unit of five hides as the basis of assessment in 
that district. 

But that is no reason why it may not have formed the unit of assessment 
in other districts, for it is becoming increasingly clear, as Domesday is 
more carefully studied, not only only that the conditions of the tenure and 
taxation of land may have differed in different parts of England, but also 
that the form of the record is not precisely the same in all the shires. For 
instance, in Gloucestershire the ancient estates of the Crown were hidated 
like other estates ; in the West Saxon shires they had never been so 
hidated. The Domesday Commissioners for the West Saxon shires 
regularly register woodland and pasture ; the Gloucestershire Commis- 
sioners scarcely mention pasture at all, and frequently omit the woodland. 

And from this point of view Mr. Round has done good service, in 
drawing attention to what does seem to be a well-established fact, that in 
the Danish districts men counted by sixes ; which at any rate they did not 
do in Gloucestershire. He developes this point at considerable length, 
especially with regard to Lincolnshire, Leicestershire, and Yorkshire. 

He gives a curious calculation on p. 94, shewing that in Leicestershire, 
Warwickshire, Worcestershire, Gloucestershire, and Somerset, a geld of 
two shillings a hide would be equivalent to a rate of about one seventh of 
a pound to every square mile ; while in a group of shires lying to the east 
— Buckinghamshire, Oxfordshire, Berkshire, and Wiltshire — a similar rate 
would press twice as hardly on the land, and would work out at about 
two-sevenths of a pound to every square mile. The facts as stated seem to 
be quite clear ; yet Leicestershire was Danish, Warwickshire partly 
Mercian and partly Huiccian, Buckinghamshire and Oxfordshire were 
Mercian, Worcestershire and Gloucestershire were Huiccian, Berkshire, 
Wiltshire, and Somerset were West Saxon. Mr. Round finds in these 
differing rates traces of the independent kingdoms out of which England 
grew up ; but the fact that shires from different kingdoms group themselves 
in the same assessment tells strongly against his idea. 

The first part of the book concludes with a series of Surveys of 
Leicestershire, Lindsey, Northamptonshire, and Worcestershire, which 
date from the early part of the twelfth century, and which throw much 
light on the Domesday Record. 



An Account of Roman and Medieval Remains. 145 

for the following memoranda respecting the Tolsey which 
he has gleaned from the Gloucester Corporation Records : 

1565. reparacons. Also in money disbursed 
for repairinge, furnifhinge and other necefsaries 
bestowed and for the newe tollsend viz. : for 
crofse panell boles, hinge, timber, locke, nailes, 
borde, &c, &c, and for Workmen's hire ... xxviij 8 - 

Also paid to the Colledge for whole year's 
rent of the new Tolsey ... ... ... ... iiij s - 

Also they aske allowance for reparacons Sett, 
done and bestowed in and about the Councell 
House and amonge viz. : for tymber, borde, lathes, 
stone, here, lyme and workmen's hire ... ... xxxv s - iiij d - 

1602. At this Councell it is agreed that the howse and build - 
inge at the Tollsey high crofse called the Councell howse for 
conference for the Mayor and Aldermen, and also one other 
howse at the furringe bridge, in the tenure of widdowe Tiler 
shall both be taken and pulled down, and that the timber of 
the said Councell howse and other necessaries thereof that 
may be employed for other buildings shall be bestowed and 
placed in the place where they at the furringe bridge did 
stand, and that howse there and* the taking downe of boath 
and buildinge of the said howse at furringe bridge, to be at 
the charge of the Cittie, and all w ch - to be done at such con- 
veniente tyme as M r - Maior shall appointe and by the survey 
of the Stewards of the Cittie. 

1616, September. It is also agreed that M r - Towne Clarke 
shall have a lease of the little Chamber and shopp adioyneinge 
to the Tolsey at the yearly Rent of Ten shillings, soe long as 
he shall contyneue in his place of Towne Clarke. 

1621, August. It is likewise at this howse ordered and 
agreed that M r - Towne Clarke shall have his rent abated w ch - 
hee hath pay d for the Chamber nex the Tolsey and to have 
the charge repayed w cb - he hath all ready disbursed about it 
(in regard it is imployed to the Cityes use) amounting to forty 
shillings. 

1622, September It is agreed that there shall be a staires 
made out of the seconde roome under the utter Tolsey up' 

1 1 

Vol XIX. 



146 Transactions for the Year 1894-95. 

into the upper Roome now appointed for the Towne Clarke's 
office for a way to goe upp into the said Office. 

It is agreed that M r - John Hayward shall have a lease of 
the lowest roome over against the Tolsey (leaving a way up 
to the Towne Clarke's Office) for one and forty yeares under 
the rent of twenty shillings. 

It is also agreed that the room now newly made for the 
Towne Clarke's Office shall so continue for an office during 
the pleasure of this house w th - the way and passage to it up 
the stayrs to the upper Tolsey and the Key of the upper 
Tolsey to be left every night at M r - Beard's house by the 
Bedle, And that the charges layd out upon the sayd Office 
shall come out of the Chamber of this City. 

Lease. — This Indenture made September the 20 th - 1622, Be- 
tweene The Maio r and Burgesses of the Citye of Gloucester 
of the one p te - and M r - John Hayward of the Citty of Glouc r - 
Gent, of the other p rt - (whereby is demised unto the sayd M r - 
John Hayward) All that their little shopp Situate and being 
neare unto the High Crofse of the said Citty of Glouc r - w ch - 
said shopp is in breadth on the fore p rt - thereof Northwards on 
the streete side from the Tolsey of the said Citty on the East 
side thereof unto the Church Porch of the p ish - of All S ts - on the 
West side fower yards and in breadth at the back part 
thereof four yards and is bounded as aforesaid, And is in 
length from the forep rt - thereof on the streete side Northward 
unto the said Church of All S ts - Southward three yardes and 
three quarters, Excepting alwayes and reserving out of this 
part demised and granted unto them the said Mayor and 
Burgesses and their Successors free passage egrefse and 
regrefse to and for the Town Clarke of the said Citty for the 
tyme being, and his Servants and all and /ery other person 
or persons cominge to the Office of the betid Towne Clarke to 
passe in and through the said shoppe up the stayers there to 
the Office at any tyme or tymes duringe the term hereby 
demised. (This was for 41 years at a rent of xx s - yearly. 
There was also a lease granted unto one Stephene Cooke 
about this time of — ) 



An Account of Roman and Medieval Remains. 147 

All that their p ce]1 - or plott of Ground adioyninge to the 
Town wall at the Eastgate of the. said Citty, conteyninge in 
length from the Stayers goeinge up into the Olde Counsell 
Howse on the Northside towards the house called the friares 
on the South side. (The "Olde Counsell Howse" was 
presumably over the East Gate.) 

1643. (There was a Fire at the Tolsey, from what cause 
is not now known. The seat of the fire was in the Counsell 
Chamber upstairs, as the principal " item " (is) paid 
Christopher Hayes for Glafsing 2 L io s - o d - ; the other " items '* 
are for Carpenter, Tiler and pargiter, "the sum total" 
f 4-s. o d -) 

1648, July. It is also agreed and ordered that the Late 
Church and Chancell of Allhallows within this City shall be 
employed for a convenient Lower Tolsey for the Sheriffs 
Court to be kept in, and an upper Roome for a Councell 
Chamber for the Meeting of the Comon Councell of this City. 

It is also agreed and undertaken by this house uppon 
the offer of M r - Ald rm - Pury to lend the sume of fifty pounds 
to the Maior and Burgesses of this City for the begining and 
goeing on of the worke for the making of the new Tolsey and 
Councell house in the Late Church of Allhallows w th in this 
City, That he shall be repaid the s d - sum out of the first 
Money that shall be received eyther of the 4000 lbs. or any 
other money that shall be out of the 1600 lbs. and upwards 
that was layed forth by the Chamber of this City for the use 
of the Guarrison and payment of Souldiers herein. 

It is also agreed that the broken peeces of a brasse cul- 
vering remayning w th in this City shalbe sold for the best 
advantage and the moneys that shalbe made thereof to be 
employed towai. Is the making of the Lower Tolsey and 
Counsell Chamber and the Chamber of this City to make 
satisfaction unto the State for the same as may be thereunto 
required. 

(There was a Committee appointed) to take particular 
care in surveying the site of Allhallows Church to see if any 
part of the sa d * place is fitt to be left open for publique use 



148 



Transactions for the Year 1894-95. 



and to make report thereon to this House. (This open place 
is shewn in the view of the High Cross taken in 1751 by 
Thomas Ricketts.) 

1648, November. It is also agreed that there shall be such 
a competent number of Deal Boards as workmen shall direct, 
bought at Bristol or elsewhere for the boarding of the New 
Tolsey and Counsell Chamber and to be payed for out of the 
moneyes raysed by the sale of the Brasse peece and that so 
many timber trees as M r - Ald rm - Hill, M r - Ald rm - Wise, M r - 
Edmond and M r - Jordan shall conceive may be conveniently 
spared and shalbe takea off the Mannor of Abload and 
Sandhurst and other Deane and Chapter lands granted to 
this City for the Publique use. 

1648. (In the Disbursements for this year there are the 
following items) : — 

Paid for Sweetmeats sent to the Tolsey by 
M r - Mayor's order and the Aldermen to entertayne 
Lieu*- Generall Cromwell, Lieu*- Generall of the 
Parliament's Army at his March through this 
City into Wales, with many of his Officers and 
other Gentlemen ... ... ... ... ... 100 

paid for fower Limonds then used ... .. 1 o 

paid for more Sweetmeats sent for to the 
Tolsey by M r - Mayor and Alder 111 ' 8 - order for to 
entertayne Lieu*- Generall Cromwell at his return 
through this City out of Wales w* h many of his 
Officers and other Gent 11 - ... ... ... ... 100 

paid M r - Warwicke for wine sent to the Tolsey 
by M r - Mayor and Alder 113 - order to drink w* h 
Lieu* Generall Cromwell when he marched with 
most parte of his Army through this City into 
Wales ... ... ... ... ... ... ... on o 

1 lb. of sugar, 2 o ; and for beare then sent 
for, 6 d - . 026 

paid M r - Warwicke for wine sent for to the 
Tolsey to make Lieu*- Generall Cromwell drinke 
and his Officers when he marched backe through 
our City out of Wales ... ... ... ... o 10 6 

1 lb. of sugar ... ... ... ... ... o 2 o 

Received of M r - Robert Hill and M r - John Purle- - 
went towards the building of the New Tolsey ... 350 o o 

. There are no dates to the above items, so I cannot here give them; bui 
I find in Fenton's Pembrokeshire, p. 369, that on May 1st, 1648, Cromwell 
was sent to South Wales, on May 21st he is said to be before Pembroke. 
This is confirmed in Sir John Maclean's Annals of Chepstow Castle, p. 229. 



An Account of Roman and Mediaeval Remains. 149 

165 1. It is also agreed that the windows of the new Tolsey 
Chamber shalbe glazed with good glasse and a fair Table, a 
new wainscote door and a paire of Stairs to go out of the 
same roome upon the leads be made this pr snt Summer at the 
charges of the Chamber of this City. 

1687. Charges for the present made and the Homage fee, 

And for entertaininge the King Maj tie (James 2 nd ) the 22 nd of 

August, 1687, when he Hon rd - our Citye with his Presence. 

Imprimis. A present made by the Maior, Ald rm> 
and Comon Councell of a 100 broad peices of Gold 
at 3 s - 6 d> a peice ... ... ... ... ... 117 10 o 

paid the Homage fee due to his Maj ties Officers 
to Sir Thomas Duppa ... ... ... ... 36 6 8 

(Then follow the various and numerous items 
for Musik, Wine from London, Sea fish and fowle, 
&c, Src, the sum total for the gifts and entertain- 
ment of) ... ... ... ... ... ... 281 4 10 

(There was a special room over the Sheriff's Court made 

into and fitted as a Chapel. The items are :) 

Charges for the Kinge's Canopy and Chaieving Chappell : 

Paid M r - Thomas Webb for Velvett Silk for 
Gold fringe as by noat * .. ... ... ... 31 5 0 

paid Henry Elliotte, Joyner, for work done ... 9 o o 

paid John Elliotte the Upholsterer ... ... 2 14 o 

paid Giles Reeve for Ironwork done there ... on 6 

^43 10 6 

This room was afterwards known by the name of the Mass Room. 

1751, May. "Whether the pine end of the Chappel 
belonging to the Tolsey in this City shall be taken down as 
low as the floor, and the New wall of the Councill Chamber 
be carried back upon the wall where the said pine end 
now stands, and whether the Roof and ceiling of the same 
Chappell shall be taken down and rebuilt in the form of a M 
to the extent of the New Building and the partition intended 
by the Councill Chamber to be omitted." 

The work was done and the list of men employed, with 
the various amounts of their accounts, in all reaching to 



Transactions for the Year 1894-95. 



nearly nine hundred pounds, is duly given in the City Chamber- 
Jain's Book for that period. The Architect appears to have 
been a Mr. Wm. Roberts, and the Carving of the City Arms 
and Representations of the City Regalia was the work of 
Thomas Ricketts of this City. 

It is usual to describe a building in the order of its 
construction, but, for obvious reasons, it will be better, in 
this case, to begin at the top. 

The roof of the Tolsey, which was found to have been 
constructed with oak timbers from the roof of the Church 
which had previously occupied the site, was of the queen- 
post type; the tie-beams were formed of roughly- hewn 
chestnut. 

The coat of arms, &c, which were removed from the 
pediment are retained by the Corporation and are deposited 
in the Corn Exchange. 

The overmantel which stood in the Council Chamber is 
retained by the Corporation and is fixed in the Bow Committee- 
room at the Guildhall. 

The fire bell which was made by Rudhail a.d. 1706 was, 
a.d. 1752, hung by consent in St. Michael's Tower, but is now 
again in the possession of the Corporation of Gloucester. 
The bell is 2' 2" diameter, 1' 6" high, and has the following 
legend : " Prosperity to the City of Gloucester." I am indebted 
to Mr. Charles Dancey for the following memoranda re this 
bell, which are taken from the Gloucester Corporation 
Records : 

July 13th, 1648. "At this house it is agreed & ordered 
that ¥f r - Maior, M r - Ald rm - Pury, M r - Ald rm - Nurse, M r - Sherife 
Pearce, M r - Jordan, M r - Payne, M r - Purlewent, M r - Stap and 
M r - Longden or any three of them shall be authorized to 
make Sale of all such Bells & other goods formerly belonging 
to the Churches of S*- Owen & Allhallows or either of them 
and lately granted to the Maior & Burgesses of this City by 
Ordinance of Parlia rnt - to the best advantage they & to 
imploy & dispose of the money w ch shall arise thereby towards 



An Account of Roman and Mediaeval Remains. 151 

the fitting of the Church of Crypt according to the former 
Act." 

Qy. was the bell that Abraham Rudhall recast for the alarm or fire 
bell, to be fixed in Trinity Tower, in 1706, one of the bells belonging to All 
Saints ? 

TOLSEY. 

1706, May 23rd. " Whether on the Report of the 
Surveyors for M r - Burroughs He shalbe permitted to build 
up his house against the window at the West End of the 
Roome now examined or over the Sheriffs' Court and to stop 
L upp the light thereof ? 

"For it 24." 1 

1706, Deer. 23rd. " Whether a Bell shalbe cast and 
hung up in Trinity Tower for a Markett Bell & for other 
occasions, Mr. Rudhall the Bell founder having offered to 
cast and hang the same at his own charge and the residue of 
the expences to be borne by this Corporacon, He having 
the old Bell at the High Crofs to be melted downe towards 
the doing thereof ? 

" Agreed to by All." 2 

1752, Sept. 18th. " At a parish Meeting held this 18 th Sep*- 
1752, 'Twas agreed by us whose names are hereunto suscribed 
That ye Corporation have leave to set and hang the Market 
Bell either on ye top of ye Tower or in ye Tower of this parish 
Church of Saint Michael's provided they take care no 
damage be done to ye said Tower, and also shall have leave 
to take it away at any time provided they shall think of any 
more convenient Place for setting it up, Making all things 
good and leaving it as it now is." 3 

Signed for by the Churchwardens and 9 others. 

1840, August 13th. Application was made by the Corpora- 
tion for the removal of the above said Bell, which was then 
being used and known as the Fire Bell. The parishoners 
then appointed a Committee to confer with the Corporation 
as to the propriety of removing the said Bell to the Tolsey or 

1 Corporation Minutes. 2 Corporation Minutes. 
3 St. Michael's Parish Book. 



152 Transactions for the Year 1894-95. 



elsewhere and report their proceedings to the Vestry. (This 
Meet g was adjourned for a week). 

(St. Michael's continued) — The adjourned meeting did 
not take place. 

Parish of St. Michael's. 

1849, January. " Notice is hereby given that a Parish 
Meeting will be held in the Vestry room of this Church on 
Thursday next at 10 o'clock in the forenoon for the purpose 
of considering the propriety of removing the Fire Bell from 
the Tower of St. Michael's Church to the Tolsey. 

" present Wm. Brown & Mr. Coleman, Churchwarden & 
five other parishoners. 

" Proposed by Mr. Brown & seconded by Mr. Coleman 1 
' That the suggestion of the Watch Committee to effect the 
Object of the above notice be acceeded to.' 

" Carried Unanimously Jany. 25th, 1849." 

As the work of demolition proceeded, the remains of the 
west and south walls of All Saints' Church were revealed. 
(See Plate No. V.) 

The Church consisted of Nave of two bays, 34 feet Jong 
by 18 feet wide, and 39 feet from floor to wall-plate, with 
doorway and window at West end, and Chancel 17 feet long 
by 11 feet wide. 

Section looking N.W. (Plate No. III.) shews the width 
and height of the west window ; the jambs and mullions> 
drawn in strong lines, were intact, whilst the traceried head 
is restored from fragments of tracery, etc., found on the North 
side of the West wall of the Church. They had been used as 
walling stones, probably, when the alterations and enlarge- 
ments took place in 1648. 

An Early English capital with obliquely cut dog-tooth 
decoration (see Plate V. of South side of Church) and a short 
piece of Purbeck marble shaft — evidently belonging to the 
cap — were found in the same extended wall. 

Near this wall were also found a few pieces of stained 
glass in very narrow lead lights ; also three bullets, which 
may be relics of the siege, and an Abbey token. 



An Account of Roman and Medieval Remains. 153, 

The West doorway had been destroyed, and the opening 
roughly walled up. A cap and base were found (see plate 
No. V.), which may have been those of the doorway of the 
13th century Church. 

Section looking South -West (see Plate No. III.) gives the 
South Arcade, etc. Here again the portions drawn in strong 
lines were intact. The Archways had been filled in with ashlar, 
7 inches thick, and light had been obtained, on this side, by 
a three-light, square headed and cusped window. Portions 
of the head and cuspings were found. There were indications 
of a doorway in the Western Archway. 

It would appear that when the North wall of the Church 
was taken down, in 1648, the W T est wall was extended 6 feet 
Northwards, and the stone taken down was reused in the 
extended building. The building was commenced 3 feet, 
below the present pavement level, on a previous foundation. 
The stones from the upper part of the Church were, apparently, 
used directly they were removed : for the corbel tabling was 
found at the bottom, and the tracery of the West window was. 
found at a higher level. 

At a depth of 3 feet below the level of the floor of the 
14th century Church, and on the South side, were found the 
jambs of a doorway of apparently Early English work ; and 
at a depth of 7 feet from the level of the floor of the 14th 
century Church were found the jambs of a doorway ! of 
apparently Saxon work. There was no rebate for the door. 
An iron door hook was in one jamb, and part of a catch in 
the jamb on the opposite side. Long and short bond was 
clearly shown here, as well as at the North-East corner of 
the Nave wall. The base of a Norman shaft was also found 
in the building. There were, therefore, indications of three, 
if not of four, Churches having been built on the same site. 

The Saxon Church was probably of the same size as the 
14th century Church. The East wall of the Chancel was dug 
for, and discovered, when the new footpath was formed in 
Southgate Street. The top of the wall is about 2 feet below 
the paving in Southgate Street. 



154 Transactions for the Year 1894-95. 

The Saxons did not build entirely on the walls of the 
Roman Forum, but they made use of the old stone — some of 
which shewed evident signs of having been burnt—for their 
own building. 

Amongst other relics of the Saxon period was found a 
rudely-carved head, with a halter on it (Plate VIII. a.) : the 
eyes are very characteristic of Saxon work ; the teeth are 
very pronounced, the front ones are unfortunately broken ; 
the neck is more or less square in section, which would make 
it appear as if it had been built into a wall ; possibly it once 
formed the termination to an arch label. 

Another interesting relic of the Saxon period that was 
found was a Sanctus bell. (Plate VIII. b.) It was made of 
copper and found 19 feet from the present ground level — in 
the same pit in which was found refuse from a wine press. 
The bell is at present in the possession of Mr. May, Berkeley 
Street, Gloucester. I understand that he contemplates 
presenting it to the Corporation of Gloucester. 

Another Saxon or Norman relic was an impost stone 
relieved on the splay with slight sinkings. (Plate VII.) 

At a depth of 11 feet from the present pavement was 
found the floor of the Roman Forum. Such of the walls of 
the Forum as remained indicated an irregularly planned 
building of considerable extent, consisting of several chambers 
or halls — some of them still extend beneath Southgate Street. 
There were indications of bases of columns at the East end, 
where, in consequence of its facing the Via Principalis (now 
Southgate Street), would probably be the chief entrance. 

The floors were formed with thin Forest stone flags laid 
on concrete. There were plentiful evidences that the Forum 
had been burnt down : the faces of the stones from the walls 
were reddened, and charred wood was found, together with 
innumerable fragments of Roman roofing tiles. Scraps of 
Samian ware and other descriptions of Roman pottery were 
plentiful. 

A fragment of Roman tile with sunk letters — S.O.G. — 
was unearthed. 



An Account of Roman and Medieval Remains. 155 



One of the most remarkable Roman . " finds " was a pit 
containing, amongst other rubbish, the skins and pips of 
grapes, which from an analysis made by Mr. George Embrey, 
F.C.S., were evidently the refuse from wine pressing. 

Scattered about the site were found the broken remains 
of a Millstone (formed of Carboniferous conglomerate) which 
had probably been used in wine manufacture. 

In this pit were found jugs and pots with beaded or 
scored handles, also Samian ware, coins of Constantine, and 
part of a horn which had been used for some purpose, 
&c, &c. 

Fragments of Roman Masonry are represented on Plates 
VI. and VII. Portions of these and of the Millstone are 
deposited in front of the Museum in Brunswick Road. 

By the promptitude and generosity of Mr. Johnstone- 
Vaughan the greater number of the following curios were 
obtained from the workmen engaged in the demolition of the 
old buildings, and are now deposited in the Manager's Room 
of the New Bank which occupies the site, viz. : — 

3 fragments of Roman terra-cotta figures : 1, that of a lady 
of noble mien, 4^" high ; 2, that of a figure of Cupid, 3J" 
high (Plate IX.) ; 3, the shoulders and arms of a figure — one 
hand bears a (possibly) wine vessel — found on December 12, 
1894, at a depth of 10 feet below present street level. 

A fragment of Roman brick, 5" x 4" x i±" — the letters 
are impressed on it — found 9/2/95 at a depth of 



R.P.G. 



13 feet from present street level. 

Innumerable fragments of Samian, Upchurch, and other 
ware. 

The centre of a Roman shield, if" diameter, formed of 
copper with an agate centre. (Plate XII, b.) 

The iron cramp from stones at " A " on plan (Plate IV.), 
with lead with which it was fixed. 

Refuse from wine press. 

Five copper coins of the Roman Empire. 

Copper money of (presumably) British make, unstamped 
and simply flattened out in rude imitation of coins: two are 



156 Transactions for the Year 1894-95. 

about f-" diameter by J" thick, whilst the third is f" diameter 
and f" thick. 

A copper, ring and the arm of a small bronze statuette (?) 
are also preserved. 

A circular piece of metal, impressed on one side with the 
Roman letter R, and on the other with the letter P. 

A Roman saucer or cover to a vessel, 8" diameter, of 
common red ware. 

One of a pair of flasks of fine hard stone for the casting of 
ornaments : the ornaments consist of small bells and scrolled 
pendents from which the bells may be hung. (Plate X.a.) 

A fragment of ware, supposed to be a Seventeenth 
Century Crucible known as a Dog's Nose. (Plate X.b.) 

In the "Act (of Parliament, dated 1750) for taking down 
several buildings and inlarging the Streets and Market Places 
in the City of Gloucester" are the following paragraphs : — 

" It shall and may be lawful for the Mayor and Burgesses 
of the said City of Gloucester, and their successors, to extend 
and continue their Chamber, commonly called the Upper 
Tolsey or Council Chamber, upon and over that part of the 
ground on which a Tenement in the possession of George 
Washbourne now stands." 

"And in the said Street called Southgate Street — one 
Tenement in the possession of George Washbourn, Clockmaker." 

Inasmuch as Clockmakers' and Silversmiths' trades are 
generally worked together, it seems possible that the above 
articles (the mould and crucible) may have been the property 
of and used by the above George Washbourn, or his pre- 
decessors, in the manufacture of silver goods. 

A flint Arrow-head. (Plate XII. a.) 

The door hook from Saxon doorway. 

An osculatory, size 3" x 3", bearing an imaginary portrait 
of Our Lord, in relief, formed of china ware, coloured green 
and glazed. The remains of a handle exist at the top and 
back. The face is of a very Archaic type. A nimbus 
surrounds the head. The eyeballs bear no indication of 
pupils. The lips are parted as if in the act of kissing. This 



An Account of Roman and Medieval Remains. 157 

relic was found at a depth of 10 feet from the present pave- 
ment level. This fact, coupled with the crude workmanship, 
are suggestive of considerable antiquity, probably Xllth 
century. (Plate Xl.b.) 

A quatrefoil copper ornament, 2" x 2", which probably 
enriched some ecclesiastical vestment or furniture — for the 
stud at the back, for fixing it, still remains. Upon the face 
is a shield bearing, in saltire, the key of St. Peter, and from 
the sinister side the sword of St. Paul crosses it. It was 
probably richly enamelled — remains of gold plating still 
exist on the plain surfaces. (Plate XI. a.) 

A similar relic, but of much smaller size — being a shield 
of copper, having the stud for fixing it still remaining. Upon 
the face of the shield is a coat of arms bearing, in a chief, 
two mullets of six points. This little relic was also probably 
enamelled and gilded, and used for a similar purpose as the 
last one described. 

Stay bar and glazing from the 14th century Church. 

Mediaeval encaustic floor tiles. 

A steel arrow-head, 3^" Jong. (Plate XI I. a.) 

Two green glass phials, i£" high. 

Two round lead bullets. 

A bronze buckle. 

Tusks and horns of various animals. 

An octagonal inkstand of lead with domed top. On the 
bottom is engraved " W. W., 1682." 

An early tobacco pipe. 

Two German tokens. 

A Coventry halfpenny, date 1793. 

A halfpenny of John Wilkinson, Iron Master, 1792. 

I am indebted to Mr. John Tibbetts, of Gloucester, for the 
photos of Saxon bell and the curios deposited in the Wilts 
and Dorset Bank. 

By the removal of a paving stone in Southgate. Street the 
stone marked "A" on plan (Plate VI.) may be seen, at a 
depth of 11 ft. This stone, or rather these stones, had not 
been removed from their original positions. Two of them 



Transactions for the Year 1894-95. 



were cramped together ; the cramp is preserved at the Bank,, 
as previously stated. 

Mr. John Bellows says : " Thanks to the suggestion first 
made to us by George H. Fox, of the Silchester exploration, 
we are able to identify the remains of the Basilica and 
Forum. 

In the camp forming the original Glevum, the North and 
Southgate Streets were the Via Principalis, along which 
were the quarters of the Officers (Tribunes), the Westgate Street 
being the road through the quarters of the private soldiery. 
For this reason the point of junction between the two, i.e. at 
the Cross, would be chosen for the general market place : 
and with the market a Magistrate's Court. The historical 
continuity of these institutions has suffered no break down 
to our own time, both in the Tolsey, which has only now 
disappeared to make way for the new Bank, and in the 
Market, a few yards south of the spot, which was removed 
some years ago to be replaced by the present Corn 
Exchange." 

PLATES. 

I. a. Arms of the City of Gloucester, 
b. Tolsey, 1750-2. 
II. Seventeenth Century Tolsey and High Cross. 

III. All Saints' Church : sections. 

IV. Do. plan and details. 
V. Do. south wall. 

VI. Plan of Forum and Roman remains. 
VII. Remains of masonry and woodwork. 
VIII. a. Anglo-Saxon head, 
b. Sanctus bell. 

IX. a. Figure of Cupid, terra cotta. 
b. Do. Roman lady, do. 

X. a. Mould for casting ornaments. 

b. Seventeenth Century crucible known as a Dog's 
Nose. 

XI. a. Copper ornament with the Arms of the Abbey of 
St. Peter and St. Paul, 
b. Osculatory. 
XII. a. Flint and steel arrow-heads and bullets, 
b. Boss of Roman shield. 



Notices of Publications. 



161 



A good deal of the second part of the book is taken up with a discussion 
of the " palisade " question at Senlac, and that Mr. Round may be left to 
settle with Mr. Freeman ; the illustrious dead have their own defence. 
There is a very interesting short article on " Regenbald, Priest and 
Chancellor," founded on three Anglo-Saxon documents in the Cirencester 
Cartulary, and published in the Archceologia for 1836. One of them is a 
writ of the usual type notifying the grant of land at Latton and Eisey to 
Reinbald. The interest of the writ, however, lies in the names of the 
persons to whom it was directed. These were the Bishops Hereman of 
Ramsbury and Sherborne, in whose diocese Latton and Eisey lay, and 
Wulstan of Worcester, in whose diocese Reinbald's Collegiate Church of 
Cirencester was situated; and the secular lords — "Eustace Eorl and 
Eadrich, and Bristric." There can be no doubt that Mr. Round is correct 
in identifying Bristric with Brictric son of yElfgar, the lord of Tewkesbury ; 
and " Eustace Eorl " can hardly be any other than Eustace Count of 
Boulogne. But it is more difficult to follow him in his identification of 
Eadrich with Eadric the Wild ; for a Wiltshireman is wanted to rank with 
Bishop Hereman as Brictric ranks with St. Wulstan, and the scene of the 
activities of Eadric the Wild lay in Herefordshire and Shropshire. 
Probably the key to Eadric's personality lies in an entry in the Domesday 
Record for Wiltshire relating to Chippenham: — "Idem Rogerius [de 
Berchelai] tenet 1 hidam dimidio virgatse minus de dominica firma de 
Cepeham. Celuinus tenuit tempore Regis Edwardi, purpresturam Edrici 
Vice-comitis." Pourpresture is an encroachment on the right of the King 
or his tenants ; and we can hardly doubt that this encroaching sheriff, Eadric, 
is the one to whom King William's writ was directed. Thus we find the 
writ and the great Record illustrating each other in a most remarkable way. 
At the time when Reinbald received his writ then, Gloucestershire was 
under Brictric son of iElfgar, and Wiltshire was under the Sheriff Eadric, 
while the district was under Earl Eustace. And this time must have been 
within a year of the coronation of the Conqueror, for at the Midwinter 
Gemot of 1067-8 the Earl was tried on a charge of treason and condemned ; 
the writ therefore must have been issued at a time when the King's business 
in Gloucestershire and Wiltshire was still transacted through Anglo-Saxon 
sheriffs, though the district was at any rate nominally under the control of 
one who had fought in the Norman host at Senlac. It has seemed worth 
while to dwell at considerable length on the contents of this writ, because 
the essays in the latter half of Mr. Round's book are full of suggestive 
matter, which would well repay thorough working out. 

Finally, the book is provided with an excellent index. 

DOCUMENTS ILLUSTRATIVE OF ENGLISH CHURCH 
HISTORY. Compiled from original sources by Henry Gee, B.D., 
F.S.A., and William John Hardy, F.S.A. London: Macmillan & Co. 
1896. Pp. xii. and 670. 
This is a book of the same kind with the Bishop of Oxford's well-known 
Select Charters Illustrative of English Constitutional History, and it is issued 
with a recommendation signed by that master hand: "I can confidently 

12 

Vol. XIX. 



162 Transactions for the Year 1894-95. 



say that this is a book which will and, indeed must, be received as a great 
boon by English Churchmen. The plan on which it is conceived, 
the selection of documents which it contains, and the way in which they 
are arranged and edited are alike very good ; and the result is a practically 
most useful volume. I hope it will be received as it deserves. — W. Oxon." 

It consists of a series of texts ranging in point of date from the letter 
of Gregory the Great to Eulogius the Patriarch of Alexandria, announcing 
the success of the mission of St. Augustine and the baptism of ten thousand 
of the English, written probably in 598, to the Act of Settlement passed in 
1700. The Latin or Anglo-Saxon or Norman-French documents have been 
translated, and any antiquated spelling of those written in English has 
been modernised. It must be confessed, however, that the translation of 
some of the earlier documents is extremely loose, and comparison should 
be made with the originals if any matter of importance is at issue. The 
relative number of documents taken to illustrate the history of the different 
periods of the history of the Church may be roughly estimated by the 
number of pages devoted to them. Thus 50 pages are devoted to the 
period between 598 and 1066 ; 91 pages are occupied by documents dealing 
with the period between the Norman Conquest and the reign of Henry 
VIII. ; 364 pages contain documents bearing date during the reign of 
Henry VIII. and his three children; while the remaining 163 pages 
exemplify the ecclesiastical history of the seventeenth century. Thus it 
will be seen that more that half the book is taken up with the documentary 
history of the Reformation and counter-Reformation under Henry VIII. 
aud his children. There are two views at least of the nature of the Church 
of England : one, that her present doctrine and practice are determined 
solely by her existing formularies ; the other, that she inherits a great body 
of Catholic tradition from the ages before the period of the Tudors, which 
is still in force except so far as it has been directly modified by legislation 
from time to time. The question how far the editors have made the best 
use of the space at their disposal, will be answered by different people 
according to the view which they take of the nature of the Church ; 
though it must be allowed that, at any rate, the editors possessed competent 
advisers in Canon Bright and Archdeacon Perry. The reason which'they 
assign for giving a particularly large number of documents belonging to the 
sixteenth and seventeenth centuries is, that their book is intended not only 
for general theological students, but also for all those who may desire to 
become acquainted with the history of the Church at the chief constitutional 
periods ; and this is a good reason for the very full illustration of the period 
after 1532, but is hardly a sufficient reason for the comparative neglect of 
the preceding periods. 

The book, however, will certainly meet a felt need by giving the exact text 
of documents which are frequently mentioned, but of which it is very diffi- 
cult for most people to refer to a copy ; such documents for instance as 
the Mortmain Act or the Statutes of Praemunire, the Submission of the 
Clergy or the Acts for the Dissolution of the Monasteries, the various Acts 
of Uniformity or the Test and Five Mile Acts. But they are all to be 
found here in a most convenient form, and from the time of Henry VIII. 



Notices of Publications. 



163 



onwards the collection leaves very little to be desired. The editors 
cannot be praised, however, for their- method of dealing with the earlier 
periods of English Church History ; they are aware that their selection 
prior to the Norman Conquest is a meagre one, and they account for this 
condition of things by the astonishing statement that their original scheme 
was to include nothing earlier than the year 1066. Yet that year was in 
no sense a dividing point in the history of either the English Church or 
State. The Norman invasion had begun under the Conqueror's prede- 
cessor ; the great constitutional changes which followed it do not date 
from the Conqueror's reign. There never was a ruler who enquired more 
diligently for the old paths that he might walk in them than William the 
Norman. Two documents which might well find a place in a new edition 
are — first, the Charter to the City of London, in which William, king, 
greets William, bishop, and Gosfrith, portreeve, and all the burghers 
within London, both French and English, friendly, and lets them know 
that he wills that they two be worthy of all the laws that they were 
worthy of in King Edward's day ; and, secondly, the list of the Conse- 
crators of Archbishop Lanfranc. Of these William of London, Walkelin 
of Winchester, and Remigius of Dorchester were Normans ; Giso of 
Wells, Walter of Hereford, and Hermann of Ramsbury, were from 
Lorraine ; Siward of Rochester and Herfast of Elmham were English ; 
while the nationality of Stigand of Selsey is doubtful. But whether the 
men were by nation English or Norman or Lotharingian mattered not, it 
was by them as Bishops of English sees alone that the successor of St. 
Augustine was hallowed to his throne, no hand either of Papal Legate or 
foreign Prelate was laid on the, head of the English Church. 

It is very much to be regretted that the Old English Church has been 
so scantily dealt with. The child is the father of the man; in essentials 
the Church of England stands where it did a thousand years ago, and the 
early history of the Church deserved fuller illustration. It is natural to 
find the Councils of Hertford and Hatfield in the seventh century, and the 
Synods of Cloveshoe and Celcyth in the eighth, but after this time 
the documents are few. They might well be supplemented by the 
addition either of the "Canons enacted under King Edgar," or of 
the "Law of the Northumbrian Priests," 1 to illustrate the actual 
working of the system of the Church in the tenth century ; and 
the Charter of Cnut 2 should certainly not have been omitted, as 
it shews most clearly the relations between Church and State at that 
time. Again, if it was thought desirable to enter on the matter of 
Tithe, something more should have been given than Athelstan's Tithe 
Ordinance of 927. For this was in no sense a public acknowledgment of 
the duty of paying tithe, but only a direction of the King to his reeves 
that they should pay tithe both of stock and fruits ; that the Bishops and 
Ealdormen should do the same, and that they should use their influence 
with those under their control to lead them to do likewise. The punish- 
ment for neglect was simply that due to contempt of the King's 

1 Thorpe, Ancient Laws and Institutes 0/ England, pp. 395, 416. 
2 Stubbs, Select Charters, p. 75. 
12 * 



164 



Transactions for the Year 1894-95. 



authority. But in the reign of King Edmund, 940-6, we find an ordinance 
passed by the Witan, both clerical and lay, regarding the duty of paying 
tithe: " Of tithes and Church-scots. A tithe we enjoin to every Christian 
man by his Christendom, and Church-scot and Rome-feoh, and plough- 
alms. And if anyone will not do so, let him be excommunicated." 1 If it 
were thought that the legislation of Edgar and subsequent kings on the 
subject of tithe was too much complicated by foreign influence, a summary 
of the instances where payment of tithe is plainly mentioned from the Peni- 
tential of Theodore to the above-mentioned law of Edmund would not occupy 
much space. Finally, since so much of the book is occupied by documents 
of the Tudor period relating to the rejection of the influence which the 
Court of Rome had acquired over the English Church since the eleventh 
century, it might be well to shew that the English Church was from the 
beginning, in the matter of her services and discipline, independent of the 
Church of Rome. Passing to a later time, it seems strange that no men- 
tion is made of the resignation by the clergy, in the time of Charles 
II., of their ancient right to tax themselves in their Convocations so far as 
direct taxation is concerned. They were thus taxed in common with the 
laity for the first time in 1665, and the Act which imposed the tax (16 and 17 
Car. II. cap. 1) contained an express reservation of their ancient right to tax 
themselves in their Convocation if they thought fit. Bishop Gibson thought 
this taxation of the clergy out of their Convocation was the greatest alteration 
in the constitution ever made without an express law. 9 The work would be 
very much improved by the addition of short introductory headings to the 
principal groups of documents, like those which make the Bishop of 
Oxford's Select Charters such an excellent book of reference. If these were 
added, and a fresh and considerably enlarged choice of documents was 
made for the period lying between 800 and 1066, the book would leave very 
little to be desired ; and even as it is, those who possess themselves of it, 
and master its contents, will find that it will add very much to the interest 
of the commemoration of the thirteen hundredth anniversary of the land- 
ing of St. Augustine which falls next year. There is no index of any kind, 
and a short list of works that might be consulted in fuller illustration of the 
various periods of English Church History would be most helpful. 

AN INTRODUCTION TO FOLKLORE. By Marian Roalfe Cox. 

London : David Nutt. 1895. Pp. ix. and 420. 
Folklore is to many minds a most fascinating subject, and almost 
all people will be interested in finding how much more meaning 
there may be in old customs and curious practices than they had 
suspected. Only the writer on folklore must be careful not to 
philosophise overmuch, or he will become tiresome, and not to ride 
hobbies too hard or people will cease to believe in him. The 
writer of this book generally avoids both these besetting faults, and 
has woven together in a very pleasant and interesting fashion a large 
amount of matter of different kinds bearing on the very wide subject of 

1 Ancient Laws and Institutes of England, p. 104. 
Hallam, Constitutional History, iii., 243. Ed. 1863, 



Notices of Publications. 



elementary folklore. After an introductory chapter the subject is treated 
under the following heads: Animal Ancestors — Ghosts and Gods — The 
Other World— Magic— Myths, Folk -Tales, &c. Anything is fish that 
comes to her net ; primitive beliefs, the customs of savage nations, games 
of children, old songs and stories, modern superstitions, all are ranged side 
by side to shew how much there is in common between the mind of the 
various nations of mankind in different stages of development. There is 
the fact at any rate, that the meaningless custom which a man observes he 
does not know why can be explained by the usage of other men far off in 
space or time ; that the nursery story which has charmed generation after 
generation of English children, is found in but slightly varying forms half 
the world over; that the sense of a spiritual power outside himself presents 
itself to the mind of man everywhere, however gross and cruel the form of its 
presentation may sometimes take. And in this way the study of folklore is 
very helpful, as teaching people to observe and think, to see how much more 
there is in the most simple things that they might have supposed. The 
persistence of these old forms of thought is very wonderful. An 
Englishman walking along a lane will jokingly note the number of 
magpies that rise before him, and perhaps, take off his hat ; mockingly 
thinking that, however suitable divination from the number and flight of 
birds might be to the age of Romulus and Remus, no civilized people 
regard such things seriously nowadays. Yet they do. An anecdote very 
much to the point is related in the book under review. In the autumn of 
1894, after a great naval victory of the Japanese at the Yalu, a hawk settled 
upon the masthead of one of the Japanese ships, the Takachiho, Taka mean- 
ing hawk in Japanese. " The commander of the ship ordered one of the 
marines to ascend the mast and seize the bird. The latter, drooping its 
head, did not attempt to move, but seemed glad to be caught. A bird 
obtained in this singular manner was naturally welcomed with enthusiasm 
as Heaven's messenger." Finally the bird was presented to the Mikado ( 
who named it Takachiho, after the vessel on which it alighted. Of course 
it is possible to press matters of outward resemblance too closely ; coinci- 
dences are not of necessity marks of resemblance however slight and 
distant, for there are many and diverse ways to the same point. The 
authoress would have done well to leave the Christian Scriptures and 
Theology out of the scope of her work ; but apart from some indiscretions 
in this respect, the book fulfils the purpose of its title very well, by giving 
an interesting and reasonably full introduction to the study of the elements 
of Folklore. There is a good index, and a short list of books that might 
be helpful to those who may wish to carry on their study of the subject 
in fuller detail. 

GLOUCESTERSHIRE NOTES AND QUERIES. Vol. VI. Parts 
VI., VII., and VIII. April — December, 1895. London : Simpkin, 
Marshall & Co. 

A series of notes on publications relating to Gloucestershire contained in 
the Bodleian Library is commenced in Part VI., and is continued without 



166 Transactions for the Year 1894-95. 

being brought to a conclusion in the two following parts. The printing of 
the list of marriages at King's Stanley is carried on to the year 1812, and 
there concluded. The marriages at Owlpen between 1697 an d 1837 are 
printed ; those at Quedgley between 1559 and 1836, those at Rendcombe 
between 1566 and 1812, and those at Swindon between 1638 and 1755. It is 
noted, and the fact is of interest to persons who have to search for marriages 
supposed to have taken place in the neighbourhood of Cheltenham, that the 
Swindon Registers contain a large number of entries of marriages of non- 
parishioners, especially during the periods 1701 to 1725 and 1825 to J 85o. 
A series of entries from the Registers of Cold Ashton concerning the 
families of Whittington and Bush is also given. There are interesting 
papers on the Court and Church of Hanham Abbots and on St. Martin's 
church at Gloucester. Mr. C. H. Dancey states that the Church of St. 
Martin was originally a Chapel of St. Michael's, that with St. Michael's it 
was sold to St. Peter's Abbey by Peter Quivil, Bishop of Exeter, in 1285, 
and that not long before 1455 it had been pulled down, and a rectory 
for the parish of St. Michael's had been built on the site. He shews by a 
comparison of entries in the Rental of houses in Gloucester in 1455 that St. 
Martin's Church stood near the Cross in the angle formed by the meeting 
of Northgate and Eastgate, behind the dwellings which actually faced the 
Cross, so that there was only an entrance from Eastgate. In 1551 a portion 
of the site was granted to the citizens of Gloucester that they might erect 
there a tower for a clock and bell. In October, 1895, during the progress of 
excavations for new buildings, a portion of a doorway of old St. Martin's 
Church was found behind Eastgate. The papers on Monumental Brasses 
in the shire are continued, with illustrations ; it is interesting to note the 
references to the wool trade in the Cotswold brasses. Several merchants' 
marks are also figured. Among miscellaneous information is an account 
of beating the bounds at Todenham, of the enclosure of common lands at 
Upton St. Leonard's, and of the receipt of a lamprey pie which the Mayor of 
Gloucester had sent to Her Majesty. The magazine does excellent service 
by recording in an accessible form a great deal of matter of antiquarian 
interest which might otherwise be forgotten. 



NOTES AND QUERIES FOR SOMERSET AND DORSET. 
March, 1896. Part XXXIII. Sherborne: J. C. and A. T. Sawtell. 

This publication performs very efficiently for the two counties named the 
work which Gloucestershire Notes and Queries does for our own shire. There 
is a record of a series of surprising judgments which fell upon conforming 
ministers and others in 1662, and the record of Dorset Administrations for 
1658 and 1659. The list of books and magazine articles relating to 
Somerset, written by Somerset authors or printed in the county during 
1895, sets an example which might well and helpfully be followed in other 
shires. 



Notices of Publications. 



167 



THE ARCHAEOLOGICAL JOURNAL. Second Series. Vol. III. 

No. 1. March 1896. 
The number opens with a most interesting account of the recent discoveries 
at the east end of Durham Cathedral. The eastern extremity of the church 
is now formed by the Transept of the Nine Altars, built in 1242 and the 
following years. It had long been known that the church originally termi- 
nated in an apse; and part of the foundation of the apse had been laid open 
in 1844 in making a grave. In January, 1895, preparations were being made 
for a new system of heating near the east end of the south choir aisle, when 
the foundation of the southern apse was discovered. This was followed by 
the excavation of the foundations of the northern apse, and of the remains 
of the great choir apse. The aisles terminated in apses internally, but 
were square externally in line with the springing of the great choir apse ; 
the plan being the same with those of Peterborough and St. Alban's. The 
radius of the great apse was 20 feet in length, and the width of the apses 
of the aisles was 9 feet 8 inches. Most of the masonry uncovered has been 
made permanently accessible. When the Chapel of the Nine Altars was 
built the apses were necessarily removed to some distance below the floor 
level, but enough is left of their foundations to show what the ground plan 
was. The chapel is built on the eastern side of the old terminations of the 
aisles, and the foundation of the outer face of the east end of the great apse 
is about 19 feet west of the inner face of the eastern wall of the Chapel of 
the Nine Altars. St. Cuthbert's shrine no doubt stands where it did in later 
days, with its western extremity on the centre of the chord of the apse, and 
the High Altar stood where it stands now, just to the west of the shrine. 
There is a short paper by Chancellor Ferguson on Dumb Bells, meaning by 
the term a wheel hung in a bell-chamber and fitted up in the usual way, 
only with a heavy log of wood instead of a bell, and used for the instruc- 
tion of beginners in the art of bell-ringing. There is one at Bradbourne 
in Derbyshire, erected apparently in the reign of Charles II., and another 
at Cirencester, put up about twenty years ago. The remaining papers are 
on Megalithic Remains in Malta, flint implements in Denmark and 
Egypt, and Roman remains in Carinthia. 



|n !$tenmnam. 



SIR JOHN MACLEAN, F.S.A., F.R.S.A., Irel. 

Sir John Maclean, one of the band of founders of the Bristol and 
Gloucestershire Archaeological Society, died at his home, Glasbury 
House, Richmond Hill, Clifton, on March 5th, 1895. He was born 
in 1814, being the son of Mr. Robert Lean, of Trehudreth, near 
Camelford, Cornwall, and he married in 1835 Miss Mary Billing. 
He entered the Ordnance Department in 1837, and rising to the 
post of Deputy-Chief Auditor in 1865, he was rewarded with a 
knighthood in 1871, and retired on a pension. In 1845 he resumed 
as descendant of the Dochgarroch branch of the Clan Lean the 
prefix " Mac," which had been dropped. Though he became 
one of the best known and most accurate archaeologists in 
the West of England, he did not devote himself definitely to 
antiquarian pursuits till late in life. Close application to official 
duties was telling upon his health, and the physician whom he 
consulted advised him to seek relaxation, not by cessation of work 
but by taking up the study of some subject quite alien from his 
duties at the Ordnance Office, and he made for himself the 
necessary change of interest in the study of archaeology. 

Felix opportunitate adventus he described himself at the inaugural 
meeting of our Society on April 22nd, 1876, in moving a vote of 
thanks to Earl Ducie, as " a Gloucestershire man of only ten days' 
standing." He had then just settled at Bicknor Court on the Wye, 
but from that time to the day of his death he took the very keenest 
interest in everything connected with the affairs of our Society. 
He was indeed already an antiquarian of established reputation 
and acknowledged authority, for the fame of his standard work on 
the history of the parishes in his native district of the Deanery of 



In Memoriam. 169 

Trigg Minor had come before him. After coming to our shire he 
edited Smyth's Lives of the Berkeleys and The Hundred of Berkeley. 

But it is as Editor of the Society's Transactions that he was 
best known, and his work was most highly valued amongst us. 
His name first appears as Editor on the title-page of Volume III. 
for 1878-9, and he acted as Editor until the publication of Volume 
XVI. for 1891-2. How great the work was which he did for the 
Society, and how thoroughly well he did it, can only be known by 
those who have followed the publication of the Transactions year 
by year. He had of course the very great advantage of being 
practically the first Editor of the Transactions in a shire abounding 
in places and objects of much historic interest, and where there 
were not a few willing and able contributors ; but he knew how to 
make the best of his opportunities, and the very high position 
which the Transactions attained under his Editorship testifies both 
to the wide range of his historical knowledge and to his skill as an 
organizer. Tenacious of his opinions as he was, he never altered a 
paper without the consent of the writer, and he was always willing 
to give due weight to views differing from his own. The present 
writer published several hundreds of pages under his Editorship 
without a single serious difference of opinion. He was for a long 
period a member of the Council of the Society of Antiquaries ; he 
completed the Index of the first twenty-five Volumes of the 
Archaological Journal, and took great interest in the work of the 
Archaeological Institute ; and he served the office of President of the 
Royal Institution of Cornwall ; he was also a Vice-President of the 
Clifton Antiquarian Club. 

Sir John Maclean, who had been for a long time in failing health, 
though he had been in Bristol only three days before his death, 
succumbed to an attack of bronchitis following on influenza. 



THE TALLAGE OF 6 EDWARD II. (Dec. 16, 1312) 
AND THE BRISTOL REBELLION. 



By the Rev. E. A. FULLER, M.A. 



This tallage is interesting in itself, historically and constitu- 
tionally, as being the last which was assessed and levied by 
our English kings. Six hundred years ago the question of 
tallage was coming to the front. It was an old principle that 
the King should live of his own, one prime source of income 
being the extensive manors held in royal demesne ; besides 
which the Crown had the fee-farm rents both of such similar 
estates as had been granted to subjects by various sovereigns, 
and of such boroughs as had obtained charters of enfranchise- 
ment from the Crown. But this source of royal income had 
a constant tendency to diminish, as the sovereigns, of their 
royal bounty, enriched their favourites, or men who had done 
good service to them and the country, with grants of land ; 
or else in times of their own pecuniary need sold, for some 
present aid in money and an inadequate fee-farm rent, the 
whole future revenue from manor after manor. The result of 
course was that more money had to be found by the nation 
from other sources ; but the process went on till at last, on 
William III. beginning to carve out for his leading Dutch 
followers great estates from Crown lands, parliament re- 
monstrated, and the King had to cancel a great part of the 
grants made to Bentinck the ancestor of the Duke of 
Portland. 

In addition to this ordinary revenue from ancient Crown 
land, the sovereign had the right, when he was in special 
need of money, to levy an arbitrary tax, tallage, on all 
boroughs and all manors in ancient demesne. This right was 

Vol. XIX. 



1J2 



Transactions for the Year 1894-95. 



counted as a special prerogative of regality, a right so 
absolutely annexed to the Crown, that no mere royal grant of 
a town or manor in ancient demesne was held by the Crown 
lawyers to convey this right to the new lord, and the justices 
were always inclined to lean to the side of the Crown in any 
disputed case. In illustration, with regard to this very 
tallage, the Abbot of Cirencester, as holding by grant from 
Richard the First the royal manor, and having by charter of 
King John the right to exclude the sheriff and all officers of 
the Exchequer from his liberties, and to have himself the 
return of all Exchequer writs and summonses, levied the 
tallage of his own manor of ancient demesne, Cirencester and 
Minety, to his own use. For this he was impleaded in the 
Exchequer Court, Michaelmas 7 Edward 1 1., and it was in vain 
that he produced the charters of Richard I., John, and 
Henry III., granting and confirming to the Abbey to hold 
the manor as fully as the King used to hold it, and that he 
produced evidence that the Abbots had been allowed tallage 
by John, and by Henry III., and by Edward I., and. even in 
this instance by Edward II. It was replied to him that 
tallage is so entirely annexed to the Crown that it could not 
be separated off but by special deed making express mention 
of the grant of tallage, and it was demanded for the Crown 
that the Abbot should answer for the tallages of Edward I. and 
Edward II. It was only after a long process, and a reference 
to successive parliaments " on account of the many difficul- 
ties," that the suit terminated at the end in favour of the 
Abbot, the King confirming to him his old charters, and 
adding a grant of tallage on Nov. 18, 15 Edward II. 1 Nor was 
this the end, for the suit was reopened Mich. 16 Edward III., 
with the allegation that Edward II. had been deceived, and 
the arrears were redemanded. This process also was pro- 
longed for many years, and though in the following year the 
King confirmed Edward the Second's grant of tallage, the 

1 The Ancient Petition, No. 12966, is a petition from the Abbot, during 
this suit, that the King would in a new confirming charter add a clause 
specifying the grant of tallage. 



The Tallage of 6 Edward II. 



suit was only finally closed in 1350, when, the Court gave 
judgment that the Abbot had the right to tallage his tenants, 
whenever the King levied tallage ; a useless right by that 
time, when the royal right of tallage had been given up some 
years before. For the fundamental English doctrine "that a 
subject's property was his own, and that no tax was. just in 

-principle, unless he who paid it had assented to it," as it 
began to voice itself in claims of right from Magna. Charta 
onwards through parliamentary life, was against the con- 
tinuance of such an arbitrary exaction. Thus in the great 
Act of 1297, The Confirmation of the Charters, the King in 
Clause 6 promised that in future "for no business will we 
take such manner aids, tasks, nor prises, but by common 
assent of the realm.'' And though the saving clause 
"saving the ancient aids and prises due and accustomed" 
might seem to include tallage, yet in what is known as the 
statute "Concerning not Granting Tallage," which are the 
articles given by Walter of Hemingburgh as the Latin 
equivalent of the statute of 1297 i n French, the first words 
are " No tallage or aid shall inTuture be imposed or levied by 
us or our heirs, without the will and common assent, &c," 
shewing in what sense the statute was understood. Still 
Edward I. did not consider himself restrained by this con- 

' firmation from levying a tallage on towns and demesne lands 
in 1304; nor was his act deemed illegal, and those lords, 
who held Crown demesne, by royal grant, and had obtained 
quittance of tallage, levied with consent of the King tallage 
to their own use. Nor was this tallage of 1313 considered 
illegal in itself, though opposed on local grounds by London 

.and; Bristol ; but when Edward III. in 1322 ordered a 
tallage in the same form, he had to recall the Commissioners 
of Assessment under the pressure of parliament, and the Act 
of 1340 had the effect of abolishing this ancient royal pre- 
rogative of tallage. 

With regard to "the local opposition of Bristol, the town was 

. not in as good a position to resist as London was; for the folk 
were already at variance with the Crown in the person of the 

13 * 



174 



Transactions for the Year 1894-95. 



royal Constable of the Castle. Concerning this strife Seyer 
quoted largely from the parliament rolls and the chronicle 
of Matthew of Malmesbury, and wove out of them a con- 
nected story. A certain amount of additional matter, with 
some definiteness of detail, is obtained from the series of 
entries in the Close, Fine, and Patent Rolls for those years. 
The Constable of the Castle was in supreme control of 
Bristol. To Bartholomew de Badlesmere Edward II. com- 
mitted the castle on Aug. 21, 1307, 1 and further, on Nov. 2, 
1309, the barton and town of Bristol were added during 
pleasure, he to pay the King £110 a year, and to guard the 
castle at his own cost : also to pay Tewkesbury Abbey £$ 
for rent of Bristol mill, to the same Abbey £14. 10s. to 
maintain a chantry in the castle, to the forester of Kingswood 
7^d. a day, to the porter of the castle 2d. a day, to two 
watchmen of the castle 3d. a day, to the same two watchmen 
£d. a night, i.e. \&. apiece, and to the King's maritime warden 
of Bristol £1 6s. 8d. a year for his robes. 2 To the Constable 
the Mayor, Bailiffs and Commonalty of Bristol were to be 
obedient in all matters pertaining to his office ; and as all 
royal dues had to be accounted for to him, while no one 
loves a rent collector or tax collector, and the royal right to 
levy custom duties was much in dispute at the beginning of 
the fourteenth century, there was plenty of opportunity for 
disagreements and strife to arise, and Badlesmere was com- 
plained of for oppression, he of course wanting to make as 
much for himself as possible. The matter was complicated 
also, both by the political circumstances of the time in the 
quarrel of the Baronage with the King, and by local 
municipal disputes, when, before the days of a chartered 
town council, certain leading burgesses, spoken of in one 
account as the fourteen, 3 self coopted, no doubt, maybe 

1 Orig. Roll, 1 Edw. II., m. 1. 

2 Orig. Roll, 3 Edward II., m. 5. 
On Pat. Roll, 6 Edward II., part 2, m. 12, is an incomplete and vacated 
grant of the Water Serjeanty to W. Vyvyan. 

3 In no existing document, which I have seen, are a definite fourteen 
named, but a body of thirteen named men appears twice in different 
documents. 



The Tallage of 6 Edward II. 



175 



representing the ancient merchant guild, claimed to control 
all town matters, an assumption challenged by other leading 
burgesses, backed up by the mass of the townsfolk, who 
claimed that all had equal rights. The Constable seems to 
have backed up these fourteen, and they in turn supported 
the royal authority. The previous Constable had been 
Nicholas Fermbaud, a citizen of Bristol, and Bartholomew 
de Badlesmere, succeeding him in 1307, was himself super- 
seded by the King towards the end of 131 1 in favour of 
Edmond de Malo Lacu (de Mauley), and on Jan. 24, 1312, 
the Bristol folk were ordered by the King to supply out of the 
ferm of Bristol provisions and military supplies for the 
castle at Edmond's demand. 1 But Badlesmere seems never 
to have relinquished his hold of the castle, though both in 
February and April, 1312, the King threatened him with 
forfeiture for disobedience 2 ; and in July the custody was 
restored to him. 3 

Nothing is said as to the actual circumstances which led to 
the outbreak, whether it was the levying of unpopular custom 
dues, or the attempt to make the Bristol folk furnish military 
supplies for the castle, which might be used to keep them 
down : but it seems to appear that the Bristol folk did not 
supply military engines; for in the Pipe Roll, 9 Edward II., 
Bartholomew de Badlesmere accounts for money spent in 
13 12 in making an engine called Prest and repairing another 
called Hautepe. Certainly on Feb. 2, 1312, there was some 
overt act of rebellion, the people being headed by John le 
Taverner. But for the political circumstances the local 
troubles might have been brought to a close upon this, for 
the Mayor, Bailiffs, and Commonalty were summoned up to 
London to appear before the Earl of Gloucester and other 
magnates to answer for their contempts, and gave security 
to this purpose. But on March 8 the King forbad this as 
likely to prejudice him and his royal dignity, 4 and nearly four 

1 Close Roll, 5 Edward II., m. 14. 
2 Pat. Roll, 5 Edward II., part 2, m. 9, 21. 
3 Pat. Roll, 6 Edward II., part 2, m. 22. 
4 Close Roll, 5 Edward II., m. 13. 



176 



Transactions for the Year 1894-95. 



years had to elapse, in consequence of such interference, 
before a settlement was effected and the troubles came to an 
end. The King in fact seems at first to have rather favoured 
the townsfolk; for on July 21, nine days before he restored 
the custody of the castle to Bartholomew de Badlesmere, he 
granted his protection for a year to William de Axe, 1 then 
mayor, John le Taverner, and nineteen others of that party ; 2 „ 
and on August 12, on their complaint of oppression by the 
Constable's lieutenant and his men, the King committed the 
custody of the town and the barton to the Mayor, Bailiffs, 
and Commonalty, ordering Badlesmere not to interfere 3 ; 
while the townsfolk were not to illtreat the Constable's men. 
The King promised to take order in the next parliament 
concerning such complaints and the future custody of the 
town. But this state of things did not last long, and on 
September 1 the custody was restored to Badlesmere, who 
was ordered not to molest the townsfolk during the debate on : 
their contentions before the King and Council, 4 and the 
Sheriff of Gloucester was bid on September 5 release on bail 
21 men of the garrison indicted for the death of a lad, John, 
the son of Robert Bel, slain by a quarrel from the castle in 
the earlier dispute. 5 The definite reappointment of Badles- 
mere on the terms of 1309 as Constable was on September 30, 6 
and at that period also J. le Taverner was chosen Mayor, the 
notification of acceptance of his oath being on the Patent 
Roll dated Oct. 17, the folk alleging that they could not 
present him to the Constable, as they should do, because 
Badlesmere did not reside in the castle. 7 Under the new 
Mayor, however, the Bristol folk were no more disposed to 
submit to the Constable than before ; they pretended that 
they were not bound to obey him, because the Commonalty 
were not named in the writ de intendendo of Sept. 30, while they 

1 William Hore, of the Calendars. 

2 Pat. Roll, 6 Edward II., part 1, m. 23. 

3 Pat. Roll, 6 Edward II., part 1, m. 22. 

4 Pat. Roll, 6 Edward II., part 1, m. 19. 

5 Close Roll, 6 Edward II., m. 28. 6 Fine Roll, 6 Edward II., m. 13. 
7 Pat. Roll, 6 Edward II., part 1, m. 15. 



The Tallage of 6 Edward II. 



177 



were named in the writ of Aug. 12 granting them the custody 
of the town; and the King on Nov. 2 again ordered the Mayor 
not to interfere with regard to the custody of the town, but 
to be obedient to Badlesmere. 1 No attention was paid to 
this, and Taverner and his party levied all dues and rents to 
the use of the town, and began to carry matters with a high 
hand against the supporters of the royal authority. Early 
in January, 13 13, W. Randolf and twelve others of the- 
wealthiest burgesses complained to the King that the 
Mayor, &c, because they were adherents of the Constable, 
falsely accused them of having with Badlesmere imprisoned 
in the castle some of their opponents among the burgesses, 
and of having permitted strangers to deal among them with- 
out warning the Mayor; and that on these grounds the 
Mayor> &c, had deprived them of the liberty of the town 
and seized their goods. In reply, the King said he was 
going to send Commissioners to enquire into these matters, 
and in the meantime he granted protection to W. Randolf 
and eighteen others burgesses, along with seven other men, 
and again he bid the townsfolk be obedient to the Constable 2 ; 
and further he ordered the *Bailiffs not to arrest or molest any 
in the town that were formerly in the garrison. 3 The order 
to restore W. Randolf, &c, was repeated on February 28, 
and the Mayor, Bailiffs, &c, were warned to appear before 
the King and Council in Parliament on Midlent Sunday 4 ; 
and this being disregarded, the King again repeated it on 
April 7, sending the Sheriff of Gloucestershire to see that the 
order to restore W. Randolf, &c, was carried out, and 
the Mayor, &c, were again warned to appear before the 
King in London. 5 The Sheriff, however, returned that 
the Bristol folk openly contemned him ; so on April 30 the 
Constable was bidden to act and restore W. Randolf, &c, to 
make enquiry about their goods, and to see that these were 

1 Pat: Roll, 6 Edward II., part i, m. 12. 
2 Pat. Roll, 6 Edward II., part 1, mm. 3, 4. 
3 Close Roll, 6 Edward II., m. 15. 

4 Pat. Roll, 6 Edward II., part 2, m. 17. 

5 Pat. Roll, 6 Edward II., part 2, m. 15. 



178 



Transactions for the Year 1894-95. 



given back 1 ; he was also to seize the liberty of the town 2 ; 
while the Sheriff of Gloucestershire was ordered to attach 
John le Taverner and thirty-four others of the burgesses, and 
cause them to appear before the King and Council the 
morrow after Ascension Day. 3 A fortnight later, on May 16, 
the Sheriffs of Gloucestershire, Somersetshire, and Dorset- 
shire were ordered to go with their posse, and compelling the 
townsfolk to obey Badlesmere and restore W. Randolf, &c, 
as in consequence of their disobedience the King had seized 
the liberty of the town into his own hands, the Sheriffs were to 
imprison all opposers; 4 the return of writs was also taken from 
the Mayor, &c, and entrusted to the Constable of the Castle. 5 
It is to this period of John le Taverner's mayoralty, from 
September 30, 1312, to May 31, 13 13, that reference is made 
in later documents as a time of active rebellion against royal 
authority, when the townsfolk resisted the Constable, beat 
and imprisoned his men, made wooden barriers and towers 
(bretagia) in various places against the castle, allowed no 
munitions for the custody of the castle to be carried in, often 
shot arrows and quarrels into the castle, and at length built a 
wall across the end of Wynche Street, and crenellated it, 
shooting from it into the castle, while they usurped to their 
own use all the profits which should have gone to the Constable 
for the King. 6 

It was during this period also, on December 16, 13 12, 
that the King and Council ordered a tallage of a fifteenth on 
goods and a tenth on rents to be assessed and levied in 
demesne lands and boroughs ; when the Bristol folk in their 
humour of opposition and resistance to the royal authority 
were not in the mind to pay tallage, and the Commissioners 
for Gloucestershire were not able to get an assessment made. 
The townsfolk had not hitherto come off scatheless, without 

1 Pat. Roll, 6 Edward II., part 2, m. 13. 
2 Fine Roll, 6 Edward II., m. 4. 
3 Close Roll, 6 Edward II., m. 6 dors. 
4 Pat. Roll, 6 Edward II., part 2, m. 7. 

5 Close Roll, 6 Edward II., m. 5. 
6 Pat. Roll, 7 Edward II., part i, m. 5. 



The Tallage of 6 Edward II. 



179 



any among them being arrested, for J. Hasard, the coroner, 
and some others are said to have been imprisoned in the 
castle by the Constable and his adherents in 13 12, at any 
rate for a time ; and the demonstration of force by the 
Sheriffs in May, 13 13, seems to have been of some further 
avail, and at this time apparently J. le Taverner and some 
others were arrested and sent up as prisoners to the Tower of 
London. The Commissioners for Tallage in Gloucestershire 
thereupon tried, it seems, to get the tallage assessed, but the 
imprisonment of their friends only formed an additional 
reason in the minds of the Bristol folk why they should not 
pay tallage, and they put this forward in opposition to the 
demand for tallage. Whether moved by this, or for some 
other cause, the King directed the Constable of the Tower to 
liberate J. le Taverner and the Bristol prisoners on bail until 
three weeks after Midsummer day. 1 Then having on June 10 
issued a commission of enquiry to Lord Thomas de Berkeley, 
and Master Ric. de Abyndon, and Joh. de Wylidon (or 
Welyngton), for them to go to Bristol and make enquiry by 
the oath of good and lawful men of Gloucestershire, and of 
foreigners to the town (forinseci), as well as of unsuspected 
Bristol men, into these conspiracies and disobediencies which 
were to the prejudice of the King and his estate 2 ; he also on 
June 13 directed R. de Abyndon, J. de Wyliton, and Joh. de 
Button to go without delay and assess the tallage ordered in 
December, which the Bristol folk had refused to allow the 
Commissioners for Gloucestershire to assess on the ground 
that some of their co-burgesses were imprisoned in the Tower. 3 
The money was evidently wanted, for on June 15 the King 
ordered the Sheriff of Gloucestershire to levy without any delay 
£100 of this tallage, and pay it to the Clerk of the Household 
of the Prince of Wales. 4 Further, by writ of privy seal, 
dated Bedminster, June 20, the Constable of the Tower was 
directed to extend the mainprise of J. le Taverner and the 

1 Close Roll, 7 Edward II., m. 28. 
2 Pat. Roll, 6 Edward II., part 2, m. 5, dors. 
3 Pat. Roll, 6 Edward II., part 1, m. 5, sched. 
4 Close Roll, 6 Edward II., m. 3. 



180 Transaction's for the Year 1894-95. 

other imprisoned Bristol burgessos for a fortnight beyond the 
original term. 1 The King tried thus to facilitate matters in 
view of the visit of these Commissioners of Enquiry and 
Tallage; but it was a mistake to put Lord Berkeley at the 
head, with whom the Bristol folk had an hereditary long- 
standing quarrel about jurisdiction in Redcliffe, for it made 
them suspicious of the fairness of the Commission; and 
when an attempt was made to summon foreigners to the 
town on the inquest, the folk resisted, the town bell was 
rung, and a riot ensued, in which the Commissioners were 
imprisoned for a time by the folk, 2 and were with difficulty 
rescued by the Mayor, while according to the Malmesbury 
monk's Chronicle twenty men lost their lives. The tallagers, 
however, were enabled to get their assessment made and 
forwarded to London, so that it appears in the Pipe Roll, 
6 Edward II., among the " Residue of Gloucestershire: " 

" Tallage assessed in this County of Gloucester in this 
year by William de Brekhulle, Milo de Rokebrughe, and 
William de Stafford. " (These were the original Commis- 
sioners.) "The tenants of the King in the borough of 
Bristol ^289 7s. 8d. of tallage of the same tenants as is 
contained in the roll of the aforesaid tallage." 

This was not an exceptionally heavy tallage, for in 1 John 
the Commissioners for Tallage had assessed Bristol to pay 
500 marcs, i.e. ^333 6s. 8d. 3 ; but owing to these disturbances 
and the opposition of the town to the Constable, it was 
three years before any of the tallage was levied and paid. 

Political differences between the King and the Baronage 
now again came in. On July 24 the King directed writs to 
the Constables of twenty-seven castles, including Bristol, to 
keep them safely for him, and similar writs to the Mayors 
and Bailiffs of sundry boroughs, including Bristol, bidding 
them not to allow assemblies of men against the King to 
take place there, an order of which they were not slow to 

1 Privy Seal, 2742, Edward II. 
2 Pat. Roll, 7 Edward II., part 1, m. 5. 
• s pip e Ron j j 0 hn. 



, The Tallage of 6 Edward II. 181 

avail themselves as against the Constable 1 ; while on Aug. 12, 
on the Earl of Gloucester proposing to go and subdue 
Bristol to obedience, the King forbad him and sent to 
Badlesmere to the same effect. 2 He would not allow reaL 
force to be used, if it were not his own. But he interfered 
again on behalf of those who were the supporters of the 
Constable, bidding him release from the castle on bail 
thirteen men who had been arrested by the Mayor, &c, for 
the death Of others in the riot, 3 and at the same time he 
ordered the late Bailiffs of Bristol, Will, de Clyf, and 
Gilb. Pokerel to restore to W. Randolf, &c, their goods and 
chattels, these men to give security to appear to any indict- 
ment. Later on in this year the King made another attempt 
to bring the arm of the law to bear upon the Bristol folk. 
On November 8 he ordered J. le Taverner, who had either by 
this time been regularly set free or had broken his bail, and ; 
twenty-three other men of Bristol by name, together with all 
and sundry the other men of Bristol, to let W. Randolf and 
twenty-three others by name live in peace and trade in the 
town without disquiet ; if they disobeyed now after so many 
orders from him repeatedly contemned by them, he would 
inflict such punishment on them as rebels that others shall 
be afraid. 4 Then on November 10 Edward issued a com- 
mission to W. Inge, J. Spigurnel, and J. de Button, in which 
after reciting all the rebellious acts of the Bristol folk under 
the mayoralty of W. de Axe, and of J. le Taverner, that 
have been told above, and adding that, notwithstanding 
the King had taken the liberty of the town into his hand, 
Taverner, and Clyfe, and Pokerel had continued to exercise 
their offices of Mayor and bailiffs, and had assessed many 
tallages on the community, thus grievously oppressing the 
mediocre people, and now the folk had in despite of the King's 
act elected a Mayor and bailiffs, he bid them go and make 
inquisition into the whole matter. And on November 16 

1 Close Roll, 6 Edward II., m. 5, dors. 

2 Close Roll, 7 Edward II., m. 26, dors. 

3 Close Roll, 7 Edward II., m. 24. 
4 Pat. Roll, 7 Edward II., part 1, m. 8. 



1 82 



Transactions for the Year 1894-95. 



the King issued to the same justices a Commission of Special 
Assize, to enquire by the oath of men of the County of 
Gloucester who were the malefactors that had killed Alex- 
ander de Vilers, Thomas atte Pype, and sixteen others named 
at Bristol. 1 It 'is clear that, of the various persons named as 
killed at different times, A. de Vilers met his death at the 
hands of the Taverner party, and J., the son of R. Bele, was 
slain by a quarrel from the castle ; the other seventeen seem to 
have been killed in the riot. Unluckily the rolls of this 
Special Commission and of Spigurnel's Crown Assize for 
those years are not now in existence, but part of the special 
assize, so far as it relates to the indictment of those who 
took the Constable's side and were acquitted, appears copied 
on the Pat. Roll of 9 Edward II., part 2, m. 27. W. Randolf 
and thirty-three others were indicted for the death of Thomas 
atte Pype, &c. Eight of the thirty-four were among the 
wealthiest of the burgesses, and Isabella, the wife of the rich 
burgess, Peter le Fraunceys, was included in the indictment, 
together with his son ; but the names of eighteen do not 
appear in any form on the Tallage Roll. Eight of these last, 
with six others, were also indicted for the death of Joh. Bele, 
and six more who were originally arrested for his death, but 
liberated on bail, were not now indicted. Twenty of these 
thirty-one are named as having belonged to the garrison of 
the castle in the time of the disturbances in the earlier part 
of 13 12. The accused having represented that it was im- 
possible, owing to the local dissensions, to empanel a trust- 
worthy jury from Bristol, the King ordered on November 20 
that the inquest should be held on the oath of good men of 
the County of Gloucester. This jury of three knights and 
twelve others acquitted the sixteen whose names appear on 
the Tallage Roll, with the wife and son of Pet. le Fraunceys, 
and twenty-two others. There is no record of the indictment 
of J. le Taverner and his party. According to the Malmes- 
bury monk eighty men were indicted for the riot, which took 
place at the Commission of Th. de Berkele, &c, and were 
1 Pai. Roll, 7 Edward II., part i, m. 6. 



The Tallage of 6 Edward II. 



183 



outlawed for not appearing to stand their trial. His numbers, 
however, are clearly mere round numbers founded on report. 
There are seventy-one persons named in the various docu- 
ments as acting on the side of the townsfolk against the 
Constable and his party. The writ to the Sheriff of Glou- 
cestershire of April 30, 13 1 3, contains the names of thirty- 
five men, whom he was ordered to attach and bring before 
the King and Council. Twenty-two of the same men, with 
six others, are named in the writ of Commission of Assize to 
Inge, Spigurnel, &c, in November, 13 13 ; and in other 
writs from December, 1313, to April, 1314, bidding Inge, &c, 
enquire into the complaints of W. Randolf about damage, 
besides the foregoing another twenty are named; for J. Snow 
alleged that his servants had been imprisoned and illtreated, 
and he himself had been robbed of £40 worth of goods. 
W. Randolf's fences had been broken, his fishponds poached, 
and he had been robbed to the amount of £20 ; W. de Kerdyf 
complained of being despoiled of goods worth 200 marcs ; 
J. de Celer had had 200 marcs worth of wine and merchandise 
taken out of a ship; and J. de London complained of being 
robbed of goods worth ^"ioo. 1 But in the existing documents 
only seven men are named as having been outlawed before 
Spigurnel, 2 though in all probability the whole twenty-eight 
named in the writ of assize equally failed to appear and 
were then outlawed. The year 13 14 was the year of the 
disastrous expedition to Scotland, which ended in the defeat 
at Bannockburn, and Bristol seems to have been left to go 
its own way pretty much ; the only "further document being a 
direction to the Sheriff how to apply £"196 16s. 8d. out of the 
forfeited chattels of certain men of Bristol. 3 But in the 
summer of 13 15 another attempt at settling matters was 
made on the intervention of Thomas, Earl of Lancaster; 
and he, with Guy de Beauchamp, Earl of Warwick, and 
John de Sandall, the Chancellor, were named as arbitrators 

1 Pat. Roll, 7 Edward II., mm. 25 dors. 17 dors. 
2 Close Roll, 10 Edward II., m. 4. Pat. Roll, 9 Edward II., part 2, m. 3. 
n Close Roll, 8 Edward II., m. 26. 



.184 Transactions for the Year 1894-95. 

to settle all matters in relation to the disputes between the 
Constable and the townsfolk, and between W. Randolf, &c, 
who had been deprived of the freedom of the town, and the rest 

c of the Bristol folk, liberty being given to the commonalty of the 
town to appoint delegates from among the unoutlawed under 
their common seal to go to Warwick, with full power to con- 
firm all that should be settled there. 1 And on June 4 safe 
conduct was granted to eight men by name to go to Warwick 
on this business and return up to eight days after Midsummer 
dayi Nothing, however, apparently came of this, and later on 
in the year the King tried to enforce legal proceedings again. 

•He ordered the Sheriff to arrest J. le Taverner and five 
others outlawed for the death of A. de Vilers, and bring them 
before him within fifteen days of St. Martin ; when the Sheriff 

•returned that he had found these men in the -Guildhall, but 
that they and Robert de Wyldemersh, who said he was the 
bailiff of the town, would not allow him to arrest any of 

: them. Upon this the King bid the Sheriff go again and 
arrest these men and all opposers, and imprison them and 
bring them before him within the Octave of Trinity, i.e. early 
in June, 1316. The Sheriff returned that he had gone in 
person to Bristol, and there in the Guildhall had convoked 
the whole commonalty, and had exposed to them the tenor 
of the King's orders, and that all the commonalty answered 
unanimously that they would not allow any of the men to be 
arrested and taken away; and when he had by word and 
imposition of hands arrested Henry le Shipman and many 
others, they forcibly broke the arrest ; whereupon he, the 
said Sheriff, had gone again with the great posse of his 
county, when he found the gates closed against him, and the 
whole community, with a great multitude of evildoers, as 
well men of Bayonne as Welshmen, added to them, levied as 

-for war against the King; that the commonalty had drained 

<- and completely dried up the castle ditch, and broken down 
the castle. mill, before the gate of the castle had made a ditch 
twenty-four feet broad and long,, and fortified it with a strong 
1 Pat Roll, 8 Edward II., part 2, mm. 7, 8, 10. 



The Tallage of 6 Edward II. 



tower (pela), and there and elsewhere in the town had con- 
structed barriers, chains, springalds, and other engines to 
fight and attack the castle, so that no one in the castle could 
go out towards the town in any way, and they were preparing 
to hold the town against the King, and other open acts of 
rebellion with banner raised. 1 

These details are recited in a document of Midsummer, 
1316, no date being given for the final scene in the Guildhall, 
and the Sheriff 's attempt on Bristol with his posse; but it 
was after November, 13 15, and, of course, before June, 1316— 
in all probability in the earlier part of this latter year, for by 
the end of March a fresh attempt at settlement by legal 
process was being tried ; and on March 30, according to the 
Parliament Rolls, the King summoned six of the non-outlawed 
Bristol folk to come to ■■ Westminster before him and the 
Council on behalf of the town. Accordingly six men, whose 
names do not appear as incriminated in any of the previous 
documents, appeared, and made the best case out that they 
could for the town in answer to the many charges of rebellion 
urged against them, and put themselves and their fellows 
upon an inquest of the neighbburhood. A Gloucestershire 
jury was then summoned to come and tell the truth of these 
matters by the end of May, who declared that the townsfolk 
were guilty of all that had been alleged, and that the six 
delegates were themselves among the guilty, upon which one 
of them, at any rate — Vincent Gower,— was imprisoned in 
the Fleet. A last attempt was now made to get a peaceable 
surrender by the town, and on June 20, the King reciting as 
above, and professing astonishment at the townsfolk's intoler 1 - 
able contempt and disobedience,, which deserved the heaviest 
penalties, yet willing rather to act graciously towards them; 
charged the Earl of Pembroke to go with W. Inge, J. de 
Insula, and J. de Musard and persuade the commonalty of 
JBristol to return to their obedience, and to arrange for the 
payment by them of a fine. If the folk still persisted in their 
rebellion, then, in the King's name, the Earl should chastise 
1 Pat. Roll, 9 Edward II. , part 2, m. 3, 



186 Transactions for the Year 1894-95. 

and punish them. 1 Matthew of Malmesbury tells the story 
of the Earl's fruitless visit to Bristol, when, in reply to the 
Earl's remonstrance and persuasion, the folk answered " that 
they had not been the beginners of injustice, nor had they 
committed any fault as towards the King. Certain men had 
tried to take away their rights, and they, as became them, 
had on the other hand defended their rights ; therefore, if 
their lord the King should remit the burdens laid on them, 
and should grant them their lives and limbs, their rents 
and goods, they would obey him as their lord, and do all 
whatever he might command them ; otherwise they would 
persist as they had begun, and would defend their liberties 
and privileges unto death." There was no sign of weakness 
or yielding in that bold reply, but unluckily for the townsfolk 
they were not strong enough to maintain themselves against 
real force. Maybe, after so many half-hearted attempts at 
constraining them, they thought that a bold front would carry 
them through again. But there were more determined coun- 
sels now on the King's side, and Audomar de Valence and 
his fellow-commissioners arranged for a real siege. Lord 
Maurice de Berkeley stopped the approach up the Avon, and 
harassed them by water ; the sheriffs of the adjacent coun- 
ties were ordered, on July 17, to prevent all access by land, 
or the passing in of any supplies, and to arrest any persons 
attempting this, 2 while from the castle regular siege opera- 
tions were carried on, and the town was bombarded with 
heavy stones from military engines. On July 26 the towns- 
folk found that the force against them was too great and too 
relentlessly applied for them to hope to be able to continue 
the defence, and they gave up their resistance. 3 Possibly 
the terrible famine and mortality at Bristol in 13 16 may 
have conduced to this. At any rate the active rebellion 
came to an end. On August 9 the King gave the Bristol 
folk leave to arrange with Badlesmere about damages, 4 

1 Pat. Roll, 9 Edward 11., part 2, m. 3. Fine Roll, 9 Edward II., m. 2. 
Originalia Roll, 9 Edward II,, m. 13, 
2 Close Roll, 10 Edward II., m. 30 dors. 3 Pipe Roll, 9 Edward II. 
4 Pat. Roll, 10 Edward II., part 1, m. 30. 



The Tallage of 6 Edward II. 



and in December matters were finally settled up. The 
Parliament Roll tells us that twelve burgesses came before the 
King as delegates from the town, W. Randolf and another 
leading supporter of the Constable's authority being among 
them, with seven of the townsfolk party, and three whose 
names do not appear in any previous document on either 
side, and the King was petitioned to grant his pardon. 
Vincent Gower was now released from the Fleet, 1 and the 
townsfolk having arranged to pay the King a fine of 2000 
marcs, another 2000 marcs being held over against them on 
condition of good behaviour, Edward, while retaining the 
unpopular customs duty, did on December 18 restore to the 
commonalty of Bristol the liberty of the town, which he had 
seized into his own hands three and a half years before, and 
the return of writs which had been transferred to the Sheriff 
of Gloucestershire. 2 But J. le Taverner himself, his son 
Thomas, and Robert Martyn were excluded from the pardon, 
were outlawed, and abjured the realm. 3 The record of the 
fine is on the Originalia Boll, 10 Edward II., m. 11, under the 
date of December 28, 13 if , which thereafter is always named 
as the end of the period of disobedience. The 2,000 marcs 
were to be paid in four equal portions, at Candlemas, Pente- 
cost, All Saints' Day, and the succeeding Candlemas. The 
folk had also to pay up £111 6s. n-Jd., which represented 
the ferm of the town from September 30, 13 12, to May 31, 
13 13, the earlier part of Taverner's mayoralty, during which 
they had levied all royal rents and dues to their own use, and 
£1 10 of the fifteenth granted to the King in the previous year, 
as well as the tallage assessed in 13 13 ; and the payment of 
^277 1 8s. 4d. on account of this tallage appears in the Pipe 
Roll of g Edward II. among the Residue of Gloucestershire. 

Bartholomew de Badlesmere's bill for his special expenses 
in 1 3 16 is entered on the Pipe Roll, 9 Edward II., among the 
final items of Gloucestershire. He charged, " for the con- 

1 Close Roll, 10 Edward II., m. 20. 
. 2 Pat. Roll, 10 Edward II., part 1, m. 3. 
3 Close Roll, 10 Edward II., m. 4. 

Vol. XIX. 



1-8:8 Transactions for the Year 1894-95. 

struction of two engines in the ninth year, also for the pur- 
chase of seven baudr 1 at a cost of 8s., of three crossbows at 
a cost of 12s. 6d., of one axe to hew stones for the said 
engines at a cost of 6d., and two horsehides for six baudr, 
and of twenty-four fundis 2 to make staves at a cost of 2s. nd., 
and in the wages of one artilleryman (attilliator) to repair and 
mend quarrels and arrows for the munition of the said castle 
in the said ninth year ^19 8s. 8Jd., and for various wages 
paid to sundry footmen for the munition of the castle between 
May 18 and July 26, that is, during the time of the rebellion 
of sundry Bristol men attacking the castle with armed force, 
£26 19s." In the following year he was allowed half the 
fine of 2000 marcs to repay him his expenses. 3 The other 
entries on the various rolls of 1316, 1317, and 1318 have 
reference simply to the exaction of the forfeited rents and 
chattels of J. le Taverner and three others of the six burgesses 
named as having been outlawed in 13 13 and 13 14 before 
Spigurnel, their value being said to be £%^o.* But in October, 
1321, the King pardoned J. le Taverner, his son Thomas, 
and R. Martyn their outlawry and abjuration of the king- 
dom, 5 and in February, 1322, he ordered that their escheated 
lands and forfeited goods should, as far as possible, be 
restored to them. 6 At the election in that year J. le Taver- 
ner and J. Fraunceys, junr., one of his supporters, were 
chosen Members of Parliament for Bristol. 7 

The two following tables, compiled from the various 
documents on the rolls quoted above, show the amounts at 
which those who took opposite sides in this controversy and 
quarrel were assessed for movable goods, and what rents they 
paid and received, as far as the Tallage Roll of 6 Edward II., 

1 Baudrerium. Ducange explains it of a strong leather strap used to 
stretch a crossbow too powerful to be pulled up by the hand alone. 

2 Fundis. The meaning required seems to be " butts " of some timber 
— ash or oak, presumably ; but there is no instance in the glossaries of 
fundus so applied. 

3 Close Roll, 10 Edward II., m. 20, and 11 Edward II., m. 15. 
* Close Roll, 11 Edward II., m. 18, and 12 Edward II., m. 27. 

5 Pat, Roll, 15 Edward II., part 1, mm. 7, 11. 
Close Roll, 15 Edward II., m. 17. Parliamentary Writs, 



The Tallage of 6 Edward II. 189 

i.e. 1313, corresponds in names of persons with the docu- 
ments. It will be noticed that, in both tables sundry names 
have no amounts, whether for goods or rents, against them — 
20 out of 76 among the party of the townsfolk, and 35 out of 
59 on the Constable's side, omitting sons and servants. As 
will be seen later on, there are some 44 names absent out of 
960 among those who were assessed for goods in the Tallage 
Roll, owing to the loss of one membrane ; and similarly there 
is a considerable deficiency of names among those who were 
assessed upon rents, through the loss of two or three mem- 
branes, which accounts for there being no entry of rents 
against certain names. So it may well be that, if the roll 
were perfect, we should find some more names upon it of 
those persons who are mentioned in the various writs. Of 
the 20 names absent on the townside, 13 are described, 
directly or by implication, as burgesses, and we may there- 
fore assume that their names are among the lost ones of the 
Tallage Roll; of the 35 on the Constable's side 9 persons 
and so described. In both cases some of the names omitted 
on the Tallage Roll are similar in surnames, such as they 
are, to names on the roll, so that they may have been 
subordinate members of those families. However this may 
be, it does not interfere with the main result of the two 
tables, which indicate clearly enough that, as described by 
the Malmesbury chronicler, the local municipal disturbance 
was the outcome of the quarrel, old as civilisation itself, 
between great wealth on the one hand, fairly satisfied with 
the condition of things, and desirous to hold control of public 
business, and on the other a large number of citizens seeking 
their share in public affairs, and inclined to take a resolute 
line in vindication of liberties which they claimed, as against 
external oppressive control. 

PARTISANS OF THE KING AND CONSTABLE. 

Assessment. 
Goods. Rent. 

Paid Received. 
£ s. d. £ s. d. £ s. d. 
A.B.C.F.G.Ii.K. de Cary, Laurence ... 20 00 100 2 19 4 

A.B.C.F.G.Ii.... de Celer, John 60 o o o 17 8 4 17 4 

14 * 



190 Transactions for the Year 1894-95. 

Assessment. 



A R f F G Ii 


Fermbaud, Raymund.. 


Goods. 

£ s. d. 
66 13 4 


£ 
2 


Paid, 
s. 
j 


Rent. 

Received, 
d. £ s. d. 
4416 


A B C F G Ii 


le Fraunceys, Peter 


60 


0 


0 


1 


12 


0 


6 


5 8 


A.B.C.F.G.Ii. .. 


Horncastel, Martin ... 


20 


0 


0 








1 


12 4 


A B C F G Ii 


de Kerdif William 


66 


I 3 


4 












A.B.C.G. 


de London, John 


40 


0 


0 


0 


12 


0 






A B C F G Ii 


Otery, Robert 


40 


0 


0 








4 


5 6 


A B C F G Ii 


Randolf, William 


3° 






0 


l6 


g 






A.B.C.F.G.Ii... 


Snowe, John 








0 


D 


A 

*r 


6 


6 0 


A.B.C. 


le Spicer, Thomas 


6 


1 ^ 


A 
*\ 


1 


6 


8 


0 


6 8 


A.B.C.G. 


Welischote, Adam 


o u 


0 


Q 


0 


4 


0 


1 


0 0 


A.J3. 


de Welles, Richard ... 


40 


0 




2 


3 


3 


1 2 


4 4 


E.G.Ii. 


de Brutone, William ... 


0 


7 


6 


0 


1 5 


0 






F.G.Ii. 


de Calne, Richard 


0 


10 


0 


0 


10 


8 


0 


11 0 


E.Ii. 


de Cary, John 


10 


0 


0 










■ 


B.F.G.Ii. 


de Chyuw, John 
Clericus 














0 


17 IOg 


G. 


de Framtone, Henry ... 


30 


0 


0 


1 


14 


8 


1 


0 0 


F CI 


1C X ell K.C1 , J (J1J.11 ... ... 


0 


15 


0 








2 


2 8 


G. 


de Radinore, Roger ... 


5 


0 


0 












G.Ii. 


Randolf, Robert 


6 


13 


4 








4 


19 8 


B.F.G.Ii. 


du Sarum, vStephen, ... 
Pescour. 








0 


17 io-l- 






B.F.Ii.K. 


du Temple, Adam 


2 


0 


0 


2 


0 


0 


0 


16 0 


E.G.Ii. 


Wodelok, John 














0 


19 6 



D. ... de Bathonia, Reginald 

D.E.G.Hh.Ii. .. Beaugrant, Robert 

D.I. ... de Berkhampstede, John 

D. ... Belle, John 

D.H.K. ... de Benfeld or Boyfeld, Walter 

Ii. ... le Bret, Henry 

L. ... de Camera, Richard 

D. H. ... de Chitecroft, Thomas 

E. I. ... Cradoc, servant of John le Parker 
D.E.G.Hh.Ii.... de Combe, Roger 
B.D.F.G.Hh.Ii.M. Flemynge, Robert, Clericus 
B.D.H. ... Flemynge, Thomas 

I. ... le Forester, William 

D. E.G.Hh.Ii.M. le Fraunceys, Henry, son of Peter 
Ii. ... le Fraunceys, Isabella, wife of Peter 
G.M. ... Gylemyn, William, Clericus 
B.D.Hh.Ii.M... de Hanyngfeld, William 

E. F.G.Ii.K.M.. Justice, Geoffrey 
D.K. ... de Keirwent, Henry 
K. ... de Langton, Richard 
B.G.M. ... de la Marche, Richard 
D. ... Mareis, Richard 



The Tallage of 6 Edward II. 



191 



B.D.Hh.Ii. ... 

D. E.Ii.K. ... 

E. G.I. 

D. H. 

E. I. 

D.G.Hh.Ii.M... 

F. Ii.M. 
G. 

F.Ii.M. 

D.G.Hh. 

K. 

D. H. 

E. Hh.Ii. 
D. 



de Ocham, William 
de Overton, Alexander 
Paramentarius, David 
le Rede, Richard 
de la Roche, John 
Russell, John 
Sauser, John 

John, a servant of Laurence de Cary 

de Stanes, Robert, Clericus 

atte Stone, Robert 

Swift, John 

de Thorpe, William 

Watier, Richard 

de Wissendine, John 



A. Complained to the King of deprivation of liberty of the town about 

the end of 1312. 

B. Protection granted them by the King, Jan. 17, 1313. 

C. Orders for their restoration to liberty of the town, April and May, 



D. Part of garrison of the castle. Arrested on indictment for death of 

J. Bele, and released on bail, Sept. 3, 131 2. 

E. Arrested for death of certain persons, and released on bail, Sept. 23, 



F. Their goods to be restored to them on their giving bail to appear to 

indictment, Sept. 24^^1313. 

G. Not to be molested by Taverner, &c, Nov. 8, 1313. 

H. Indicted for death of J. Bell at special assize at end of 1313. 
<■ Hh. Acquitted. 

I. Indicted for death of Thomas atte Pipe, &c. , at special assize at end 

of 1313. 

Ii. Acquitted. 

K. Described in the Rolls of Parliament as Ministers and Servants of 
the King. 

L. Said in the Rolls of Parliament to have been deprived of the 

liberty of the town. 
M. Described as burgesses directly or impliedly Pat. Roll, 6 Edw. II., 

p. 1., m. 4 ; 7 Edw. II., p. 1., m. 8 ; Close Roll, 7 Edw. II., m. 24. 



1313- 



1313- 



THE PARTY OF THE TOWNSFOLK. 



Goods. 



Assessment. 

Rent. 



A.C.D.E.F. 
C. 

CD.E.F. 
F. 



£ s. u. 

de Axe, William, Mayor 15 o o 

Beauflur, Robert 10 o o 

Blanket, Roger ... 500 
de Chapmanslade, Rchd. o 15 o 



Paid. Received. 
£ s. d. £ s. d. 

700 



2 l6 O 



l6o 



192 Transactions for the Year 1894-95. 

Assessment. 







Goods. 






Rent. 


















Paid. 


Received. 






£ 


s. 


d. 


r 
x» 


s. 


d. 


£ 


s. 


d. 


F. 


le Chaundeler, Richard. 


0 


15 


0 


I 


0 


0 








C.D.E.F. 


de Cheddre, Richard ... 


2 


0 


0 


I 


I 3 


4 




10 


g 


F. 


de Chiltenham, Walter.. 


2 


5 


O 














A.C.D.E.F.G. 


de Clife, William, Bailiff 


10 


0 


0 














A.C.D.E.F.G. 


Colpek, Richard 














I 


17 


8 


C.E.F. 


de Derby, Gilbert 


6 


13 


4 


2 


8 


8 








C. 


Ergleis, Stephen 


5 


0 


0 








0 


12 


0 


A.E.F. 


de Farleye, Nicholas 


10 


0 


0 


O 


12 


0 


0 


IO 


8 


C.E.F. 


Flemyng, William ... 


0 


1 


3 


I 


0 


0 








C.D.E.F. 


Fraunceys, John, Senior 


10 


0 


0 


J 


10 


10 


I 


2 


8 


A.B.F. 


Fraunceys, John, Junior 




.. . 










I 


8 


0 


C.E. 


Fraunceys, Walter, ... 
Clericus 




... 




O 


10 


8 








A.C.D.E.F. ... 


de la Grave, Thomas ... 


3 


6 


8 














H. 


Gouwer, Vincent 








I 












F. 


Hail, William 


7 


8 


4 


I 


0 


0 


J 


A 7 


4 


H. 


de Hampton, Robert ... 


6 


13 


4 














A.B.C.D.E.F. 


Hazard, John, Coroner.. 


10 


0 


c 








I 


O 

y 


Q 

y 


A.C.D.E.F. ... 


de Holhurst, Robert ... 


10 


0 


0 


O 


3 




2 


4 


4 


H. 


le Hunte, John 


5 


0 


0 


I 


5 










A.C.D.E.F. ... 


de Kerdif, John 
















u 


7 


D.E. 


de Keynesham, John ... 


10 


0 


0 


O 


0 


6 


I 


Q 


0 


C.E. 


Legat, John 


3 


0 


0 










12 


4 


E.F. 


Legat, Richard, Bailiff... 


1 


0 


0 


2 


5 


5 




9 


4 


D.E. 


le Longe, John, Maryner 


1 


10 


0 


I 


I 4 


Q 
O 


2 


2 


0 


A.C.D.E.F.G. 


Martyn, Robert, le Cleric 








O 


10 


O 


I 


5 . 


Q 
O 


F. 


le Packere, Richard . . . 


4 


0 


0 


T 


1 1 


9 








C.F. 


Pokerel, Gilbert, Bailiff.. 


5 


0 


0 


0 


18 






0 


0 


D. 


de Portbury, Nicholas... 


0 


15 


0 


0 


5 




O 


5 


0 


B. 


Prentiz, Walter 


0 


1 


3 














C.F. 


le Ropere, John 


10 


0 


0 


2 


7 


0 








H. 


de Rouberwe, Nicholas.. 


20 


0 


0 


I 


0 


0 


5 


4 


0 


D.F. 


Russell, William 


2 


0 


0 


3 


2 


6 


1 


18 


4 


A.C.D.E.F. ... 


de Salopia, Thomas ... 


10 


0 


0 


1 


1 


4 


0 


10 


0 
0 


A.F. 


Sampson, Richard 


6 


13 


4 














F. 


le Scriveyn, John 














1 


0 


0 


H. 


Seys, John 


1 


0 


0 


0 


2 


0 


0 


3 


6 


A. 


Sire, John 


20 


0 


0 


2 


0 


0 


2 


1 


4 


A F 


ic ouiLcij niuiu ... ... 


0 


15 


0 














C.E.F. 


le Taillur, Nicholas 


2 


10 


0 


1 


0 


8 


0 


2 


8 


C. 


le Taillur, William ... 


0 


2 


6 


0 


6 


0 


1 


0 


4 


A.C.D.E.F.G. 


le Taverner, John, Mayor 


10 


0 


0 


0 


3 


0 


8 


2 


6 


F. 


le Taverner, Thomas f. 


0 


15 


0 


1 


9 


4 










Joh. 


















F. 


Tebaud, Thomas 


5 


0 


0 














D. 


Turtle, Roger 


5 


0 


0 


0 


13 


4 









The Tallage of 6 Edward II. 



193 



A.C.D.E.F. ., 


,. Uppedich, Thomas ... 


Goods. 
£ s. d. 


Assessment. 

Rent. 
Paid. Received. 
£ s. d. £ s. d. 

0 15 4 


C.F. 


. de Weston, Richard ... 


6 13 4 


1 6 8 


068 


F. 


. de Whiteleye.Thomas ... 


0 1 3 


0 13 4 






de w oaexiuiie, Kicnara 






0 10 8 


C.F. 


. le Wodeward, Philip ... 


15 0 0 




0 12 0 


C. 


. Wyldemerssh, Robert... 
Bailiff. 


500 


040 




A.C.D.E.F. .. 


. le Wyte, Richard, 


30 0 0 







Pessoner 

C.I. ... de Berkham, John, Junr. 

E.I. ... Botil-ler, Thomas 

E. F.I. ... Burgeys, William 

F. ... de Brutone, Richard 
C.I. ... Chaif, John 

F. ' ... Colpek, Vincent 

F. ... le Dyer, Ralph 

F. ... atte Grove, Thomas 

C.I. ... de Horncastel, John, Bailiff 

F.I. ... de Huntingdon, Henry 

A.I. ... Lydiard, Edmund 

F. ... atte Maryne, John 

F. ... atte Maryne, Thomas 

A. CD. I. ... le Maryner, or le Shipman, Henry 

C. I. ... Oriel, Portius 

F. ... Adam Serviens Thorn. Turtle 

G. I. ... Siminel, John 

G. I. ... Snowe, William 

D. E.F.I. ... de Sweyneseie, Philip 

H. ... de Thornhull, Roger 
A.C.D.E.F.I.... Wysman, Adam 



A. Protection from the King for a year, July 21, 1312. 

B. Imprisoned along with others by W. Randolph and the Constable in 

the castle some time towards the end of 1312. 

C. The Sheriff of Gloucestershire to attach them, and bring them before 

the King, April 30, 131 3. 

D. They are to leave W. Randolph, &c, in peace, Nov. 8, 1313. 

E. Named in writ of special assize to Inge, Spigurnel, &c, Nov. 10, 1313. 

F. Named in writs, as complained of by W. Randolph and others for 

damage, Dec. 20, 1313, to April 1, 1314. 

G. Outlawed before Spigurnel, &c, 1314. 

H. Named by the Gloucestershire jury in May, 1316, as abettors of the 

rebellion. 

I. Described directly or by implication as burgesses Pat. Roll, 6 Edw. II., 

p. i.,m. 23; 7 Edw. II., p. 1., m. 8. Close Roll, 6 Edw. II., m. 6 d. 



194 



Transactions for the Year 1894-95. 



It follows, from the documents quoted above, that there 
can have been no legal election of a Mayor and bailiffs at 
Michaelmas in either of the years 1313, '14, '15, or '16, 
as the King had resumed the liberties of the town into his 
own hands on April 30, 13 13, and Edward II. makes such 
illegal election in 13 13 a matter of accusation. Then the 
calendars are shown to be wrong as to the bailiffs associated 
with J. le Taverner in 1312-13, for in Pat. Roll, 7 Edward II., 
p. 1 dors. m. 5, Will, de Clyfe and Gilb. Pokerel are described 
as having been bailiffs associated with Taverner when the 
King resumed the liberties of the town ; and in Close Roll, 
7 Edward II., m. 24, is a writ addressed to those two men as 
"late Bailiffs of the liberty of the town of Bristol," the .date 
being September 24, 13 13. Later on, in the Parliament Rolls, 
Joh. de Horncastel and Ric. Legat are said to be bailiffs 
along with Taverner, and in 13 15-16 the Sheriff of Glouces- 
tershire returned that when he went to the Guildhall he 
found Rob. Wyldemersh claiming to be bailiff. The date 
against the Mayor's name, in the Bristol Museum Calendar, is 
shown to be that of the year of his election. The same 
appears also from the Assize Roll No. 284, where R. Man- 
godesfelde is entered as appearing before the justices, as 
Mayor, at the Easter Assize, 15 Edward I., i.e. 1287; for the 
regnal years of Edward I. commenced on November 20, 
1272. 

Besides this, its bearing on a local dispute, a tallage roll 
is also interesting, when it enters into any detail, as being a 
source of information about local life in former days. A list 
of dwellers in a town or village comes before us, with their 
names, shewing the beginning of surnames, the relative 
prevalence of christian names, the various trades exercised, 
and the relative importance of the inhabitants, judging by 
their respective properties ; and some estimate could be 
formed about the means possessed by classes of people in 
those days, if the principle upon which the property of the 
taxpayers was assessed were clearly understood, — as to what 
proportion, that is, of trie actual property was taken as the 



The Tallage of 6 Edward II. 



195 



rateable value. For Colchester some subsidy rolls exist 
which give in great detail the various items of property, with 
their values, which made up the taxable amounts in that 
borough. These are printed in the parliament rolls, and 
shew with what minute details the system of taxation dealt. 
There is no such interesting detail with regard to any town 
in Gloucestershire, in this roll ; but for the village of 
Minety, which was part of the manor in ancient demesne 
of Cirencester, and therefore talliable, considerable detail 
of farming stock is given, and this is printed here as an 
illustration of agricultural life in the county some 580 years 
ago. 

Agriculture at Minety was, of course, on the open field 
system, with joint plough teams, so far as the land was 
ploughed ; and taking 100 acres for the ploughland, as 
settled in 1194, for which ten 1 oxen were required at 
Minety, we get six carucates and a half, or 650 acres, of 
arable land, held by 26 2 persons in varying amounts from 
10 acres up to 50 acres ; the land as elsewhere, no 
doubt, in alternate crop and fallow, corn being almost 
the sole crop; there were only two out of the 26 who 
grew some beans. But pasture rights were more numerous 
than holdings of arable land, and there were 40, out 
of the 48 named, who kept at any rate one cow, there 
being 60 cows in all ; of sheep there were 674, and there 
were 38 pigs. There were only four who had not a horse, 
a necessity for pack or draught purposes, though it is 

1 In the roll of a tallage (Excheq. Arct. Miscel. Ministers' Accounts 
taken by Henry III. in 1250, on the possessions of the Abbey of Cirencester 
during the vacancy, on the death of Abbot Hugh de Bampton, all the teams 
on the demesnes in Cirencester, Minety, Preston, Amney, Driffield, and 
Latton are said to be each of ten beasts; those in Berkshire and^Dorsetshire 
of eight beasts. 

2 In the various numbers of persons possessing animals given in* the 
text as then living at Minety, I have estimated the stock of the four taxers 
on the average of their property, and of the stock described as belonging 
to the other 44 persons. 



196 Transactions for the Year 1894-95. 

uncertain whether any of them were used for ploughing. 
Household stuff is not mentioned, with the exception of 
four brass pots, one of which was in the possession of a 
relatively poor man. 

The value of a horse ran from 4s. to 13s. 4d. ; the 
range in value of an ox was very small, 10s. to 12s. yd.; 
that of a cow from 6s. to 10s. ; of a pig from is. 4d. to 
2s. ; all the sheep were valued at is. I have omitted 
the young of all kinds. 



EXCHEQUER LAY SUBSIDIES. GLOUCESTERSHIRE. 

6 Edward II. 1^-. 

Hot. 13. Taxation of the Vill of Mynty for a xvth, in the Sixth year of the 
reign of Edward II. 

£ s. d. 

Richard Asser had, on the day when he was taxed, 1 horse 1 
worth 1 os., 2 oxen worth 24s., 2 cows worth 16s., 40 sheep 
worth 40s., and 1 quarter of corn worth 4s. 

The sum of his goods 4 14 o 

John in the Hale had 1 horse 8s., 2 oxen 20s., 2 cows 16s., 40 

sheep 40s., and 1 quarter of corn 4s Sum 480 

Henry Julian had 1 horse 9s., 2 oxen 24s., 2 cows 16s., 40 sheep 
40s., a quarter of corn 4s., and a quarter of beans 2s. 4d. 

Sum 4 15 4 

Ralph Bysschop had 1 horse 10s., 4 oxen 44s., 2 cows 18s., 20 

sheep 20s., and 2 quarters of corn 8s Sum 500 

Matillida Daunteseye had 1 horse 6s., and 1 cow 8s Sum o 14 o 

Thomas London had 1 horse 6s., and 1 cow 8s sum o 14 o 

Margery Scyrwold had 1 horse 10s., 4 oxen 50s., 2 cows 18s, 

1 steer 3s., 2 pigs 3s., and 2 quarters of corn 8s. ... Sum 4 12 o 

Phelip Hamond had 1 horse 4s., 1 ox ios., 1 cow 8s., and 10 

sheep ios Sum 1 12 o 

Thomas the Ridelar had 2 horses worth 20s. , 1 cow ios., and 10 

sheep ios Sum 2 0 0 



1 Jumentum is the word used throughout, with the one exception noted ; it means 
a draught horse of some kind. 



The Tallage of 6 Edward II. 197 

£ s- d. 

Thomas Horsho 1 had 1 horse 6s., 1 cow 8s., 4 pigs 6s., and 10 

sheep 10s Sum 1 10 o 

Henry Gerard had 1 horse 6s., 1 cow 8s Sum o 14 o 

Thomas Matheu had 1 horse 6s. 8d., 2 oxen 20s., 2 cows 16s., 

12 sheep 12s., and 4 pigs 6s Sum 300 

Adam Beauscyr had 1 horse 10s., 1 colt 5s., 5 oxen 63s., 2 cows 

i8s., 2 steers 6s., 1 sow with 2 little pigs 5s., 60 sheep 60s., 

3 quarters of corn 12s., and 1 brass pot 6s. 8d. ... Sum 958 
Henry Gilbard had 1 horse 10s., 1 ox 10s., and 1 cow 8s... . Sum 180 
Adam Bruther had 1 horse 8s., 2 oxen 20s., 2 cows 16s., and 

1 quarter of corn 4s Sum 280 

Adam Smalhobbe had 1 horse 10s., 1 colt 5s., 2 oxen 24s., 2 cows 

16s., 40 sheep 40s., 2 quarters of corn 8s., 2 quarters of 

beans 4s. 8d., and 1 brass pot 5s Sum 5 12 8 

Cristine the widow of William the Smyth had 1 horse 8s., 1 cow 

ios., and 1 steer 2s Sum 1 1 o 

Robert the Smyth had 1 horse 12s., 2 oxen 20s. , 2 cows 16s., 

3 pigs 4s., and 20 sheep 20s Sum 3 12 o 

John the Palmar had 1 horse 7s., 1 cow 7s., 10 sheep ios. Sum 140 

William Harang had 1 horse 4s., 1 cow 6s. Sum o 10 o 

Adam Harang had 1 horse ios. , 2 oxen 20s Sum 1 10 o 

Margery Woderove had 1 horse 4s., and 4 sheep 4s Sum 080 

Edith the Hurde had 1 horse 6s., 2 oxen 20s., 1 cow 9s., and 

6 sheep 6s Sum 210 

Adam Gilbard had 1 cow 6s. 8d., 1 pig 2od., and 6 sheep 6s. Sum o 14 4 
John Mile had 1 horse 4s., 2 oxen 24s., 1 cow 8s., and 6 sheep 6s. 

Sum 220 

William Rothewell had 1 horse 8s., 2 oxen 20s Sum 180 

John Magge had 2 cows 20s., 2 heifers 14s., 2 young pigs 2s., and 

30 sheep 30s Sum 360 

William in the Hale had 1 horse ios., 1 colt 5s., 1 cow ios., and 

16 sheep 16s Sum 210 

William the Crockar had 1 horse 7s , 1 cow 8s Sum o 15 o 

Joh. Gurnay had 1 horse ios., 1 cow 8s Sum o 18 o 

Alicia Cole had 1 horse ios., 2 oxen 18s., 1 cow 8s., 2 pigs 4s., and 

40 sheep 40s Sum 400 

Thomas Harang had 1 horse 8s., 1 cow 8s., 6 sheep 6s., 2 pigs 4s. 

Sum 160 

Robert Hankyn had 1 horse 6s. 8d., 2 oxen 17s., 2 pigs 4s. Sum 188 

1 Horseshoe. 



Transactions for the Year 1894-95. 



£ s- d. 



Henry Clement had 1 horse 6s., and 1 cow 8s ... Sum o 14 o 

William Phelippes had 2 horses 20s Sum 100 

Thomas the Newman had 1 horse 1 13s. 4d., 5 oxen 54s , 3 cows 

28s., 6 pigs ios., 60 sheep 60s., 1 quarter of corn iiiis., 

1 quarter of beans 2S. 4d Sum 8 11 8 

John the Bysschop had 1 horse 13s. 4d., 2 cows 18s., 2 pigs 3s., 

12 sheep i2s., and 1 quarter of corn 4s Sum 2 10 4 

John Russel had 1 horse 5s., 2 cows 16s., 10 sheep, ios. ... Sum 1 11 o 
Thomas the Hurde had 1 horse 9s., 2 oxen 24s., 2 cows 20s., 1 sow 

with 6 little pigs 8s., and 20 sheep 20s Sum 410 

Sarra the Knyth had 1 horse ios., 5 oxen 54s., 2 cows 20s., 

1 steer 4s., 3 pigs 6s., 12 sheep 12s., 2 quarters of corn 8s., 

and 1 brass pot 6s , Sum 600 

Adam Fraunceys had 1 horse ios., 2 oxen 24s., 1 cow gs., 20 

sheep 20s Sum 330 

John the son of John Magge had 20 sheep 20s Sum 100 

William the Hurde had 10 sheep ios., and 1 brass pot 6d. Sum o 16 o 
John the son of William in the Hale had 1 ox ios., 1 cow 8s., 

and 12 sheep 12s Sum 1 10 o 

/Simon of the Sturte had in all ... o 12 o 
The Taxors of John of the Sturte 8 14 o 



(Richard Bysschop 2 o o 

Total sum (of the Tallage 2 ), £8 gs. gd. 

Memorandum. -r-The men of Cyrencester have made a fine for their 
tallage at 40 marcs. 

This is not a case where a comparison can be made be- 
tween methods of agriculture then and now, except as noting 
the complete change. The Vicar, the Rev. W. A. Butt, 
informs me that of the 3,700 acres in the parish, there are 
now not above twenty acres of arable land in small allot- 
ments, and there is not one plough team. All the land is in 
grass, held by scores of occupiers, who keep no sheep, but 
have hundreds of cows and hundreds of pigs. 

The Stibsidy Roll of Minety for a twentieth in 1 Edward 
III., fifteen years later, is here also printed for comparison. 
(Lay Subsidies, Gloucester shire, 1 Edward III. 

1 A ffrum. All the others are jumentum. It is not clear what difference was intended. 

2 I have not printed the separate tax of the fifteenth for each person ; as there was no 
need to encumber the page with those small sums. 



Mynty 




The Tallage of 6 Edward II. 



199 



Taxation of a twentieth granted to the King from lay folk in the 
County of Gloucester, besides boroughs and ancient demesne : 

THE VILL OF MYNTY. 





r 
I 


S. 


A 

Q. 




r 

£ 


s. 


A 

Li. 


J oh. Sewyne 


" 3 


1 1 


0 
0 


Timer Pnlp 




18 


4 


rail, riamounu 


1 


IO 


O 


j on. aite oieone 


2 


0 


0 
0 


Joh. Inthehale 


• • 3 


2 


O 


J Ulldild, iviy 1C . . , 




3 


4 


Ric. Asser 




1 0 




Hen. Hurde 


. 1 






Isab. Beusire 


•• 3 


T 4 


2 


Thorn. Matheu 


. 1 


2 


1 


rien. LriiDert 


1 


10 


IO 


Matilda Daunteseye .. 


. 1 


7 


1 1 


XllUill. OIIlclllllcUUC 




3 


4 


Adam Gilbert 


. 0 


18 


9 


jT.U.ct 111 J. I dUUUcy b ata 


3 


x 3 


4 


Joh. Asser 


1 


5 


5 


JTXV-lCllll XJ JL U Llll ... 


0 


T K 


0 










Joh. le Smyth 


.. I 


3 


4 




£5o 


5 


10 


Joh. Palmer 


.. I 


2 


11 


The sum of the tax of 








Rob. Knyt 


.. 2 


15 


0 


Mynty, £2 us. 3|d. 








Adam Hering 


I 


9 


2 


Joh. Bisshop, Sub-taxor 1 


0 


0 


Walr. Hurde 


... 2 


3 


4 


Simon Sterte 


. 1 


0 


0 


Will. Inthehale ... 


... 2 


4 


7 


Thorn. Newman 


. 1 


0 


0 


Joh. Gurnay 


I 


8 


4 


Joh. Shyrwold 


. 1 


0 


0 


Joh. Russel 


... I 


10 


0 




















£54 


5 


10 



The approved sum of the twentieth of the Vill of Mynty, with the 
tax of the sub-taxors, £2 15s. 3d. 

The Subsidy Roll only contains the entries of the items 
of the tax ; these are here changed into equivalent amounts 
of assessment for convenience of comparison with the Tallage 
Roll. The total of the assessment comes £\ short of the 
amount needful to correspond exactly with the sum of the 
tax. The transcription of the items of the tax is correctly 
made from the roll ; but the sum is one shilling short of the 
amount named : the stroke for another shilling was omitted 
by the scribe who made the copy for the Exchequer ; possibly 
J. atte Steorte's tax should have been iij s - iiij d - instead of 
ijs. iiijd. ? as he was one of the highest rated in 1313. 

The Bristol rolls do not give any such details of stock as 
are entered on the rolls for Minety ; but there is a good deal 
of varied information about the dwellers in the town under 
the heads named above, which may be useful hereafter for 
any future historian of the city, who wishes to work up the 



2oo Transactions for the Year 1894-95. 

older materials into newer form. Unluckily the rolls are not 
all of them perfect, a few lower membranes having perished. 
But the nominal roll of the tax of a fifteenth of movable 
goods only wants one lower membrane for the quarter of All 
Saints, containing presumably some 44 names, which, with 
the still existing rolls containing 918 names (but two untaxed), 
gives a total of 960 persons taxed for movables. The amount 
of the tax is £211 16s. yd., which gives ^"3,177 8s. 9d. as the 
rateable value of the movable goods of the assessed townsfolk. 
They were assessed at various sums from is. 3d., the tax there- 
fore being id., to 100 marcs, i.e. £66 13s. 4d., with a tax of 
£\ 8s. iofd., at which highest rate only two were rated, both 
in St. Ewen's, though it is possible of course that there may 
have been another or two of high rating in the lost All Saints' 
membrane. The quarters of the town varied very much in 
the relative wealth of their respective inhabitants, as the 
following tabulated list of the quarters shows by the average 
rate of the tax in each several quarter : 



TALLAGE OF a.d. 1313 UPON MOVABLES. 



Quarter of the 
Town. 


No. 
Assessed. 


Total Assessment. 


Fifteenth of Goods. 


Average 
Tax. 






£ s. d. 


£ s. d. 


s. d. 


All Saints ... 


135 


707 1 6§ 


47 2 gi 


7 0 


St. Ewen's 1 ... 


120 


746 0 n| 


49 14 8| 


8 2^ 


Trinity 2 


189 


436 0 n£ 


29 1 4l 


3 o| 


Mary-le-port 3 


122 


392 13 9 


26 3 7 


4 3i 


The Market ... 


25 


28 19 6 


1 18 7 


1 61 


Redclyffe ... 


369 


866 12 9! 


57 *5 6£ 


3 1* 


Total ... 


960 


£3.177 9 6 


£211 16 7 


4 4i 



The present Council House is on the site of St. Ewen's. 

2 The present Christ Church is the older Trinity. 

3 Beata Maria in foro. 



The second membrane of the All Saints' roll has perished 
all but a fragment ; but comparing the whole tallage of the 
quarter, as stated at the end of the third membrane of the 
rental, with the amount assessed on the 91 persons named in 



The Tallage of 6 Edward II. 



2or 



the first membrane of the tallage on movables, the number 
135 is arrived at. 

Thus Trinity and Redclyffe appear as the two poor 
quarters ; for even if the Market be added to Mary-le-port, 
as in the later Subsidy Roll, the average of the Mary-le-port 
tax would still be 3s. yd. And the greater relative poverty 
of Redclyffe is better shown by the first of the two following 
tables, where the tax-payers on goods in the Tallage Roll are 
scheduled under ten heads. From this it is seen that, taking 
the persons assessed at 10s. and under, they formed only a 
sixth part in All Saints and St. Ewens, two-ninths in Mary-le- 
port and the Market, rather more than a third in Trinity, 
and more than half in Redclyffe. Nor is this all, for there 
are in the set of the tallage rolls for Bristol 111 persons 
assessed at the very low figure of is. 3d. for their movables, 
paying only id. for the tax, and no of these are in the 
Redclyffe roll. The Redclyffe quarter then seems to have 
been largely inhabited by the poorer classes, which dragged 
the average assessment down ; for taking into account only 
assessments at £1 and upwards, Redclyffe is shown, by a 
table a few pages further on, to have been nearly equal to 
All Saints in 1313, and to have been higher in 1327. 

It must be remembered that the All Saints' roll of 13 13 is 
imperfect, wanting presumably forty-four other names with 
their assessments ; but it is not probable that, if we had the 
missing membrane, there would be any alteration in the 
relative values of the quarters, as there is no classification of 
any kind in the rolls themselves, high and low assessments 
being next to each other. 

It is easy thus to compare the relative position of various 
citizens, as we have already done in the case of those who 
took a prominent part on either side in the local disputes in 
13 12 — 1 3 16; but it is a different matter when we wish- to 
arrive at the real relation of the assessment to the actual 
wealth of any one of them. The assessment for tallage was 
clearly a stricter one than for an ordinary subsidy, embracing 
more taxpayers, and with a generally higher assessment, 



202 Transactions for the Year 1894-95. 





Total. 


M O Ol N lO CT> 
OlNOO M <N VO 
H H H CO 


VO 
G\ 




Tj-VO O "1 N 

00 in vnvo C\ 


CO 




<D O 

** 


• n • • • • 


N 








GOODS AT 


0 0 

tf) 0 <f> 

0 0 
jo^ 


| n j 1 1. • 


<N 




: : : : : 




0 0 
m 0 in 

0 a 0 
0 ^ 








• j j • H 


M 


D FOR 


0 0 
in 0 w 

0 2 0 
0 0 

^co 


co h | j • in 






• ■ • • H 


H 


ssesse: 


O O 
tn 0 "i 
O rj 


HUM Tj" • 


o\ 




N (O j • ' • 


in 


F PERSONS A 


0 0 

o5 0 u5 
0 0 

0 0 


mvo ro m ; 


co 
<N 






CO 


(IT, 


m-oooo h 

H N H H 


00 




CTioo in 00 co 


CO 

in 


BER O 


13 t5 
0 0 

ui 0 (A 
O ~ O 

M lO 


ro c^oo 00 in m 
co co 10 u-> 00 


f 
M 




vo co in Tj- cr\ 


M 


NUM 


■ T3 

0 (/) 
</> *" O 
O H 
M <•+? 


0 O\vo co h 

N N ION 


00 

0 

VN 




co in o\ 0^ h 

VN H MM 


00 




■M 

& 2 


CO N O Ox M 

MUM CO 


VO 

00 










5s. od. 

and 
under. 


M 00 O*00 VO 0J 

h co in 

M 


in 

M 






TALLAGE. 

A.D. 1313. 


Quarter of the 
Town. 


All Saints 
St. Ewen's 

Trinity 

Maryleport . . . 
The Market ... 
Redclyffe 


SUBSIDY. 

A.D. 1327. 


All Saints 
St. Ewen's 

Trinity 

Maryleport ... 
Redclyffe 



The Tallage of 6 Edward II. 203 



which alone would account for. its unpopularity. This is 
shewn by comparison ; thus the assessment of Minety for 
tallage in 1313 was ^"127 6s. 8d., the tax of a fifteenth, 
£8 9s. gd., being exacted from 48 persons; the subsidy of a 
twentieth in 1327 came to £2 15s. 3^d., being paid by 29 
persons only, on an assessment of £55 5s. iod., the average 
assessment for the tallage being £2 13s. against £1 18s. i£d. 
for the subsidy. There are no details of stock given in the 
later Subsidy Roll as in the Tallage Roll ; there are, however, 
eighteen of the same persons named in both rolls, so that in 
these cases a comparison of individuals is possible, their total 
assessment for the tallage of 13 13 being ^54 6s. 8d. against 
^"32 15s. 2d. for the subsidy. But the variation is by no 
means uniform : the assessment for tallage is higher in 
twelve instances, and lower in six, in five cases there being 
hardly any difference on either side. The broad result of the 
whole is that the assessment for tallage at Minety in 13 13 
was some two and a third times as much as for the subsidy 
in 1327. It might be thought that in a rural manor like 
Minety the lower assessment was possibly due to depreciation 
owing to bad seasons ; but the same kind of difference is 
seen in the country town of Cirencester, where though of 
course its inhabitants depended in a good measure upon 
agriculture, yet by the time of these taxes they were largely 
interested in the wool trade. In 13 13 the men of Cirencester 
paid ^"26 13s. 4d. as a fine for tallage, equivalent to an 
assessment of £\oo, but no details of individual payments 
are mentioned; while for the subsidy of 1327 there are 92 
persons named as paying only ^"13 4s. 2fd., which indicates 
an assessment of ^"264 4s. 7d. 

Just so again in relation to the borough of Bristol, there 
is the same kind of difference between the tallage of 13 13 
and the subsidy of 1327; the tallage on goods, amounting to 
£"211 16s. 7d., was levied upon 960 persons, the subsidy of 
£80 13s. upon 347 only. The result, however, at first sight 
is that the average tax in 1313, though at the rate of a 
fifteenth, was lower, being 4s. 4fd., than the average tax of 

1 5 

Vol. XIX. 



204 



Transactions for the Year 1894-95. 



1327, which was 4s. 7f d. ; and the assessment, too, of 1327 — 
^"1,612 — though in its total, of course, lower than the 
^3,177 9s. 6d. of 1313, works out the higher average of 
£\ 12s. n£d. than the £3 6s. 2^d. of 1313. But this disap- 
pears when the relation of the two taxes is looked at a little 
closer, for there are only two in the Subsidy Roll who are 
assessed at less than £i f whereas there are 472 — more than 
half — in the Tallage Roll who come in that category. So, 
comparing the assessments in the two rolls at £1 and above, 
there are 474 in the Tallage Roll whose total assessment is 
^"2,941 5s. n^d., against 345 in the Subsidy Roll with an 
assessment of ^1,610 10s., the average in 1313 and 1327 
being £6 4s. 5jd. and £\ 13s. n£d. respectively. The 
following table shows this in detail for the various quarters : 

ASSESSMENTS AT £1 AND UPWARDS. 



Tallage of 1313. 



QUARTER. 


NO. ASSESSED. 


ASSESSMENT. 


AVERAGE. 


All Saints 

St. Ewen's 


94 
89 


£ s. d. 
659 13 ni 
716 10 0 


£ s. d. 

7 0 4 | 

810 


Trinity 

Maryleport ... ... 

The Market ... ... 


94 
77 

8 


390 6 8 
364 10 0 
20 7 0 


4 3 
4 14 8 
2 10 10J 


Redclyffe 


112 


789 18 4 


7 1 °i 


Totals ... 


474 


2941 5 Hi 


6 4 5i 




Subsidy 


of 1327. 




QUARTER. 


NO. ASSESSED. 


ASSESSMENT. 


AVERAGE. 


All Saints 

St. Ewen's 

Trinity 

Maryleport 

The Market 


82 
56 
50 
65 

1 


£ s. d. 
349 3 4 
340 10 0 
171 0 0 

213 3 4 


£ s. d. 

452 

617 

3 8 4 f 
3 5 7 


Redclyffe 


92 


536 13 4 


5 16 8 


Totals ... 


345 


1610 10 0 


4 J 3 



1 There is no separate assessment for the Market in the Subsidy Roll; it was counted 
apparently along with Maryleport. 



The Tallage of 6 Edward II. 



205 



And in the analysis of the separate items of assessment in 
the two rolls, given on a previous page, the relatively higher 
assessment of the tallage comes out in the numbers of those 
whose goods were set at above ^20, there being only 7 
above that point in 1327, to 22 in 1313 ; the highest figure in 
1327 being ^43, against £66 13s. 4d. in 1313. It must be 
remembered that, in the schedule above for 13 13, an average 
allowance has been added to the All Saints' figures for the 
30 names presumably absent. Of those named in the exist- 
ing roll, only 64 are assessed at £1 and above ; and for all 
Bristol the figure is 444. 

When these assessments, even the highest, are compared 
with other indications of the wealth of Bristol citizens, e.g. 
the sums bequeathed by some of them seventy years later, as 
shown by the wills edited for our Society by the Rev. T. P. 
Wadley from the Corporation Records, it is impossible to 
consider the assessment as in any way representing the real 
wealth of the trading classes in Bristol in 1313. And at this 
very time we have already seen that some of the Constable's 
party had complained of being despoiled of goods from £100 
to £166 in value ; while the goods and chattels of the outlaws 
J. le Taverner, R. Martyn, R. Colpek, and W. de Clif were 
collectively estimated at ^"840 ; and as to details, in the Pipe 
Roll, 9 Edward II. the town of Bristol is held to answer for 
£200 of the chattels of J. le Taverner, £50 of those of R. 
Colpek, £"100 of those of W. de Cliffe, and ^"40 of those of 
R. Martyn ; whereas the amounts at which ClifFe and Taverner 
were assessed in the Tallage Roll for goods was £10 apiece. 
It is clear, then, that the assessments under the Tallage Roll 
cannot represent the wealth of the taxed folk, including the 
amount of their capital in trading stock or in other form ; but 
assessments from £66 13s. 4d. down to is. 3d., or, transferring 
the'amounts to modern values at the rate of is. to £1, from 
£ J >331 7 s ' 6d. to 18s. gd., might well represent the relative 
values of the household goods of a rich and a poor man. 

One point in relation to the Subsidy Roll, 1 Edward III., 
printed here after the Tallage Roll, is possibly due to " the 



206 Transactions for the Year 1894-5. 

dearth and famine at Bristol in 13 16, with such mortality that 
the living were scarce sufficient to bury the dead," which is 
mentioned on page 140 of this volume. Unluckily this roll 
is now slightly defective through age, like the Tallage Roll, 
wanting three names in All Saints', 21 in St. Ewen's, and 
five in Maryleport, 29 in all out of 347. Neither of these, 
however, would do more than slightly affect the result. But 
it is noticable that whereas there were in 6 Edward II. 444 
named persons in Bristol assessed at £1 and upwards ; in 1327, 
out of 316 named there were only 87, or one-fifth, of those 
former burgesses still in their old quarters and paying tax ; 
or if we assume that 33 other persons of the same names as 
in 1 3 13, but now in different quarters, are identical with 
persons named in the older roll, there were still only 120 
survivors in 1327 of the more substantial burgesses of 1313. 
That is to say, in those 14 years nearly three-quarters of such 
persons have disappeared from that category, either by death, 
or leaving the town, or by the failure of their own previous 
prosperity. 

With regard to the two former alternatives we have no 
primary means of judging, but we can estimate in some 
degree how far the last cause may have been likely to affect 
the list of those whose assessment reached £1, though the 
gaps in the two rolls prevent our calculation being absolutely 
perfect. In the case, however, of 108 out of the 120 sur- 
vivors we can make the comparison between their condition 
at the two dates, and the following schedule shows the result, 
the sum of which is, that of these 108 persons 39 have 
increased in wealth, 10 are the same as before, 59 have 
decreased, and their total assessment has diminished from 
£720 2s. 2d. to ^"488, very nearly a third. There are some 
very large relative alterations in prosperity, up and down, 
such as are not uncommon in a town that lives by commerce ; 
but I do not think that commercial depression is shown by 
it to be the great cause of the very large change of taxable 
persons. It is more likely due to some great mortality, such 
as not unfrequentiy affected populations in the middle ages. 



The Tallage of 6 Edward II. 



207 



COMPARISON OF CONDITION BETWEEN 1313 AND 1327. 



All Saints' . 13 13 




1327 




r 




d. 


£ 
X, 




d. 


Th. le Suller ... 4 


0 


0.. 


' J 


0 


O 


Rog. le Gurdler 1 


10 


0.. 


.1 


0 


0 


Will le Wyght.15 


0 


0.. 


.1 


0 


O 


R. de Standish 3 


0 


O.. 


.1 


0 


O 


Rob. atte Tour 2 


0 


0 . 


. I 


0 


0 


Ric. de Panes . 10 


0 


0.. 


.5 


0 


O 


Joh. le Suller.. 4 


0 


0.. 


.3 


0 


0 


Rob. Snow ...33 


6 


8 . 


■ 5 


0 


0 


Will, le Taillur 


2 


6.. 


.2 


0 


0 


P.leWodewardis 


0 


0.. 


• 5 


0 


0 


Th. Russell ...15 


0 


0.. 


•5 


0 


0 


Joh. Hopere ... 1 


0 


0 . 


.2 


0 


0 


Joh. de Derby . 5 


0 


0.. 


•5 


0 


0 


Ric. Blanket... 5 


0 


0. 


•7 


0 


0 


Sim. de Ely ...10 


0 


0. 


•5 


0 


0 


Will de Clyfe 2 .io 


0 


0. 


.6 


0 


0 


Th. Trillyk 4 ... 


5 


0. 


.1 


0 


0 


Joh. Turtle* ... 3 


0 


0. 


•3 


0 


0 


Th. Tybaud 3 ... 5 


0 


0. 


•5 


0 


0 


St. Emeu's. 








Th.de la Grave 3 


6 


8. 


1 1 


0 


0 


R.deRonberwe 20 


0 


0. 




0 


0 


Joh. Mathon...3o 


0 


0. 


•4 




5 


Gerv. de Cary. 10 


0 


0.. 


12 


0 


0 


Rog. Beauflur.20 


0 


0. 


-5 


0 




Clem. Turtle... 5 


0 


0. 


•5 


0 


0 


Joh. Tumbrel ..20 


0 


0. 


. 5 


0 


0 


Rob. Petypas..io 


0 


0. 


10 


0 


0 


Joh. Plomer ... 2 


13 


4- 




0 


0 


Th. de Hawkes- 












bury 4 10 


0 


0. 


..2 


0 


0 


T. de Salopia 3 .io 


0 


0. 


15 


0 


0 


Pet. Mount- 












stevene 3 ... 3 


6 


8. 


..6 


0 


0 


R. Devenyshe 3 


7 


6 


..2 


0 


0 


Ric. Passour 1 ..io 


0 


0. 


10 


0 


0 


Trinity. 










Phil. Gurdler.. 6 


13 


4 


-5 


0 


0 


Rob Bremel.. 5 


0 


0 


••5 


0 


0 


Marg. Masoun. 2 


0 


0 


..2 


0 


0 


J. de Axbrugge.io 


0 


0 


..2 


0 


0 



nn- 


1327 


T 


£ s - 


d. 


£ 


s. 


d. 


H. de Berkele . 2 13 


4-- 


.1 


0 


0 


Walt, de Purye 1 10 


0.. 


.6 


0 


0 


Th. Shepherd.. 10 


0.. 


.1 


0 


0 


Th. Rosselyn ..10 0 


0. 


.2 


0 


0 


W.deTokynton 6 13 


4 


.2 


0 


0 


Joh. Bat 4 0 


0. 


•3 


0 


0 


Sim. de Stoke.. 1 10 


0. 


.2 


0 


0 


Th. Swetynge.. 5 


0. 


.2 


0 


0 


Rob. Tumbrel . 5 0 


0. 


•4 


0 


0 


W.Thornbury 5 1 10 


0. 


•5 


0 


0 


Ric. de Stoke 5 . 0 15 


0. 


•4 


0 


0 


Mavylepovt and Market. 




Sim. Forstall...io 0 




r 3 




8 


in. -Touruour. . 3 u 


0. 




O 


0 


W. Medewelle. 3 0 


0. 


, 1 


O 


0 


Nic. Dunster... 6 13 


A 

n:- 


. i 


O 


0 


T. Abraham ... 5 0 


O. 


•4 


0 


0 


Joh. Valette ... 1 10 


O. 


.1 


10 


0 


Hen.de Fromp- 










tone 30 0 


O. 


20 


0 


0 


Joh. Hunte ... 5 0 


O. 


•3 


0 


0 


Will Randolph. 30 0 


O. 


•3 


0 


0 


Walt. Barbour 1 10 


O. 


.1 


0 


0 


Will. Baker ... 2 0 


O. 


.6 


0 


a 


R. de Apperley 613 


4- 


•5 


0 


0 


Rob. Geryng 5 . 1 10 


0. 


..1 


0 


0 


Rob. Teslare 5 7 


6. 


10 


0 


0 


Rob. Hayl* ... 15 


0. 


..1 


0 


0 


Phil. Standish 5 3 0 


0. 


..8 


0 


0 


Joh. le Hunte 1 5 0 


0. 


•3 


0 


0 


Hug. Payn 1 ... 1 0 


0 


..2 


0 


0 


R.de Apperley 1 3 0 


0 


•4 


0 


0 


Nic.de Oxonia* 1 0 


0 


..1 


0 


0 


J. Hondibody 3 1 7 


0 


..1 


0 


0 


Ric. atte Hey- 










home 3 ... 0 10 


0 


..2 


0 


0 


Ric. Carter 3 ... 5 0 


0 


.10 


0 


0 


Rob. Tylar 3 .. 1 6 


8 


..2 


0 


0 


Joh. Morcoke 3 . 6 0 


0 


••4 


0 


0 



Redely ffe. 
Rog. Stapleton 5 o 0...3 o o 
Rob. Stapleton 1 o 0...5 o o 



208 



Transactions for the Year 1894-5. 



1313- 


1327. 


1313. 


1327 




£ 


5. 


d< 


£ 


s. 


d. 


£ 


s. 


d. 


£ 


s. 




A.d. Wclyshotc^o 


0 


0. 


A 


0 


O 


xiug. ie lyier.. 0 




0.. 


.1 


O 




T/"\n \T Aft nPfllP c\ 

jun. in ui inci nt; u 


I 5 




Q 
. O 


0 


0 


j on. iviciiicidii. . ±^ 


0 


0.. 


•7 


0 


0 


luxi.U-C JLvcyiico - 












Ollli. wcuuc ... 




0. 


•4 


0 


0 


TlPTT! Tfl 


0 


0. . 


A 1 






VV . U.C VV cllCb.e 


I 5 


0..14 






Will Edward 

w lilt J_*u waiu... 


7 


6. 


2 






xv. ic ncy wdiu z 


5 


0.. 


.2 


0 


0 


J . VV crillllloLcr . 




0. 


. 2 


0 


O 


Wait. rVQuxiZ., 


1 


3--I4 


0 


0 


I Vlli JJullUC ••• 3 




0. 


_ 2 






Irih lVTiltnn 

J LM.1. 1VX11HJ11 ... 




3- 


•4 




0 


f^pnf 1 pVplf prpr •? 

UtUUC V ClLdWJ. 


D 




3 










0.. 


•5 






Jr.tiii, it; Wcuuc z 


5 


0. 


•4 


0 


O 


vjtiid. irOKerei... 5 


0 


0. 


•3 


0 




AY. VV y lUcIUCI all 5 




0. 


•3 


0 


O 


VV . cl LLC XVlggC t 


1 


3- 


.1 


0 


0 


Rob. le Taillur 4 


0 


0. 




0 


O 


Rob. Spakstone 5 


0 


0. 


•3 


0 


0 


Joh. Mynty ... 5 


0 


0. 


.2 


0 


O 


W.deCumpton.20 


0 


0. 


.8 


0 


0 


R.le Mareschal 3 


0 


0. 


.1 


0 


O 


H. le Taillur 1 .. 


1 


3. 


.2 


0 


0 


Joh. Brown ... 5 


0 


0. 


.1 


0 


O 


Hug. de Lang- 












Th. Uphulle... 1 


10 


0. 


.6 


0 


O 


brigge* ...10 


0 


0. 


.6 


13 


4 


Th. leVelterer.40 


0 


0. 


..2 


0 


O 


R.leMareschal 3 3 


0 


0. 


,2 


0 


0 


R. Pebbelewe . 5 


0 


0. 


..8 


0 


O 


Ad. Sawyare 3 .. 


7 


6. 


2 


0 


0 


Joh. Welyshote 40 


0 


0. 


..4 


0 


O 















These figures show the quarters in which these burgesses were assessed in 1327 : 
1. All Saints'. 2. St. Ewen's. 3. Trinity. 4. Maryleport. 5. Redclyffe. 



The rolls of taxation upon rents are more imperfect than 
those which deal with movable goods, there being three 
membranes missing, one for each of the quarters of All 
Saints', Maryleport, and Redclyffe. The Market Roll, a small 
one, gives the names of landlords only ; but taking the other 
rolls, there are named as tenants 437 persons out of the 892 
taxed for movables, besides 171 other tenants untaxed for 
goods, making 608 named tenants, of whom 563 hold tenements 
other than shops. Then there are mentioned 97 various tene- 
ments with unnamed tenants, not including the 38 tenements of 
the market, giving presumably a further 135 tenants ; and while 
79 shops are described as held by some of the named tenants, 
there are also entered in the rolls another 453 shops, but 
without tenants names. Thus in all the rolls there are some 
1230 tenancies described. Of the landlords 111 also pay 
rents of some kind, while 162 of those named are among the 
folk taxed for goods, and there are another 206 names of 
persons receiving rent who are not on the Goods Roll, making 
368 in all, of whom 42 are Corporations, one being the Com- 



The Tallage of 6 Edward II. 209 



monalty of Bristol, the rest ecclesiastical. The total of 
separate names that come before us in these rolls, having 
some connection with Bristol, whether folk taxed for goods, 
or tenants so untaxed, or landlords, other than tenants, of 
different kinds, is 1282. Were the rolls perfect, the number of 
tenancies and of names would both run up to some 1,500, 
We have seen above that only 44 names are missing out 
of some 962 persons that were taxed for movables, while 
the assessment seems to have been a fairly exhaustive one y 
including as it does such a large number of persons rated at 
the low figure of is. 3d. It is not clear, therefore, who that 
large number of other persons were who paid rent, while they 
were not taxed for goods. If the three missing membranes 
of the rolls of rent payers were now available, it may be that 
some few would be found to be also receivers of rents, and 
therefore in the class of landlords ; but this would make very 
little difference in the total. Some of them apparently 
belonged to families, another member of which was taxed for 
goods ; but the larger proportion of them, as far as names 
go, were unconnected with anyone else, and there is nothing 
to show what their position was, except that the rents paid 
by them nearly all rank in the two lowest categories of the 
following schedule of rents. Similarly there is nothing to 
show what the connection with Bristol was of that much 
the largest proportion of landlords, who apparently were not 
inhabitants, as not being taxed for movable goods. It is 
easy to pick out some names, such as Eudo de Acton, John 
de S* Aland, Sir Maurice de Berkeley, Sir John Bisschop, 
Matilda Lady Burnel, Sir Henry Cantok, Sir Richard de la 
Ryvere, and a few others, but the rest presumably were 
either heirs of former burgesses, or else house property in a 
big town must have been considered a good investment by 
dwellers in other places. A point also to be noticed is that 
out of the 892 persons taxed for goods, omitting the Market 
Roll, in the rent division of which only landlords are named, 
there are no more than 437 who appear as tenants; and 
even when a due proportion has been added for the lost 



210 Transactions for the Year 1894-95. 

membranes, there would only be 570 named as tenants out 
of 962 persons taxed for goods. It does not appear why 
certain persons should have been selected to be named as 
paying rents to certain landlords, nor why so many tenements 
and shops — 588 in all — should have been entered without 
the tenants' names ; for though the rents attached to them 
are nearly all in the lower categories, yet they are not by any 
means always the lowest, and there are plenty of instances 
of rents as low as 2s. with the tenants' names who paid them. 
As, however, the tax was paid by the landlords, of course the 
one thing important was to give their names, and so groups 
of shops were entered simply with the names of the receivers 
of the rents. 

The following schedule gives the number of landlords 
receiving different amounts of rent : 



NUMBER OF LANDLORDS RECEIVING RENTS 
UP TO : 



£ 


S- 


d. 


No. 


£ 


s. 


d. 


No. 






5 


0 


80 


6 


0 


O 


6 






10 


0 


80 


7 


0 


0 


8 






15 


0 


63 


8 


0 


0 


2 


1 Priory of St. James'. 


1 


0 


0 


31 


8 


2 


6 


r 


2 Richard de Welles. 


1 


10 


0 


28 


10 


I 


1 


1* 


3 Hospital of St. John. 


2 


0 


0 


27 


12 


4 


4 


i 3 


4 John de Kerdif. 


f. ' ' 2 


10 


0 


16 


15 


15 


10 


l3 


« William Randolf. 


3 


0 


0 


11 


16 


6 


7 


I* 


6 Abbey of St. Augustine. 


... - . 4 


0 


0 


" 7 


21 


10 


10 


I« 




5 


0 


0 


6 


32 


15 


6 


16 


















372 





The forty-one ecclesiastical corporations in and out of 
Bristol received between them ^130 5s. 8d., just two ninths 
of the ^566 9s. 7d. accounted for in the existing rolls ; the 
Abbey of St. Augustine's receiving the largest amount, as 
shown above, one of the recipients of small rents being the 
Bishop of Worcester with 8s. in St. Ewen's quarter. 

The following schedules show the various proportions 



The Tallage of 6 Edward II. 



211 



of the rents in the different quarters. It must be remem- 
bered, however, that the St. Ewen's, Trinity, and Market 
rolls are the only ones perfect. The lost membranes would 
-have added, probably, 53 for All Saints', 45 for Mary- 
leport, and 82 for Redclyffe, though without altering the 
proportions of the rents in any of the quarters, as the entries 
are made without attempt at real classification : 



GENERAL ASSESSMENT FOR RENT. 



Quarter. 


Total. 


Existing Rolls. 


Shops. 


All Saints* 


£ s. 


d. 


£ 5. 


d. 


£ s. d. 


145 5 


O 


64 1 


10^ 


22 I Si 


St. Ewen's 


123 19 


4* 


123 19 


41 


19 3 2 


Trinity 


128 6 


8 


128 6 


8 


32 3 6 


Maryleport 


138 16 


8 


78 4 


7 


28 4 11 


The Market 


15 1 


8 


15 1 


8 


3 1 0 


Redclyffe 


224 1 


5* 


156 15 


5 


3i 15 6 


Total 


775*io 


10 


566 9 


7 


136 9 9i 



TENEMENTS. 



Quarter. 


Unnamed 
Tenants.' ■ 


Named 
Tenants. 


Number of 
Named 
Tenants. 


Average. 




£ 


s. 


d 


£ 


s. 


d. 




£ 


s. d. 


All Saints' 


9 


2 


10 


32 


x 7. 


4 


39 


0 


16 io£ 


St. Ewen's 


3 


16 


0 


101 


3 


2i 


108 


0 


18 8| 


Trinity 


14 


18 


0 


81 


.5 


2 


207 


0 


7 10 


Maryleport 


9 


6 


.9 


40 


12 


II 


42 


0 


19 4* 


The Market ... 


12 


0 


8 














Redclyffe 


3 


12 


0 


121 


4 


II 


184 


0 


13 2 






















Total 


52 


16 


3 


377 


3 


6| 


580 1 


0 


12 iii 



1 This disagrees with the number given above, viz., 563, for those who held tenements 
other than shops, because there were a few persons who held tenements in more than 
one quarter. 



212 



Transactions for the Year 1894-95. 



NUMBER OF NAMED TENANTS 
Paying Rent up to 



Quarter. 


s. d. 


s. d. 


s. d. 


£ s. d. 


£ s. d. 


£ s. d. 


5 0 


10 0 


15 0 


100 


1 10 0 


200 
















All Saints' 


5 


12 


8 


7 


4 


3 


St. Ewen's 


11 


35 


19 


13 


11 


8 


Trinity 


89 


64 


35 


11 


* 5 


3 


Maryleport ... ... 


3 


6 


15 


3 


8 


7 


The Market 














Redclyffe 


46 . 


46 


30 


" 28 


22 


9 


Total 


154 


163 


107 


62 


50 


30 



Quarter. 


£ s. d. 
2 10 0 


£ s. d. 
300 


£ s. d. 
3 10 0 


£ s. d. 
400 


Total. 


All Saints' 










39 


St. Ewen's 


6 




2 




108 




2 




1 - 




Trinity 










207 


Maryleport 










42 


The Market 












Redclyffe 


2 


r 






184 


Total ... 


8 


3 


2 


1 


580 



The Tallage of 6 Edward II. 2iy 

RENT OF SHOPS. 
General. 



Quarter. 


Total 
No. 


Assess- 
ment 


Highest 
Value. 


Lowest 
Value. 


Average. 






£ 


s. 


d. 


£ 


s. 


d. 


s. 


d. 


s. d. 


All Saints' 


80 


21 


I 5 


°2 


I 


5 


8 


I 


4 


J D5 


St. Ewen's 


47 


19 


3 


2 


I 


0 


0 


2 


8 


8 if 


Trinity 


239 


32 


3 


6 


O 


7 


6 


I 


4 


2 8 


Maryleport 


46 


28 


4 


II 


I 


18 


0 


I 


4 


12 3i 


The Market 


26 


3 


1 


O 


O 


3 


0 


I 


0 


2 4 


Redclyffe ... 


94 


3i 


15 


6 


0 


14 


6 


I 


6 


6 9 


Total... 


532 


136 


3 








5 1 





With 


Named Tenants. 


With Unnamed 
Tenants. 


Quarter. 


No. 


Assess 
merit. 




Average. 


No. 


Assess- 
ment. 




Average. 


All Saints' 


30 


£ 
13 


s. 
7 


d. 


s. 
8 


d. 

io| 


50 


£ 
8 


s. 

8 


d. 
0 


s. d. 
3 4 


St. Ewen's 


15 


8 


5 


6 


11 


0 


32 


10 


17 


8 


6 9k 


Trinity 


8 


1 


9 


4 


3 


ei 


231 


30 


14 


2 


2 7i 


Maryleport 


21 


16 


1 


0 


15 


3i 


25 


12 


3 11 


9 9 


The Market... „. 














26 


3 


1 


0 


2 4 


Redclyffe ... ... 


5 


1 


3 


0 


4 


7 


89 


30 


12 


6 


6 io| 


Total ... 


79 


40 


5 ioi 


10 




453 


95 


17 


3 


4 2| 



It is only where the tenants are named that somewhat of 
real accuracy can be obtained, as it is in such instances alone 
that there is any assurance as to identity of tenements ; and 
so the numbers given for tenements and shops, where tenants' 
names are not noted, cannot pretend to be as exact as where 
tenants' names are given. For, where we are thus enabled to 



214 Transactions for the Year 1894-95. 

see more clearly, we notice that 106 of the named tenants — 
that is, between a fifth and a sixth of them — paid rent to 
more than one landlord, in some cases to three, and in one 
or two cases to four landlords. So that it may be the 97 
unnamed tenancies should be reduced to 80, and the 453 
shops also to some smaller figure, though not in the same 
degree, -perhaps to 430; for out of the 80 shops mentioned 
apparently in the All Saints' quarter there are only nine On 
which rent was paid, as far as stated, to more than one land- 
lord, three being with named and six with unnamed tenants. 
So also in the Maryleport quarter, out of 46 shops only four 
are noted as paying rent to two persons, three with named 
and one with unnamed tenants ; and there is nothing of this 
character stated with regard to the similar shops in the 
other quarters of St. Ewen's, Trinity, and Redclyffe. It may 
then be that some few of the rents which certain landlords 
are said to have received for tenements and shops, without 
any tenants' names attached, may be rents received by more 
than one landlord, whether as superior lords of the land or 
houses, or as chief tenants of the houses and shops. The 
entries in the various quarters are not in identical form, it will 
be noticed ; in some instances rents and assised rents are 
mentioned, representing the rents paid by sub-tenants, and 
by the original tenants, and once or twice langable. 

This irregularity of entry on the rolls makes it difficult to 
estimate as to population. Tenement is the general phrase 
in most of the quarters ; houses are only mentioned twice in 
All Saints', and 12 times in St. Ewen's, and not at all in the 
other quarters except Maryleport, but there 36 houses are 
noted as against four tenements, and in each of these latter 
cases the person is said to abide there {manet), a phrase 
otherwise only twice used of shops, in St. Ewen's. Then, in 
the Redclyffe quarter a distinction is made between two 
kinds of shops. In the other quarters every shop of whatever 
value is termed schoppa ; in Redclyffe two- thirds are schoppa, 
one-third selda, and the average value of the latter is only 
half of that of the former, 4s. 2d. to 8s. 3^d. : apparently it 



The Tallage of 6 Edward II. 



215 



was a meaner erection. From the phraseology used occa- 
sionally it would seem as though some of the shops were 
simply trading rooms, booths unconnected with a dwelling, 
put up by a burgess in his yard by the side of his house. 
How many of the large number of shops named were 
used also as dwellings it is impossible to estimate ; such 
fact is only distinctly stated in two instances. There 
are a few instances of a hall (aula), and of solars, or 
upper rooms, some over shops, some over cellars, while 
of the few cellars named, one is mentioned under St. 
Nicholas church. The only fairly certain figures which we 
have to start with in estimating population are the 962 
assessed for goods, and the 171 1 tenants so untaxed, to which 
another 47 such tenants should be added for the lost mem- 
branes, making 11 80 in all, for the most part no doubt 
representing families. Besides these, there would be also 
on the one hand a fringe of population too poor to be 
assessed even for tallage, and on the other hand the large 
number of persons gathered in the various conventual and 
collegiate establishments, and the garrison of the castle. If 
we attempt to estimate by tenancies, the number men- 
tioned in the rolls, apart from shops, is about 700, to which 
another 225 should be added for the missing membranes, or 
925 together ; but we cannot, as already shown, suggest any 
figure for the number of inhabited shops out of the total 
of 650 which there were, making allowance for the lost 
membranes. The relation of the Redclyffe quarter in those 
days to the rest of the town may be noticed. On the 
assessment for goods, the relative numbers are 369 to 593 ; 
and if the tenants unassessed for goods in the existing rolls 
are added, with a due proportion for the missing membranes, 
the figures are still 410 to 770. 

With regard to the comparison of the quarters, it will be 
noticed in the foregoing schedules that the average highest 

1 There are altogether 202 named tenants not assessed for goods in 
the quarter where they paid rent. But 31 of these named tenants in the 
various quarters are among the assessed for goods in a different quarter. 



2i6 Transactions for the Year 1894-95. 

rent, both for houses and shops, was in Maryleport, which 
in this respect takes the place of St. Ewen's, though the 
slighter difference in regard to houses might disappear if 
the Maryleport Roll were perfect ; and the highest rented tene- 
ments were in St. Ewen's, the highest rent of all, ^"4, being 
paid by the one medical man mentioned, who, however, was 
assessed for goods at only £2. Still, for trading purposes 
Maryleport was clearly counted the best. At the same time, 
any estimated average which we arrive at as to rent is only 
at the best an approximation, for we cannot be certain when 
the fair rent is what is mentioned ; for while in very many 
cases the value named may well be the rack-rent, sometimes 
it seems as if the sum named was the merest quit-rent, and 
this not merely in the imperfect rolls, when the missing mem- 
branes might add further amounts to individual rents, but in 
the long perfect rolls of St. Ewen's and Trinity. Again, there 
is no definite relation between an assessment for goods and 
the amount of rent which the same assessment pays. Thus, 
in contrast to the instance, just mentioned, of the striking 
■difference between the assessment for goods and the rent paid, 
in the case of John the Doctor, we may put the case of John 
of London assessed for goods at £"40 and paying only 12s. 
rent. So two men, assessed both at £60, pay rents of 17s. 8d. 
and £1 12s. respectively; and two assessed at £20 pay £1 
and £2 4s., to mention no others. But though we cannot, in 
consequence of this, make any exact estimate of what the 
average rent was, no doubt the relative values, as between 
the quarters, are fairly accurate. It was pointed out above 
that there were 11 1 who paid only id. tax for their goods 
on an assessment of is. 3d. There are 49 rents entered at 
is. 3d. and below, of which 38 were in Trinity. In six cases 
the rents were gd. or 6d., with a tax of fd. or £d., which 
latter sum Lord Maurice de Berkeley had to pay in two or 
three instances on a 6d. rent received in Redclyffe. 

In respect to topographical information in these rolls, 
•one point to be noted is that they contain evidence for the 
building of houses on Bristol Bridge earlier than Mr. Seyer 



The Tallage of 6 Edward II. 



217 



•supposed was probable from such documents as he had access 
to. He came to the conclusion that the bridge had been 
built about 1247, and afterwards widened, and the houses 
added about 1360. But here in Rot 1. dors., containing rents 
of the quarter of All Saints', John Welischote is described as 
holding a shop " on the bridge of Avon," so that there were 
buildings of some kind on the bridge by 1313. For that shop 
J. Welischote paid rent, in two separate items, to the Master 
and the Hospital of St. Bartholomew ; but he was apparently 
a resident in Redclyffe, for he was assessed there for goods 
at £4.0. To the same effect is the name of "Agnes on the 
bridge," who was assessed for goods in the Maryleport 
•quarter. Other places named in the All Saints' quarter are St. 
Nicholas Street, the Marsh Gate (there were shops outside 
it), Baste Street and the Venella, or Back Lane. In St. 
Ewen's quarter we find Corn Street and the Kaye. The 
only locality mentioned in the Trinity quarter is Wodewell 
Street, but the church is already called Christ Church. In 
the Maryleport quarter Wynch Street, St. Mary's Street, 
The Fuller's Street, Bloude-3ete (i.e. Bloody-gate), Newgate, 
and Avongate are mentioned ; and the name of the quarter, 
St. Mary in the Market, shows the original position of the 
Market. There is no mention of any locality in the Redclyffe 
•quarter. 

As to trades and callings, there are some 122 named, but 
the meaning of some of the names is not apparent. A list 
follows, giving the numbers named, but it must be taken 
rather as indicative than as exhaustive. In one or two 
instances I have counted the simple name, as Blanket or 
Lomb, to indicate a trade without the particle " le." I have 
■only emphasised the spelling where needful. It must be 
remembered that " estere" is a feminine ending. 

Armerer, 1. Beketore, 1. Bowyer, r. 

Boghiare, 2. 1 Bellescotere, 3. Brekkestere, 1. 

Baker, 13. 2 Berman, 1. Brewer. 1 

Bakkestere, 2. Blanketmaker. 2 Carpenter, 6. 

Barber, 6. Blokkere, 2. Carter, 2. 



2l8 



Transactions for the Year 1894-95. 



s Chalener, 4. 


7 Hokkestere, \ 


Sailor, 2. 


Chaundler, 1. 


Holkestere, J \ 


Sawyare, 1. 


Chesemonger, 1. 


Hony meter, 1. 


ia Scriveyn, 3. 


3*Clerk, 5. 


Hooper, 12. 


Schoyere, 1. 


Cofferer, 1. 


Ironmonger, 3. 


Shepherd, 1. 


Colymakyare, 1. 


8 Lavendere, 1. 


18 Shethare, 2. 


Coper, 1. 


Locksmith, 2. 


Shoemaker, 7. 


4 Corfestre, 1. 


Lombmaker, 1. 


Sivyare, 4. 


Cornmanger, 2. 


9 Loriner, 1. 


Skinner, 6. 


Costretmaker, 1. 


Lumbernare, 1. 


Slater, 1. 


Crokkere, 5. 


Marshall, 4. 


Smith, 3. 


Cuper, 1. 


Mason, 4. 


Spicer, 3. 


Cuppestere, 1. 


10 Menestere, 1. 


i^Suller, 2. 


Currier, 5. 


Miller, 5. 


Tailor, 22. 


Doctor, 1. 


Moware, 1. 


Tanner, 3. 


Draper, 1. 


Needier, 1. 


Taverner, 5. 


Dyer, \ 


Nettare, 1. 


15 Teasler, 2. 


Deghere, j ^' 


Neyaie, 1. 


Tiler, 12. 


Fisherman, 1. 


Nottare, 1. 


"Toller, 1. 


Fishmonger, 1. 


Packer, 2. 


17 Tonnour, 1. 


Flesher, 3. 


Parchemener, -\ 


18 Tooker, 1. 


Forester, 5. 


Parmentar, J 


*' Turner, 5. 


5 Fourbour, 4, 


Passour, 2. 


19 Velterer, 4. 


Gardiner, 1. 


Pewtrer, 1. 


2 °Waterleder, 2. 


Gaunter, -| 


Painter, 7. 


21 Wayte, 2. 


Glover, J 5 " 


Plasterer, 1. 


a2 Webbe, 7. 


Gillare, -\ 


Plumber, 4. 


23 Whittauwyer, 1. 


Gullare, / 2 ' 


Poghelere, 1. 


Wiredrawer, 1. 


Glass worker, 4. 


Polisher, 1. 


Wodeman, 1. 


Goldbeater, 2. 


Porsere, 1. 


Woder, 1. 


Goldsmith, 2. 


Porter, 1. 


Wodeward, 1. 


Grinder, 1. 


Potter, 1. 


Woolbeater, 5. 


Gurdler, 5. 


Quiltemakyare, 1. 


Woolcomber, 


Harleter, 1. 


1:l Rekke, ^ 


/-Comber, ^ 


^Hastare 2. 




\ Kember ; 


Hatter, 2. 


Roper, 6. 


(Kembestere. 


Hay ward, 2. 


Roviere, i. 


Workman, 3. 


Heolymakyare, 1. 


Rydolstere, i. 


24: Worpere, 2. 


Hokere, 2. 


Saghiare, i. 


Wynhalier, 1. 


Notes.— 1. Bellfounder. 


2. Porter. 3. Maker 


of woollen stuffs and coverlets 



3*. One of these is a woman, Cecilia le Clerke, whatever her position was. There is no 
doubt about the name ; and " le " is often used in these rolls with a woman's name instead 
of "la." 4. Or Coyfestre. Query: a maker of coifs or caps? It is a female. 5. Fur- 
bisher. 6. Query : a spearmaker ? 7. Huckster. 8. Washerwoman. In the Subsidy Roll 
1 Edw. in., is a Washman. 9. Bitmaker. 10. Minstrel. 11. Most probably persons who 
had to do with making cloth. 12. Writers. 13. Makers of sheaths for cutlery. 14. Query: 
a dealer? 15. Either dealer in teasles or teasled cloth. 16. Query: Tollgather ? 17. 
Query: Maker of tuns? 18. Fuller. 19. Felt maker. 20. Watercarrier. 21. Musician 
or watchman. 22. Weaver. 23. Collar maker. 24. Thrower. 



The Tallage of 6- Edward II. 



219 



This is a chance list of 352 persons, the designations in the 
Tallage Roll being often given, apparently, to distinguish per- 
sons of otherwise identical names. But taking the names of 
trades and callings as some indication of their prevalence, we 
find that the most numerous are those connected with the 
woollen trade. Woolbeaters, woolcombers, dyers, velterers, 
worpers, weavers, fullers, rackers, blanket- makers, chaloners, 
teaselers between them account for 43 persons, and if to them 
be added the 22 tailors we get a total of 65, nearly a 
fifth of the Whole. The skinners, tanners, curriers and parch- 
ment makers make another group of 22, of whom the two 
latter groups were in Redclyffe, the tanners being in Trinity, 
on the Frome bank presumably. The building trades 
account for 35, and the bakers, cooks, &c, for as many. 
These four groups together make up 157, nearly a half of the 
whole number who are designated by trades. 

Of Christian names there are used 59 for 1073 men, and 38 
for 166 women. They are given in the following lists in the 
order of their prevalence : ..: 



John, 278. 


David, 5. 


Gillot, 1. 


'William, 150. 


Jordan; 5. 


Gilmyn, 1. 


Robert, 94. 


Martin, 5. 


Hervey, 1. 


Richard, 92. 


Edward, 4. 


v Humphrey, 1. 


Thomas, 81. 


Alan, 3. 


James, 1. 


Walter, 65. 


Bartholomew, 3 


Joceus, 1. 


Roger, 42. 


Reginald, 3. 


Luke, 1. 


Adam, 32. 


Benedict, 2. 


Lynard, 1. 


Nicholas, 29. 


Bernard* 2. 


3 Maurice, 1. 


Henry, 25. 


Edmond, 2. 


Michael, 1. 


j Hugh, 19. . 


George, 2. 


Randolph, 1. 


Stephen, 17. 


,j Gregory, 2. 


Raymond, 1. 


Ralph, 14. 


Matthew, 2. 


Robyn, 1. 


Philip, 12. 


1 Pagan, 2. 


Vincent, 1. 


Simon, 11. 


Alicelin, 1. 


Wadyn, 1. 


Peter, 10. : 


C Clement, r . 


. Walfrid, 1. 


Elyas, 9. 


Edekyn, 1. 


Wythett, 1 


Geoffrey, 8. 


Eudo, 1, 


There is one other e 


Gilbert, 7 


Everard, i. 


without any name: 


Alexander, 6. - \ 


Gervase, 1. 


Parvus Persona. 


-Laurence, 6. q 


Giles, 1. 





I-. I j jE 3 . ,i> One: is in the ;iorm of Payn. . 2. Lord tylaurice de Berkeley. 

16 

Vol, XIX. 



220 



Transactions for the Year 1894-95. 



Alice, 23. 
Matilda, 22 
Agnes, 18. 



Cecilia, 4. 
Elena, 4. 



Clarissa, 1. 
Constance, 1. 
Denise, 1. 
Edeliva, 1. 
Elicia, 1. 
Emma, 1. 
Emmota, 1. 
Erneburga, 1. 
Eva, 1. 



Felicia, t. 
Galiana, 1 



Joan, 4. 
Lucy, 3. 



Hawisia, 1. 



Margery, 16. 



Mary, 1. 
Mariota, 1 



Edith, 10. 
Isabel, 10. 
Christina, 8. 
Margaret, 7 
Juliana, 6. 
Roesia, 5. 



Avicia, 2. 
Mabel, 2. 
Agatha, 1. 
Bettina, 1. 
Blissota, 1. 
Claricia, 1. 



Melisanta, 1. 



Sabina, 1 
Sarra, 1. 
Sybil, 1. 



Of surnames of various kinds, apart from simple designa- 
tion by trades, which accounts for 325 folk, there are 500 
persons who between them have 323 names clearly connected 
with places or countries, and 400 who bear 284 surnames of 
other kinds; some due to points in all probability personal 
to themselves, if they were the first bearers; e.g. Broun, 
Brounman, le Brun, Drinkwater, the Little, the Long, the 
Nice, the Noble, Palmere, i.e. Pilgrim, Redhead, Truelove, 
Whiteglove, Whitehand, Whitontoback. Some of these kind 
of name have been perpetuated, while others naturally died 
out. Of place names Devonshire in le Deveneis and le 
Devenische account for 9 persons ; Wales in le Waleys 
and le Walsche for 7; France in le Fraunceis and le Frinshe 
for 7 ; Cornwall in le Cornwaleys and le Cornwalsche for 4. 
Kent with 3, and Salop with 1, are the only other counties. 
The rest of these persons are mostly named from towns in 
varying proportion from 7 to 1, the most frequent being 
London, 7 ; Portbury 6 ; Bath, Stoke, Uphill, and Welles, 
each 5 ; Bruges, Bruton, Cheddar, Hereford, Petherton, 
Soweye, and Wynterbourn, 4 each. Of ordinary surnames, 
some of them clearly patronymics, le White is the most 
frequent with 9 persons ; of le Longe in different forms there 
are 8 ; then comes Turtle (from whatever the name arose) 
with 7 persons; of Brid, le Palmere, Snow, Valett there are 
5 each; le Kyng, Page, Payn, and Welyshote each have 4. 
A number of common Christian names have already become 
patronymics, as Adrian, Alexander, Anthony, Arthur, Bernard, 
Daniel, Edmund, Edward, Randolph, Raymond, and Richard. 
Baker is becoming an ordinary surname; both Robert le 



The Tallage of 6 Edward II. 221 

Baker and William le Baker are designated as pellipavius, i.e. 
skinner. The influence of Wessex speech is seen in the 
occasional alteration of F and V, as in le Frinshe, le Vrinshe ; 
Finipeny, Vinypeny ; so Visshe in the Subsidy Roll, pre- 
sumably for Fish, as Veltere for Feltere in both rolls, and* 
comparing the two rolls, Forstal and Varstal. 

These long contemporaneous rolls* though not perfect in 
the spelling, will help very much to elucidate the real names 
of many of the office bearers in the calendars printed in the 
earlier part of this volume, where many mistakes, apparently, 
have arisen from the scribe's imperfect copying of whatever 
may have been the original documents of the thirteenth 
and fourteenth centuries. There may possibly be a few 
mistakes in the lists as here printed, for the rolls are in 
one or two places worn and faded ; but in working on the 
transcript, which I had made, for the purpose of this paper, 
whenever I have been in doubt about names or amounts, I 
have obtained a verification of those entries by Mr. J. A. 
C. Vincent, one of the most experienced transcribers in the 
literary search room of the Record Office, who also copied for 
me the Subsidy Roll, 1 Edw. III., which I had not had time to 
do myself. 

The Tallage Roll contains the amount both of the goods 
belonging to each person, and of the rent which each person 
named in the rent rolls either paid or received, as well as the 
separate items of the tax, the fifteenth of goods, and the tenth 
of rents which was to be paid by each person so named. 
The latter is here omitted, not to take up too much room. 
There are a few manifest errors in the rolls sent up from 
Bristol to the Exchequer in 13 13, as to the amount of goods 
or rent upon which the tax was levied. The Exchequer 
clerks would have exacted the last penny of the final totals ; 
but it is doubtful whether they troubled themselves to check 
the individual entries. At any rate it is not an uncommon 
experience to find that these long tax rolls do not always add 
up correctly to the amounts named at the foot. Where the 
tax columns, on being added up, proved to be correct, any 

16 * 



222 



Transactions for the Year 1894-95. 



great error in the assessment, to which the discrepance 
between the tax and the assessment drew attention, has here 
been noted. 

In printing the Tallage* Roll, it seemed useless to repeat 
continually the same phrase; so, though the roll is written 
in all the repetition of identical phrase with only the ordinary 
abbreviations, it is here printed in shorter form. The two 
chief points are the names and values : besides these, a 
phrase is printed in full the first time it occurs; it is then 
indicated by initials^ or when it is repeated line after line, by 
simple marks of omission. All variations of entry, however, 
are shewn as they occur, even if line by line. A great deal 
of space has been gained by this, and it is hoped that the 
various entries will be clearly understood. 



BRISTOL TALLAGE. 



Lay Subsidies 6Edw. II. 



Gloucestershire 



113 



Particule Tallagii in diversis villis in Comitatu Gloucestrie. 
Bristollia. 

Taxatio quintedecime bonorum et decime reddituum in quart erio 
Omnium Sandiorum. 

Rot. I. 



Margeria de Leycester, habet in bonis 
Rogerus le Gurdler „ 
Ricardus de Plommuth „ 
Margareta Pape „ 
Willielmus Dodeman „ 
Walterus Arthur . ,, 

Simon de Pippesclif „ 
Thomas Mountsorel . ,, 

Walterus Uphill 
Johannes de London Cocus „ 
Henricus Pye ,, 
Johannes de Calne ,, - 

Willielmus de Eboraco 
Robertus Atten Ok ■•„.,... 
Margareta le Goldsmith „ 
Ricardus Tilloy 
Agnes Dauwe . 
Johannes de Stapleton , , .„ 



The Tallage of 6 Edward II. 223 







£ s. 


d. 


Thomas le Suller habet in bonis ... 


... ... ... 


—'"4 0 


0 


Thomas de Saunford Cissor ... 




2 0 


0 


Hervicus le Cu ,, 




5 


0 


Johannes de Cary ,, 




10 0 


0 


Alexander Roper ,, 




7 0 


0 


Ricardus le Harbur 


... ... ... 


.. ... & 


' 8 


Reginaldus Underyate ,, 




10 0 


-6 


Johannes de Soweye - 


• 


3 0 


b 


Nicholas le Draper „ 




.., ... 7 0 


0' 


Johannes Clof " •,, 




... ... 8 0 


r 6 


Robertus Otry • * ,, 


... ... ... 


40 0 


6 


Henricus Horncastel ■•• 




5 0 


6 


Margeria Hotale „ 





5 


b 


David de Whit „ ' 




15 0 


0 


Ricardus de Chapmanneslade ,, 




... ... 15 


0 


Willielmus de Whit „ 





10 0 


cQ 


Robertus Snow ,, 




... "... 33 6 


8 


Ricardus Legat ■ - 




... ... 1 0 


0 


Symon de Ely „ • ■■ 




10 0 


0 


Nicholas Underyate •,; •■• 




... ... 15 


0 


Galfridus le Reckere ,, 




2 O 


0 


Johannes le Suliere ,, 




... ... 4 O 


. 0 


Walterus le White *• • 




... ... 10 0 


6 


Johannes Turtle ,, 





3 0 


0 


Walterus de Wynton 




5 0 


3o 


Robertus Beauflur ,, * • 




... ... 10 0 


0 


Ricardus de Cheddre 




... ... 2 0 


b 


Willielmus Renaud ,, 




... ... 1 10 


0 


Ricardus de Standis ,, 




... ... 3 0 


• 0 


Willielmus de Wilton „ 




20 0 


0 


Walterus Prute ... 





5 0 


0 


Hugo Batheman ,, 




3 0 


0 


Robertus atte Tur 




2 0 


0 


Willielmus de Selwoode .... 




6 13 


4 


Laurentius de Kent ,, 




15 


0 


Robertus de Caldecote 




2 0 


0 


Johannes Lapprentiz ,, 




... ... 5 0 


0 


Robertus Berbrit ,, 




• 5 


0 


Johannes Bat ,, 




5 0 


0 


Laurentius le Cofferer ,, 




15 


0 


Walterus de Purye 




16 


0 


Willielmus le Taylur ... 





2 


6 


Johannes Brunning „ 




2 


6 


Rogerus Dunning „ . ..... 




6 


8 


Thomas le Turnur ,, ... 




1 0 


0 


Willielmus le Peutrer „ • • 




15 


0 


Adam le Turner ,, ... 




2 


6 



224 



Transactions for the Year 1894-95. 







£ s - 


d. 


Rogerus de Radenor, , habet in bonis ... 


5 ° 


0 


Thomas de Trillik 




5 


0 


Wadyn le Deveneis 




2 


6 


Martinus de Coges 




10 


0 


Johannes le Parmenter 




1 0 


0 


Robertus de Holhurst 




... 10 0 


0 


Alicia de Strete 




2 0 


0 


Johannes de Langport 




... : 3 0 


0 


Thomas Thebaud 




5 0 


0 


Matilda de Wynchelse 




... 2 0 


0 


David le Dyere 


Sl ... ... 


15 


0 


Philippus le Wodeward 


„ 


... ... 15 O 


0 


Ricardus Sampson 




... '.w ... 6 13. 


4 


Willielmus de Clife ... 




... 10 0 


0 


Ricardus le White, piscator 




30 0 


0 


Rogerus de Luchefeld o , 


(i ••• ;■• • ••• 


15 


0 


Thomas Russel 




15 0 


0 


Johannes Sulke 




2 


6 


Thomas le Hopere 




.2 


6 


Ricardus de Panes 




... ... ... IO O 


0 


Johannes le Hopere . 


... f f ;' ... 


I O 


0 


N icholas Bone walle 




... 2 O 


0 


Thomas Pigoun 


, ji ••• ••• ..- 


2 O 


0 


2nd Membrane. 








Johannes de Derby 




5 0 


0 


Ricardus Blanket 




5 0 


0 


Robertus Turtle . 




5 0 


0 



le Kyng . „ . , ... ,. ... 

esmyth ,, ... ... 

(Only a fragment of second Membrane left). 



Rot. 1. dors. 

Ricardus Sampson pvotulit votulum omnium sanctorum. 

£ 

Magister hospitii sancti Johannis habet in redditu ibidem 

Willielmus Randolph — 

Walterus Coce — in cornerio 1 

Ricardus de Welles h.i.r. de tenemento quod Johannes de Soweye 

tenet ■„. ... ... ... 

Walterus le White Irmongere — d;t. Nicholai le Draper 

Idem Walterus — d.t.q. Sabina t 

Johannes de Kerdyf — d.t.q. Johannes le Bole et Vicarius de 
Bercley t 

Ricardus de Tilloy h.i.r. in vico sancti Nicholai et de domo 
Vicarii ... x 

Ricardus de Welles — ib. 



s. d. 

4 © 

12 o 
8 o 

13 4 

6 8 

5 8 

10 8 

5 2 

7 6 



The Tallage of 6 Edward II. 225 

£ s- d 

Heres Stephani Beaumont — 1 ... 2 6 

Johannes Welischote, h.i.r.d.t.q. Ricardus de Welles t 10 o- 

Robertus Bel Thomas Devoniensis et Walterus Arthur t. ... 13 4 

Abbas Sancti Augustini — d.t. Johannis Clof 4 o 

Ricardus de Welles — ib. 7 6 

Heres Stephani Beaumont — ib 2 6 

Johannes Clof — 1 4 o 

Ricardus de Welles — d.t.q. de Wyt t. 5 o 

Johannes de Sancto Alando — ib 9 

Robertus Otry — de tribus schophis 3 4 

Abbas Sancti Augustini — de eisdem 10 o 

Henricus Horncastel — d.t.q. Willielmus Curteys t. 13 4 

Willielmus de Axe — de trib. s 1 1 4 

Robertus Randolf — de quinq. s. cum solariis 1 6 8 

Abbas de Circestre — d.t.q. Isabella de Wyht t. 60 

Eudo de Acton — d.t. Roberti Snow 15 8 

Ricardus Colpek — d.t.q. Alexander Tookert 11 o 

Philippus le Wodeward — de duab. s.q. Robertus Snow t. ... 12 o 

Johannes de Kerdyf — de duab. s. locatis pauperibus 6 8 

Willielmus Randolf — de uno cellario subter solario Roberti 

Snow ... 13 4 

Ricardus Legat — de trib. cel. et duob. sol 1 5 4 

Johannes le Parker h. de redditu de aula q. Ricardus Legat t. 

et de cel. in angulo 2 o o^ 

Johannes Hat h.i.r.d. s.q. Walterus le Wyte Irmongere t. ... 5 4 

Ricardus de Cheddre — d.s.q. Johannes de Soweye t 10 8 

Cecilia le Clerke — de schophis quas Robertus Beaufiour et 

Robertus Trywelove t. 2 2 4 5 

Hospitium Sancti Bartholomei — de schopha quam Johannes 

Welischote t. super pontem Abone 6 8 

Walterus le Wyte Irmongere — Johannes Hat t'. 11 

Hospitium Sancti Bartholomaei h.i.r. ib , 10 o. 

Johannes de Cheddre h.d.r. de domo q. Ricardus de Welles t. 6 8 
Ricardus de Cheddre — de celario subter ecclesiam Sancti 

Nicholai 1 4 o 

Cecilia le Clerke h.r. d.s.q. Willielmus de Selewode t 18 8 

Willielmus Russel — ib 7 o 

Priorissa de Kyngton h.r. de duab. s.q. Johannes Wachet t. ... 60 

Cecilia le Clerke — d.s. Nicholai le Draper 6 8 

Ricardus le Wyte Irmongere — de duab. s. Waited Campe et 

Galfridi le Recker 12 o 

Willielmus Randolf — de.t.q. Johannes de Kingiswode, t. ... 13 4 

Domina Matilda Bernal — ib , 8 o 

Heres Philippi Rauf de Sobbury h.r.d. vij. s. Johannis le 

Sullere 100 

Johannes Tumbrel — d.t. dicti Johannes le Sullere 16 o 

l This should be 7s. 6d., vijs. instead of ijs. 

2 There is some great mistake here : the tax is 13s. g^d., the biggest item in all the 

rent rolls ; the nearest to it being ns. yd. in Redclyffe, as here for a group of shops. The 
tax requires a rent of £6 17s. nd. 



226 Transactions for the Year 1894-95. 

.;. . £ i a. 

Laurentius de Cary — d.t. Waited le Wyte Irmongere 10 o 

Priorissa de Kyngton — ib. ... ... . ... 2 0 

Priorissa Sancti Marie Magdalene h.r. d.t. Johannis Turtle. ... 4 o 

Ricardus de Welles — Waited de Wynton ... 18 8 

Abbas de Keynsham — Roberti Beauflqur ... 13 -4 

Editha de Poulet — d.t.q. Willielmus le Ropere t ... 13 4 

Ricardus de Panys habet d.t.q, Ricardus de Cheddre t. ... ... 1 13 4 

Johannes de Kerdyf h ; i r.d.t. Beaumont 10 o 

Ricardus Adrian — d.t.q.. Ricardus Standisch t. ... 1 8 

Bernard ate Wolde h.d.t.q. Willielmus le Ropere inhabitavit ... 13. . ,4, 
Johannes filius Johannis le Clerk h.i.r. d.t.q. Willielmus de 

Wylton t ... ... ... 15 o 

Robertus de Holhurst — d.t. Nicholai Underyate et Roberti 

de Betislegh ... ! ... ... ... ... ... .... .. ; 16 \8 

Robertus Otry — d.t.q. Matilda le Waterleder t. ... ... ... 92 

Johannes Atte Walle — Hugo Batheman t ... 14 

Willielmas le Ropere — ib. 2 0 

Laurentius de Car)' — d. duab. s. juxta Robertum de Trywelove 6 8 

Johanna Crok — d. quat. s. extra portam maresci 5 4 

Abbas Sancti Augustini d. trib. s. ib 6 o 

Robertus de Holhurst h.d. eisdem 6 o 

Agnes Dawe — d. duab. s. in Baste Strete ... 2 8 

Hospitium Sancti Laurentii h.i.r.d. quinq. s. ib. 10 o 

Edwardus le Fleschewere — ib. d. una s. juxta venellam 3 0 

Cecilia le Clerk h.i.r. d. una s. cum curtilagio 5 o 

Bernard ate Wolde — d. quinq. s. ib 8 o 

Ricardus de Panys — d. trib. s. ib 4 o 

Magister Hospitii Sancti Johannis — d. duab. s. ib 60 

Galfridus Locking — ib. d. duab. s 7 o 

Alicia de Dene — d. trib. s. .. 9 o 

Walfridus de Wynton h.i.r.d. duab. schophis ib 80 

Johannes le Tavernere — d.t.q. Willielmus de Selewode t. ... 17 10 

Elias le Ropere — d. duab. s. juxta Laurentium de Kent ... 13 4 

Willielmus le Tayleur — d.t.q. Robertus Berbrotte t 13 4 

Item Idem Willielmus — ex s. Juliane le Walsche ib. ... ... 7 o 

Willielmus Russel h.i.r. d.t.q. Johannes Gorda t. .. 16 o 

Ricardus Legat — Alicelinus de Bradeford t. 4 o 

Johannes Franceys junior — Laurentius le Coffrer t. 100 

Ricardus le Wyt h.i.r. ib. ... 17 10 

Willielmus Hayl h.i.r.d. t.q. Ricardus le Plommer ... 100 

Abbas Sancti Augustini — ib. ... 2 3 



2nd Membrane. 
Only a fragment left 



5 8 
7 10 

5 « 
c 8 



The Tallage of 6 Edward II. 22 

3rd Membrane. 

:.: : , £ s. d 

Stephanus Payn h.i.r.d.t. Johannis de Reding ... ... 1 o c 

Henricus de Fremton — juxta t. Johannis de Reding ... 1 o c 

Ricardus de Welles — d.t. Johannis Kyft ... ... 10 c 

Ricardus Cantok — d. eodem t ... ... 6 c 

Martinus Horncastel — in cimiterio Omnium Sanctorum ... 13 c 

Prior Sancti Jacobi — ib. 1 o c 

Magister Hospitalis Sancti Laurentii — ... ... ... ... ... 23c 

Magister Hospitalis Sancti Bartholmei h.i.r.d.s.q. Johannes :.n/\u, 

Welischote t. .... ... ... 10 c 

Prior Sancti Jacobi — ib. 6 £ 



Summa totius decime, de redditu ... ... £14. 10 6 

Summa totalis quintedecime de mobilibus . 

et decime de redditibus £61 13 3! 

Rot. 2. • - 



Taxatio bonorum in Quavtevio Sancti Andoeni Bvistolliensis. 





£ 


s. 


d. 


Johannes Medicus habet in bonis 


.. ... ... 2 


0 


0 


Isabella Selwyne „ ..." ... 




5 


'? 


Walter us de Mountstevene ,, ... ... 




15 


6 


Rogerus le Skynnere " ,, ... ... 


.. ... ... 1 


0 


0 


Thomas le Crokkere , , ...... 




10 


O 


Willielmus de Boedeford ... ... 


1 


0 


O 


Nicholas de Overe Cissor ,, ... ... 


1 


10 


0 


Elena de Penho -r ,, 


1 


0 


0 


Radulphus le Fourbour ,, 




5 


0 


Alicia Douce ,, 




5 


O 


Constantia Wyour ,, 




8 


O 


Willielmus de Bon walle ,, 


.. ... ... 2 


0 


O 


Alicia de Celer 


.. ... ... 1 


0 


O 


Johannes le Honymetere „ 




10 


O 


Thomas de London Cissor ,, 




10 


O 


Alicia Godeshalf - ^ 


.. ... ... 1 


0 


0 


Willielmus Bette ,, 


.. ... ... 10 


0 


0 


Johannes le Machoun „ 


.. ... .;. 30 


6 


0 


Robertus Bele Sutor „ 




10 


0 


Cecilia Serle ••• ,, 




5 


0 


Gervasius de Cary „ 


10 


0 


0 


Rogerus Beauflour „ 


.. 20 


0 


0 


Willielmus le Cornewalsche ,, 


6 


13 


4 


Johannes de London 


40 


0 


0 


Nicholas de Rouborwe •-• 


... 20 


0 


0 


Willielmus de Kerdyf ,, 


.. ... ... 66 


13 


4 


Willielmus le Worpere 




9 


0 



228 Transactions for the Year 11894- 



■95- 





£ 


s 


d.. 


Alexander le Kyng habet in bonis 


... 2 


0 


0 


Robertus de Wodhulle ... 




10 


0 


Robertus Malev.erne. „ 


... 1 


0 


0 


Johannes Deverel , ,, 


... 1 


0 


0 


Ricardus le Cornewalsche ,, , , 




15 


a 


Nicholas de Ferleye ,, 


... 10 


0 


a 


Isabella Pistrix . ..... ,, 


... 2 


0 


0 


Willielmus de Hereford Pistor ,, 


... 2 


0 


o> 


Johannes Champeneys ,, 


... 8 


0 


o- 


Willielmus de Hampton 


... 2 


0 


0 


Martinus le Chalener ......... ... 




10 


0 


Thomas de Manegodesfeld 




5 


0 


Thomas Morys ,, 


... 1 


0 


0 


Walterus le Walsche . ,, 


... 1 


0 


0 


Johannes Page Pistor 


••• 3 


6 


8. 


Willielmus Busy 


... 0 


15 


0 


Robertus de Hampton ,, 


... 6 


13 


4 


Petrus le Hopere „ 


1 


0 


a 


Johannes atte Walle ,, 


... 13 


6 


8. 


Johannes Brudeport ,, 


••• 5 


0 


0 


Radulphus Belechere ,, 


... 1 


0 


o- 


Thomas Dale habet in omnibus bonis 


... 1 


0 


0 


Clemens Tourtle habet in bonis 


... 5 


0 


0. 


Henricus le Lokere ,, 


... 10 


0 


0 


Gilbertus Derby „ 


... 6 


13 


4 


Ricardus Sanekyn ,, 


... 10 


0 


0 


Johannes Rossel, Bona sua arestata sunt in Manu Regis ... 








Johannes de Berkam 1 ,, 


••• 3 


0 


a 


Johannes Franceis Senior ,, 


... 10 


0 


0 


Johannes Tumbrel 


... 20 


0 


0 


Adam Skidye ,, ... 


... 2 


0 


0 


Isabella de Crandon 




5 


o- 


David le Walsche ,, 


... 2 


0 


0- 


Ricardus le Walsche ,, 


• •• 5 


0 


0 


Willielmus Godeshalf 


... 6 


0 


0 


Margeria Reymund 1 ,, 


••• 3 


0 


0, 


Adam de Crommale ,, 




10 


0 


Nicholas atte Walle ,, 


... 3 


0 


a 


Laurentius le Palmere ,, 


••• 3 


6 


8 


Willielmus atte Nok ,, 




15 


0 


Ricardus Attenok ,, 


... 6 


0 


a 


Robertus le Passour ,, 


... 10 


0 


0 


Thomas de Salopia ,, 


... 10 


0 


0 


Hugo le Hunte ,, 


... 4 


0 


0 


Henricus de Tymbresbarwe ,, 


... 10 


0 


0 


Thomas Richard ,, 


... 3 


0 


0 



i These are mistakes for £2 0 0. The scribe wrote lxs. for xls 



The Tallage of 6 Edward II. 229? 



A Dorso. 





Xj 


s. 


d. 


T rvVi a tmpc f\ T-T Pfpfrifrl ... 

J UlldllllCo LLC ncl ClvJI U. . , , ... ••• ••• 


... 2 


0 


O- 


VvdlLcIUb \^uiny±i i> •(• ... ••• ••• 


1 


10 


0 


J Olldllllcb (J.C XVcyilCbild.111 ; . . u, . . t 




10 


0 


XVU L/tl L 1 CIV L/clo I) • • • • • • • • • ••• 


... 1 


10 


0 


Simon Hakkespone ... •.. 






A 
f 


T? 1 r* d yc\ n c 1p PaVl^PTP ... 


A 


O 


O 


XVlt/dlQUb dllC J\UUC • 


I 


10 




Hsnricus Fa,ucoun . .. 


I 


0 


o> 


Ricardus le Devenysche Cissor 




7 


6 


Johannes le Glaswrougte Junior ,, 


I 


O 


0 


Thomas de Haukesburye ,, 


... IO 


O 


o> 


Thomas Cocus ,, 


I 


O 


0 


Johannes le Plommer, super pontem 


2 




/i 


Stephanus Pictor ,, ... ... 


... I 


0 


o> 


Thomas Bryd ,, 




IT 
J 


0 


J WllCLllilOO V O f } . 4* ... ■ ■ . ... ... 


I 


O 


0 


Tr^VianriPQ 1p "Dpvpn v^pnp 




T C 


Q. 


Jocius de Reyne ,,■ ... ... ... ... ... 


T K 


O 


O 


Bernardus de ^Wynchestre ,, ... ... ... ... ... 


I 


10 


O 


Johannes Hobbes ,., 


A 


0 


O 


WilliplrrmQ f~ipffrpv 

V V llllOllll LIO VJFC111 t V j-,' ... ... ... ... 


j 




O 


Willielmus le Hopere ,, 




10 


O- 


Walterus de Portbury 


••• D 


0 


0 


Thomas atte Pipe ,, 


e, 

D 


0 


o, 


Tr>Viannp<? 1p T ancrp TsTanta 

j unaiiiitj 10 J — i(X llifc 1> <X\X\.cX w ... ... ... ... ... 








"Ppffnci np lYTmi'nt^tp'xT'P'np 


3 


5 


8. 


Stephanus Cissor -■. t) ... 


I 


10 


0. 


T p> Vi n ti rt /=* q 1 0 ( r r*\7 r* 

UllallUCo 10 wicyc tJ ... ... ... ... ... 








Johannes de Celer 


60 


0 


0 


Adam serviens de Johanne de Celer, habet in omnibus 


e 
D 


0 




Waltpr" T-'pIpwIp 

vy aiici J- ciwvyic ■ ■« , , ...... 


6 


I 3 


4 


Roger Seymor ,, 


3 


6 


& 


T-'pfrnQ 1p PrQnppit: 

J. ull no ic J. x aii^cij 1 • ° . . ...... 


60 






Roger Cissor , , , 




5 




AA/il1ip1mn<? rip Rnllrvncrtnn 

VV llllClljLluo UVJ A-JKJ 1 IV V UK Lull > j, ... ... 








Willielmus Rossel 


2 


0 


0 


Ricardus le Devenysche Bowyer ,, 






A 


IVUUCI LUb vv duel ... ... 




5 


O 


Matilda de Cliftone - . 








TVTnrHnnc; T-Tnrnra cf a1 

l.XCXt IA11UO 1. 1U1 llOclOLCl ... ... 


. . . 20 






Johannes de Romeneye ,, 


6 


13 


/I 
T 


Johannes le Lange = „ 


... 10 


O 


O 


Thomas de la Grave „ ... ... 


... 3 


6 


8 


Raymund Frombaud 


... 66 


13 


4 


Stephanus Pistor ....... .. • ,, ... ... 


••• 3 


0 


0 


Thomas le Specer ,, . - ... ... 


... 6 


13 


4 



Transactions for the Year 1894-95. 



Ricardus Edmund, habet in omnibus 

Alanus le Brutoun ,, '.. 

Summa bonorum mobilium in quarterio 

Sancti Audoeni ^49 14 8 

Summa totalis tarn de Redditibus quam de 

• Mobilibus de quarterio Sancti Audoeni £62 2 .8 
Sancti Audoeni, 

Sigillum Johannis de Romeneye. 



Rot 



Taxatio Decime Reddituum in Quarterio Sancti Audoeni 
Bristolliensis. 



Petrus le Eraunceys habet ex locatione t.q. Johannes Medicus t 
Idem- Petrus ■ — de domo Isabelle Selewyne de redditu assisso .. 

Walterus Mountstevene tenet de rege .... 

Ricardus Langbord defert pro domo sua Priori de Bradleye .. 

Rogerus le Skynnere — predicto Priori 

Thomas le Crokkere — Matilde Burnel ... ... ......... .. 

Matilda Burnel h.d.d.q. Elicia le Fourbour t .. 

Matilda Burnel — Robertus le Fourbour t .' 

Eadem Matilda Burnel, h.e.l.t.q. Thomas le Fourbour t 

Eadem Matilda h.d.d.q. Willielmus de Boedford t 

Eadem Matilda h.e.l.t.q. Nicholas de Overe Cissort 

Johannes Douce — Elena de Penho t .. 

Martinus Ftorncastel h.e.l. trium schopparum in Cornstrete .. 

Prior de Kyngtone — t.q. Alicia Douce t 

Rector Ecclesie Sancti Audoeni — • Constantia Wyour t 

Martinus Horncastel — Willielmus Bonwalle t. ... 

John Snow — Alicia de Celer t 

Idem Johannes — Johannes le Honymetere t .. 

— Thomas de London Cissor t .. 

— Thomas Porchas t 

— Robertus Waker t 

— Isabella Gryffyn t .„ 

— Matilda de Clyftone t 

. h.e.l. t. Henrici de Leye Naute 

Idem Johannes Snow defert de redditu assisso de supradictis 
redditibus ... ... 

Alicia de Godeshalf — de domo sua in qua manet diversis 
personis viz. Abbati de Neth et Abbati Sancti Augustini 
et ecclesie Sancte Warberge Bristolliensis 

Johannes de Nucoumbe h.i.r.a.d.d.q. Johannes le Machoun t 
et ecclesie sancte Warberge vj a - d.r.a. et Johanni Le 
Lounge v s - et Matilde Fitznicole v s ° 

1 The seal is gone, but the strips that held it remain. 



(vacant) 

•8 4 



10 

8 

13 
8 

17 
6 

12 

18 4 
6 
5 
5 

10 
5 



13 4 



The Tallage of 6 Edward II. 



£ s. d. 

Johannes le Lounge h.e.l.s.q. Robertus Bele sutor t. ... 15 6| 

Idem Johannes — unius s.q. Cecilia Serle t . ... ... ... 15 6\ 

Johannes Snow — t.q. Gervasius de Gary t. ... ... 168 

Willielmas de Axe h.d r.a.d.t. Rogeri Beauflour et t. Willielmi 

Cornewalsche ... ... 11 o 

Abbas de Kyngeswode — Johannis de London 12 o 

Johannes Sire et Priorissa de Kyngton — i.q. Nicholas de 

Rouberewe manet - ... ... 1 o o 

Willielmus le Worpere d.p.l.d.s. ecclesie Sancti Leonardi ... 4 o. 

Ricardus Cantok h.d.r. a. d.t.q. Rogerus Blanket t. ... 160 

Alicia filia Thomas Tourtle h.e.l.t.q. Robertus Tourtle t 5 4 

Ricardus de Wodhulle — Robertus de Wqdehulle t. ... 10 8 

Ricardus Blanket — j.s.i.q. manet Robertus de Malverne ... 2 8 

Idem Ricardus — t.q. Johannes Deverel t. ... 13 4 

Johannes le Parkere — j.s.i.q. manet Matilda le Holkestere ... 2 8 

Thomas atte Pipe Cissor h.d. r.a.d.t. Ricardi le Cornwaleys ... 20 

Ricardus le Cornwaleys et Cristina uxor ejus, h.e.l. vi. s. 16 o 

Prior Sancti Jacobi Bristolliensis h.d.r.a.d.t. Nicholai de 

Ferleye 12 o 

Ricardus Tilloy h.e.l.t.q. — Vincentius Gouwer t 13 4 

Matilda Fyznicole h.d. predicto t.d.r.a. 6 8 

Agnes Dale h.e.l.t.q. Isabella Pistrix t 13 4 

Matilda Fyznicole h. de pred. t.d.r.a. ... 6 8 

Robertus Randolf h.e.l.t.q. Willielmus de Hereford pistor t. ... 13 4 

Robertus Snow — Johannes Champeneys t 13 4 

Matilda Fyznicole h.e. pred. t.d.r.a. ... ... 4 o 

Johannes de Wytteneye h.e.l, iiii. s. ... 16 o 

Johannes Wqdelok — t.q. Willielmus de Hampton t. ... ... ... 8 10 

Willielmus de Axe — j . tenementi ... 8 o 

Idem Willielmus — — ... ... ... 6 o 

Idem Willielmus — t.q. Martinus le Chalener t 6 o 

Johannes Wodelok — j. t 10 8 

Ricardes de Mulles — — . 4 o 

Matilda le Harleter h.d. t.q. Thomas Mangodesfeld t.d.r.a. ... 10 o 

Willielmus Randalf h.e.l.t.q. Walterus le Walsche t 5 4 

Ricardus Blanket — j.s.q. Johannes Champeneys t 3- 4 

Nicholas de Ferleye h.e.t.q. Johannes Page pistor t.d.r.a. ... 10 8 

Robertus Snow h.d. t.q. Willielmus Busy t.d.r.a 15 4 

Johannes le Wyte Tynctor h.e.l.t.q. Robertus de Hampton t. ... 1 5 4 

Alicia le Lange h.d. t. Peter le Hopere d-r.a. ... 13 8 

Johannes de Kerdyf — Johannis atte Walle — ... ... 1 8 o 

Ricardus de Boreton h.e J. ij. s. super Kayam 1 6 8 

Thomas Rossel — t.q. Johannes Brudport t. ... ... 15 8 

Idem Thomas h.d. t. Roberti Belechere d.r.a. j 10 6 

Idem Thomas h.e.l.t.q. Clemens Tourtle t 17 9 

Johannes le Taverner h.d.j. sel. d.r.a. super Kayam 10 o 

Ricardus Tylloy — t.q. Clemens Tourtle t. d.r.a 2 0 



232 



Transactions for the Year 1894-95. 



Margeria Coce — t. Thomas Dale — 

Johannes de Kerdyf — Henrici le Lokere — 

Juliana Tourtle — j. sel. q. Clemens Tourtle t. — ... 

-Dominus Henricus Cantok — t.q. Gilbertus Derby t. — 

Thomas Molendinarius — r.a.d. ij. s. super Kayam 

Ricardus Randalf h e.l.j.s. super Kayam 

Rogerus de Apperleye q. Ricardus Sanekyn t 

Raymundus Frombaud Ricardus de Panes t 

Elias de Axebrugge h d.t. Johannis de Berkam d.r.a 

Ricardus Cantok — q. Johannes Fraunceis senior t. — 

Willielmus de Axe et Abbatissa de Scheftebury — Johannis 

Tumbrel — ... ... ... ... 

Johannes de Kerdyf et Rogerus de Apperleye — q. Adam 

Skidye- 1. — • ... .-. ... ... 

Thomas le Hopere h.e.l.j.t.q. Willielmus le Kyng t 

Johannes de Kerdyf et Cristina Tourtle h.d.j.s.q. Adam Skidye 

t.d.r.a. ... ... ... ... ... .. 



2 » 
I o 

13 
17 

1 o 

2 O 

3 6 



16 



A Dorso. 



Johannes Romeni pvotnlit rotulum. 



Johannes de Kerdyf — t.q. Isabella de Crandon t. — 

Idem Johannes Robertus Martyn t. — 

Robertus le Parkere de Wodestok — ij . s.q. Abbas de Tynterneh. — 

Johannes Snow h.e.i.s.q. David le Walsche t. ... 

Ricardus Colpek — ij . schopparum 

Ricardus Cantok — j-t.q. Johannes le Ropere t. ... 

Robert Randalf — j.s.q, Willielmus Godeshalf t 

Abbas Sancti Augustini h.d. pred. s. d.r.a. ... 

Agnes Dale h.e.l j. s.q. Robertus Tourtle t. ... ... 

Laurentius de Cary Walterus le Wyte piscarius t 

Jocius le Reyne Johannes Reynald t 

Idem Jocius t.q. Adam Crommale t 

Abbas Sancti Augustini et Magister Sancti Marci h.d.t. Nicholai 

atte Walle d.r.a. . ... 

Agnes Dale h.d. pred. t. ~— 

Ricardus de Welles h.-e.l.t.q. Willielmus atte Nok t. 

Abbas Sancti Augustini h.d.j. t.q. Ricardus de Nok t ... 

Everardus le Fraunceis — l.t.q. Robertus le Passour t 

Johannes le Eange extraneus — pred. t. d.r.a 

- ,, „ ' t. j. cameram cum sel. redditus 

annualis ... ••• 

Fhigo le Hunte portat pro locatione d.s.i.q. manet ecclesie Sancti 

Laurentii - ... ... ■ ... ... 

Henricus de Tymberesbarwe — t. ecclesie pred 

Priorissa de Kyngton h.e.l.t.q. Thomas Richard t. d.r.a 



£ s. 

1 3 
10 
10 
16 

1 6 
1 16 

13 

2 

13 
13 
10 
12 



5 4 



The Tallage of 6 Edward II. 233 

I s. d. 

Prior de Goldclyve h.d.j.t.q. pred. Thomas t. — i o o 

Abbas Sancti Augustini — t.q. Robertus Petytpas t. — 10 o 

Thomas Uppedych h.e. pred. t. d.r.a 10 o 

Thomas Rossel h.d.t.q. Simon Hakkespone t. — 80 

Prior Sancti Jacobi — Ricardus le Pakkere t. — ... 6 o 

Alicia de Brugges — eod. t. — 8 o 

Magister Sancti Bartholomei — t.q. Ricardus de la Rode t. — ... 2 4 

Johannes Godeshalf ■ Johannes le Glasswrou3te h. — ... 40 

Fratres Carmeli — t. pred. — 4 o 

Pv-icardus de la Nok h.e.l.t.q. Thomas de Haukesbury t 18 8 

Thomas Cocus portat Abbati Sancti Augustini d.r.a. pro. i.t. .. 16 o 

Idem Thomas h.e.l.j.s.q. Rogerus de Wyke t 2 8 

Abbas Sancti Augustini — t.q. Johannes le Plomer t 10 8 

Idem Abbas h.d.t. Stephani le Peyntour d.r.a 1 6 

Thomas Bryd portat redditum annualem Johanni Seys et 

Johanni Hugges ... — 4 o 

Abbas Sancti Augustini h.r.a.d.t. Johannis Seys 3 6 

Jocius de Reyne h.e.l.s.q. Johannes Devenyshe t 2 8 

Domus beate Marie Magdalene h.d.r.a.d.t. Jocii de Reyne ... 80 

Ecclesia Sancti Augustini Bernardi de Wynchestre 3 o 

Domus beate Marie Magdalene pred 2 o 

Willielmus Randalf h.d.t.q. Johannes Hobbes t. d.r.a 3 6 

Domus beate Marie Magdalene h.d. pred. t. d.r.a 5 6 

Prior de Goldclyve 3 o 

Abbas Sancti Augustini h.e.l.t.q. Willielmus Geffrey t 80 

Idem Abbas Willielmus le Hopere t. ... 4 6 

Idem Abbas — ■ — Alicia le Devenysche t 4 6 

Idem Abbas — t. Waited de Portbury d.r.a. ... 12 o 

Robertus de Bardeneye h.e.l.t.q. Thomas atte Pipe t 8 o 

Idem Robertus h.d.t.q. Johannes le Lange Nauta t. d.r.a. ...140 

Johannes Hobbes h.e.l. pred. t 10 8 

Johannes de Celer — ii.s 160 

Magister Sancti Marci h.d.t. Johannis de Celer d.r.a. ... ... 4 4 

Domus Sancti Bartholomei — pred. t. — 13 4 

Johannes de Celer h.e.l. iiij.s. ... 1 13 4 

Johannes de Seygrave h.d.t. Waited Pelevyle d.r.a 200 

Matilda Fyznycole — Rogeri Seymor — 3 o 

Petrus le Fraunceys h.e.l. ij. s. juxta t. s 17 4 

Idem Petrus portat de pred. ij. s. d.r.a 3 4 

Idem Petrus h e.l. ij. s 7 8 

Idem Petrus portat d.r.a. de pred. ij.s 3 4 

Robertus Snow h.e.l.t. q. Willielmus Rossel t 1 2 o 

Johannes le Tayerner h.d. pred. t. d.r.a 1 6 8 

Matilda Burnel — j. t.q. Adam de Temple t. d r. a 140 

Eadem Matilda h.e 1. t.q. Johannes de Romeneye t 1 2 8 

Dominus Johannes de la Ryvere h.d. pred. t. d.r.a 2 o 

Thomas de. la Grave .... (vacant) 



234 



Transactions for. the .Year 1894-95. 



Matilda Burnel. — t.q. Reymund Frombaud, t.d.r.a 

Et Willielmus de Axe — dicto. t. — ... ... 

Ely as de Axebrugge — t. Stephani Pistoris — . 

Et Relicta Willielmi Tovy — pred. t. — "... 

Willielmus Randalf h.e.l.t.q. Thomas le Specer t. ... ... 

Idem Willielmus — j. sel ... ... .... ... 

Filii Ricardi le Fraunceys h.d.l.t q. Ricardus Edmund t 

Abbas de Morgan — pred. t.d.r.a „- 

Et Idem Abbas — dicto.. t. de Johanne.de Romaneye d r. a 
Johannes de Celer — Alano de Brutoun et de Rogero Metheley 

ex locatione domorum 

Abbas de Morgan — j. t. Matilde Burnel d.r.a ... 

Raymund Frombaud h.e.l.t.q. Matilda Vygour t. 

Et Abbas de Dore h.d. pred t.d.r.a. 

Dominus Walterus Episcopus Wygorniensis — j .t.q. Petrus le 

Fraunceys t.d.r.a. 

Robertus de Bardeneye h.e.l.j.t ... 

Summa Redditus in quarterio Sancti Audoeni £12 7 n| 

Rot. 4. 

Quartevium Trinitatis. 



Ricardus Tilli habet redditum locationis per manus persone de 


£ s. 


d. 


Christecherch ... 


I 10 


0 


Agnes Dale h.in.r.l.d. t.q. pred. Ricardus t. ... ... 


II 


8 


Thomas de Salopia h.d.r.l. — : Walterus Fraunceys t 


10 


8 


Johannes Leghet h.r.l. — Henricus Clet t 


10 


0 


Idem Johannes h.r.a. — Henricus Cleuet t. ... 


6 


0 


Willielmus le Taillur portat d.r.a. Priorisse Sancte Magdalene 


6 


0 


Nicholas le Taillur — Matilde filie Nicolai 


18 


0 


Petrus le Baghiar p. Magistro Ricardo atte Ok d.r.l 


9 


8 


Johannes Tornour — Ricardo atte Hok r.l 


8 


0 


Avicia Brekkestere p. d.r.l. ,, „ „ 


8 


0 


Matilda le Pakker p. Galiane Oriel d.r.l 


5 


4 


Robertus Hasard — Johanni Tancard d.r.a. 


13 


4 


Henricus Valedire — Galiane Oriel d.r.l 


8 


0 


Avicia de Sweynesheye — „ . „ r.l 


5 


4 


Ricardus le Pakker — Johanni Hasard d.r.l 


17 


9 


Laurentius de Cari — Ricardo de Welles d.r.a 


1 0 


0 


Simon le Carpenter — Laurentio de Cari d.r.l. 


12 


0 


Nicholas Seimor — Laurentio le Carpenter d.r.l 


12 


0 


Willielmus de Evesham — Magistro Sancti Johannis pro. r.a. 


10 


0 


Hugo Sutor — Magistro Sancti Johannis d.r.a 


10 


0 


Johannes le Shethare — Willielmo de Tantone d.r.l. 


2 


0 


Willielmus Godrich m- pred. Willielmo — 


2 


0 


Willielmus de Tantone — Abbati de Tinterne d.r.a 


2 


0 


Johannes de Axebrugge — Johanni de. Monemue — 1 ... 


6 


8 



£ s. d. 
1 13 4 

8 o 

8 o 

6 8 

1 6 .8 

13 4 

3 4 

3 o 

8 o 

100 

9 o 
246 

6 8 

8 o 
140 



The Tallage of 6 Edward II. 235 

£ d. 

Johannes Snel — Priori Sancti J acobi — ... 1 o 

Walterus de Bruges — Ricardo atte More — 10 o 

Ricardus de Romeneye — Johanni le Poghelere 54 

Willielmus le Cok — Priorisse de la Magdalene d.r.a 3 o 

Ricardus de Tikenham — Johanni de Axebrugge r.l 6 8 

Johannes Hay ward — Willielmo Cok d.r.l 1 8 

Johannes le Wolbetare — Waltero le White — ... 3 4 

Johannes Carlis — Johanni de Romaneye — 2 8 

Johannes Tancard — Johanni de Romaneye — 5 4 

Willielmus Sutor — Thome Oppedich — 2 8 

David le Wynhaliar — pred. Thome — . 2 8 

Johannes de Bardeneye — Magistro Sancti Bartholomei — ... 14 

Cecilia la Glovere — eodem modo — 1 4 

Willielmus Douce — Stephano Pistori — 2 o 

Johannes le Shethare — Margerie atte Hay — 1 4 

Johannes le Moware — e.m. — ... 1 4 

Thomas de Shirebourne — Roberto le Passor — 10 8 

Rogerus le Palmere — Willielmo Russel — 20 

Willielmus Russel — Priori Sancti Jacobi d.r.a. 6 

Johannes le Waterledare — ■ Johanni Kardif — 4 o 

Idem Johannes — Willielmo Bucston — 1 o 

Thomas Laurence — Laurentio de Cari d.r.l 4 o 

Ricardus le Palmere — Abbati de Kyngheswod d.r.a. 80 

Johannes Dakky — Lucie Carlis d.r.l 20 

Agnes Stay, — Magistro Sancti Johannis, — 40 

Nicholas Leberd — e.m. — 40 

Willielmus de Irlond — Henrico le Lokere — 4 o 

Walterus Sowy — e.m. — 1 4 

Ricardus de Hewekesbire — e.m. — 1 4 

Johannes Warrok — e.m. d.r ... 1 4 

Johannes le Roche — e.m. — 1 4 

Parvus persona — Ade atte Temple d.r.l. 4 8 

Johannes le Ropere — ,, ,, — 48 

Matild Scoll — e.m. — 3 4 

Johannes le Ropere — e.m. — 3 4 

Margareta of Avene — Waltero Coce — 2 o 

Emmota le Palmere — e.m. — 2 o 

Johannes Kyngton — Stephano Coham — 5 8 

Johannes le Ropere — Magistro Sancti Bartholomei d.r.a. ... 30 

Galfridus de Berham — Gylmyno de Boys d.r.l 2 8 

Thomas atte Pipe h. pro. r.l 2 o 

Galfridus de Berlham p. Willielmo de Tantone pro. r 12 o 

Thomas atte Shete — „ ,, ,, 8 o 

Johannes de Kyngtone — ,, ,, ,, 120 

Adam le Shethare — Everardo le frinshe 9 8 

Ricardus le Skynnare — ,, „ ,, 8 o 

Henricus de Caynesham — Ricardo atte Ok 8 o 

17 

Vol. XIX. 



236 



Transactions for the Year .1894-95. 



£ s. d. 

Johannes atte Mercat — Ricardo atte Ok ... 200 

Henricus de Berkeleye — Gylmyno de Boys pro. r. 8 o 

Willielmus de Groveshale — Thome atte Pipe : 8 o 

Benedictus de Sowy — Roberto le Otheri 13 4 

Walterus de Salopia ^- Roberto Randolf 12 8 

Johannes Golde — - Ade de Hottone 28 

.Bettina de Norhamptone — Magistro Sancti Marchi 13 4 

Agnes Locsmethe — Waltero Mustard pro. r. 9 6 

Walterus Saward — Johanne Crok 5 o 

Johannes de Sodbiri — Ricardo Horncastel 6 o 

Johannes le Reve —. ,, ,, ,. ... 1 4 

Petrus de Cheptowe — Magistro Sancti Bartholomei 6 8 

Rogerus le Clerk h.r. pro. j.s 4 o 

Willielmus Clifford peyntur p. Magistro Sancti Bartholomei ... 6 8 

Ricardus le Tonnour — Magistro predicto 4 o 

Willielmus atte Pole — e.m 40 

Willielmus Scriveyn — e.m ... 4 o 

Johannes le Hopere — Elie de Axebrugge 5 o 

Idem Johannes — Priori Sancti Jocobi 1 o 

2nd Membrane. 

Johanna le Hokkestere — Johanni le Hopere 3 4 

Johanna le Kymbestere — e.m 3 4 

Thomas Cocus h i. r. in v.s. 13 4 

Radulfus le Glasworchere p Johanni Hugghes 2 8 

Johannes Sandreville — pro. r. Nicolao de Rouberghe 6 8 

Thomas Cocus h. pro iiij.s. 10 8 

Rogerus Faber p. Abbati Sancti Augustini ... 2 8 

Adam Miles — e.m ... 4 o 

Ricardus Seli — Willielmo le Tighelar 1 \\ 

Robertus Snow h. pro iij.s 10 o 

Walterus le Taillur p. Abbati de Kyngheswod 4 0 

Idem — Abbati Sancti Augustini 2 o 

Paganus le Muleward — Roberto Snow 5 4 

Hugo Mason — Abbati de Nithe 6 8 

Johannes Mael — Abbati Sancti Augustini pro aula et schoppa 3 8 

Robertus Mael p. e.m. pred. Abbati 5 4 

Willielmus Branketre h. pro. r. pro iiij.s 13 4 

Abbas Sancti Augustini h. pro iij.s. 6 8 

Robertus de Cliftone p. Willielmo Russel 2 8 

Rogerus Botivant — Abbati Sancti Augustini 10 

Abbas Sancti Augustini h. pro ij.s. 2 8 

Willielmus atte holdehalle p. Abbati Sancti Augustini 3 4 

Abbas Sancti Augustini h. pro ix.s. in Wodewelle Strete ... ... 1.0 o 

Martinus Horncastel — iij.s 4 o 

.Adam Lumbernare p. Thome Russell 1 4 

Idem — Abbati Sancti Augustini 1 4 



The Tallage of 6 Edward II. 237 

£ s. d. 

Ricardus le Passor — Johanni de Seinlo- , ... ... 2 8 

Idem — Abbati Sancti Augustini ... ... 2 8 

Johannes atte Maudeleyne — p. pro iij.s. Juliane de Wychwell 6 o 

Nicholas atte Abbeye — Edelive de Neutone 2 o 

Thomas Abraam h. pro vj.s. .... ... ... 140 

Abbas Sancti Augustini — iiij.s 10 o 

Idem Abbas h, ib. pro iiij.s. ... 10 8 

Ricardus the Nice h. pro vj.s. ........ ... ... 8 o 

Elyas Payn p. Abbati Sancti Augustini 3 o 

Willielmus le Tighelar p t e.m . ... 2 o 

Joceus le Reyny h. pro iiij.s 8 o 

Abbas Sancti Augustini — ij.s . ... ... 3 4 

Idem Abbas h. ibi. pro iiij.s. ... 7 o 

Idem Abbas h. pro iiijs. 80 

Idem Abbas h. ibi. pro j.s. .... 1 4 

Alicia atte Holme h. pro j.s. ... 1 4 

Johannes le Glasworthe — ij.s 2 8 

Priorissa Sancte Magdalene — ij 3 4 

Rogerus le Roviere p. Johanni Clof ... 3 4 

Priorissa Sancte Magdalene h. pro ij.s. 3 4 

Nicholas le Peyntour — j.s 2 o 

Alicia le Tighelare p.. Johanni le Tavernere 1 4 

Randolf oppe Hulle — Johanni le Spicer 3 o 

Priorissa Sancte Magdalene h. pro ij.s 5 4 

Ricardus de Berdestaple — v.s. ( 6 8 

Claricia de Legh — vj.s 5 4 

Stephanus le peyntur — iiij.s 3 7 

Priorissa Sancte Magdalene — j.s. ... 1 4 

Willielmus le Slatare p.e.m 1 3 

Priorissa h. ibi. pro. iiij.s. 5 4 

Thomas le Shephurd p. Abbati Sancti Augustini 4 o 

Juliana Bacun — pred. Abbatti 2 o 

Ricardus de Reyny — Abbati Sancti Jacobi 3 o 

Simon Hakspone h. pro. j.s. ... ... 3 o 

Ricardus de Reyni h.r. ib. 8 8 

Thomas le Carpenter p. Priori Sancti Jacobi 2 4 

Claricia de Legh h.d. eod. t 1 4 

Johannes le Tannere p. Willielmo de Axe 1 o 

Idem — Claricie de Legh 1 4 

Adam le Clok — Willielmo Coke 1 o 

Ricardus Blakhegh — Johanne Crokkere 2 o 

Willielmus Popelyn — Abbati Sancti Augustini 1 o 

Idem — Thome Richer 2 o 

Priorissa Sancte Magdalene h. pro ij. s 15 o 

Eadem Priorissa h. ib. pro ij. s.. ... 2 o 

Ricardus de Berdestaple, h. ib. pro r 2 8 

Badem Priorissa h. ib. r. pro j. s. ... ... ... 2 8 

17 * 



238 Transactions for the Year 1894-95. 





£ 


s. 


d. 


Priorissa Sancte Magdalene h. pro iiij. s 




8 


o 


Jacobus le Tannare — xiij. s 


i 


o 


o 


Bernardus de Wynchestre — uj. s 




4 


8 


Walterus Faber p. Ricardo Tilli ... 




2 


o 


Idem Walterus h. ib. pro iij. s. 




5 


4 


Johannes le Parchemener p. Ricardo Tilli pro j. s 




4 


8 


Willielmus atte Hay p. pro iij. s. pro r 




4 


8 


Jacobus le Tannare h.r. pro iiij. s 




5 


4 


Alicia de Dene ij. s 




3 


o 


Willielmus Maci h. pro j. s 




2 


8 


Margeria Mungeoye p. Joceo de Reynni 




6 


4 


Nicholas le Taillur — Magistro Sancti Bartholomei 




2 


8 


Payn Capellanus h.r 




12 


o 


Mattheus le Taillur p. Magistro Sancti Bartholomei pro iiij. s. 


i 


O 


o 


Simon Hakspone h.r 




5 


o 


Idem Simon Hakspone h. ib. r 




4 


o 


3rd Membrane. 








Magister Sancti Bartholomei 




2 


8 


Radulfus Torneur p. Nicholao atte Wall 




4 


o 


Hugo le Barbour — Benedicto de Sowy 




2 


o 


Rogerus de Kedwelli — pred. Benedicto 




4 


o 


Nicholas de Sowy — Willielmo de Mele pro. r 




4 


8 


Johannes Tornour — Magistro Bartholomei 




4 


o 


Johannes Newport — Roberto Ston 




4 


o 


Adam de Tokyngton — Magistro Sancti Bartholomei 




4 


o 


Alexander de Wynstone et Thomas Petit — Magistro Sancti 








Bartholomei 




8 


O 


Bartholomeus de Baa — Johanni le Gillare ... 




2 


o 


Walterus Scriveyn — Roberto Otheri 




4 


8 


Christina le Menestere — Roberto Otheri 




4 


8 


Broun Robyn — Abbati Sancti Augustini 




4 


Q 


Henricus Petit — ,, ,, ,, 




4 


o 


Johannes Snow h.r.d.t. ib. 




8 


o 


Magister Ricardus Atte Hok h. proj. s 




4 


o 


Walterus Coce — ij. s 




6 


8 


Margareta p. Magistro Sancti Bartholomei 




4 


o 


Johannes Snow h. pro j.s 




4 


8 


Thomas de Glastonburi p. Magistro Sancti Bartholomei 




3 


o 


Idem — Johanni Kerdif 




i 


o 


Margeria de Hasele — Ricardo de la Rivere pro r 


i 


14 


o 


Eadem — Johanni de Kerdif 




3 


o 


Thomas le Devenishe — Margerie de Hasele 




8 


o 


Agnes Pike — pred. Margerie 




3 


4 


Robertus Grey — Margerie Hasele 




5 


4 


Radulfus Buggheleye Tannare — • Rogero Tatiee 




IO 


o 


Thomas le Breware — Thome le Muleward 




9 


4 



The Tallage of 6 Edward II. 239 



£ s. d. 

Idem — Abbati de Kyngeswode « ... 5 

Idem — Johanni de Kerdif ... 1 o 

Thomas le Gogh — Rogero Tatlee 2 8 

Simon le Potter h.d.r 2 o 

Simon Hakspone — 3 4 

Johannes le Ware p. Willielmo de Mulles 6 8 

Johannes Motun — Johanni Welishote 2 o 

Johannes le Blak — Edmundo Hasele 5 4 

Thomas Rocelyn — Willielmo Wayn 13 4 



Idem — Johanni de Kerdif 1 o 

Thomas Rocelin — Abbati Sancti Augustini 10 o 

Walterus le Webbe — Waltero Tokyngton 5 4 

Willielmus Fleming — Johanni le Spicer 13 4 

Robertus Mustard — Waltero Tokyngton 2 8 

Ricardus le Yongh — Thome le Spicer 6 8 

Stephanus le Carpenter — Ade Mey 15 o 



Robert Berman — Waltero Tokyngton 2 8 

Johannes Baron — Priori Sancti Jacobi 7 o 

Idem — Ele de Axebrigge ...... 4 o 

Idem — Johanni de Kerdif .... ... ... ... 1 o 

Johannes le Palmere — Priorisse Sancte Magdalene 2 o 

Idem — Priori Sancti Jacobi 5 o 

Idem Johannes h.ib.r 2 o 

Johannes de Welles p. Ele de Axebrigge 4 o 

Idem — Priori Sancti Jacobi ... 1 2 

Robertus Tumberel — Claricie de Legh ... 4 o 

Idem — Abbati Sancti Augustini 4 o 

Idem — Johanni de Kerdif 2 o 

Idem — Johanni Tonlie 10 8 

Christina la Kymbestere — Johanni de Welles 1 4 

Thomas atte Orcharde — Johanni le Palmer 10 8 

Robertus Tumberel h. pro iiij.s 10 o 

Prior Sancti Jacobi h. pro r.j.s 6 8 

Ricardus de Lewes p. Priori Sancti Jocobi 8 o 

Prior Sancti Jacobi h. pro ij.s 2 8 

,, ,, ,, h.ib. pro j.auja 54 

Idem Prior h.ib. pro r. xij. s. .... ... 2 8 

Idem Prior h.ib.r , 6 8 



Willielmus de Axe — pro v.s 178 

Idem Prior — 3 4 

Rogerus Ribaud h. pro r.ib. pro ij.s 6 o 

Radulphus de Compton p. Prior Sancti Jacobi 10 8 



Prior Sancti Jacobi h. pro r.ib 2 8 

Nicholas Taillur h.ib. pro r. pro ij.s 2 8 

Margeria Hasele h.r.ib 1 4 

Johannes le Spicer — 1 4 

Margeria Hasele — 6 8 



240 



Transactions for the Year 1894-95. 



£ s. d. 

Matilda filia Nicbolai h.ib. . ... , 2 o 

Walterus oppe the Bakke p. Willielmo Axe 1 4 

„ — Matilda filie Nicholai 2 o 

Adam Moy — Johanni Adrian , 6 8 

Johannes Fraunceys Junior h.r 80 

Abbas Sancti Augustini h.r.ib 5 4 

Idem Abbas h.ib.r 5 4 

Adam le Rede p. Roberto Randolph 6 8 

Adam le Southern — Johanni de Kerdif 7 o 

Robertus Randolph h. pro v.s. ... .., 12 8 

Robertus de Cadbiri p. Reymundo Frombaut 17 o 

Simon le Corrior — Willielmo de Monemewe 5 4 

Willielmus de Monemewe h.r. pro iij. s 8 o 

Williemus le Corrior p. Nicholao atte Walle 8 o 

Willielmus le Plomer — Priorisse Sancti Magdalene 6 4 

Idem — Nicholao atte Walle 6 

Thomas le Long h.ib 2 o 

Johannes le Hastare h.ib.r 2 o 

Willielmus de Mulles — 2 o 

Johanna Broke h.r. pro iij. s 4 o 

Dorso. 

Bvistollia — Sancta Tnnitas, 

£ s. d. 



Johannes atte Celere h. pro v. s 4 o 

,, ,, „ h.r. pro iij. s. 12 o 

Idem Johannes h.ib.r. pro ix. s 1 12 o 

Margareta de Buttone h.r 2 8 

Matilda de Sillni — 2 8 

Willielmus de Axe h.ib.r. pro iiij. s 10 o 

Mariota Swethinge p. Galfrido Snel 1 10 

Adam le Bakere — relicte Willielmi le Cok 3 4 

Galfridus Snel h.ib.r. pro vj. s 8 o 

Matilda atte Barre p. Priorisse Magdalene 4 o 

Robertus le Gardiner h.r.ib 1 o 

Mariota Swetinge h.ib.r. pro ij. s 2 8 

Robertus le Gardiner ij. s 2 8 

Willielmus atte Hay hr. pro v. s. ... ... 10 o 

Johannes Goce j. s ' ... 2 o 

Johannes le Neyare h. pro ij. s 10 o 

Robertus le Grey h.r.ib 1 4 

Isabella de Bruges h. pro j. s 2 o 

Prior Sancti Jacobi — j. s. 2 o 

Laurentius le Workman h.ib. pro j. s 2 3 

Willielmus Hail h. pro iij. s. ... 4 o 

Johannes de Monemue — j. s 2 8 

Matilda le Waterledare — ij. s. 2 8 



The Tallage of 6 Edward II. 




241 




/ 


s. 


d. 


Gilbertus Franceys — ij. s ... 




5 


4 


Margareta Cok — iij . s. 




2 


o- 


Johannes le Kynghe h.r. pro iiij. s 




5 


4 


Idem Johannes h.ib.r. pro j. s 




2 


0 


Johannes Kynghe p. Priorisse Magdalene 




6 


0 


Idem — ,, „ 




2 


0 


Gillot le taillur h. pro ij. s ... 




2 


Q 
O 


Priorissa Magdalene h 




2 


O 


Margareta Cok p. Priorisse sancte Magdalene 




3 


O 


Eadem Margareta h. pro j. t 




2 


8 


Ricardus de Apperleye h.ib.r 




5 


0 


Gillot le taillur h.t -. ... 




8 


0 


Willielmus de Axe h.r.ib. 




4 


0 


Robertus Randolf h.ib.r ,.. ... 




8 


a 


Gillot le taillur h 




5 


4 


Abbas de Kyngheswode — 




2 


0 


Margareta Cok h.r 




4 


0 


Abbas Sancti Augustini — 




9 


4 


Johannes de Carweynt — ib ... 




2 


8 


Johannes de Teukesbiri h. pro r 




2 


8. 


Egidius le Mazon — 




3 


4 


Johannes de Portbiri h. pro t. Alicie Dimmok 




6 


8- 


Willielmus Outlagh h. pro ij. s 




5 


4- 


Ricardus atte Rodeet Thomas lefrie p. Abbati Sancti Augustini 




7 


0 


Idem Ricardus et Thomas h.r.ib 




2 


Or 


Ricardus Digon p. Johanni Snake* 


I 


0 


O 


Abbas Sancti Augustini h. pro ij. s 




2 


8 


Adam le Northern — j. s 




9 


4 


Gillot le taillur h.ib.r 




2 


0 


Ricardus de Ciston p. persone Sancti Petri 




17 


0 


et Roberto Martin 




8 


0 


Thomas le Muleward h.r 


I 


6 


8 


Edekyn le Tyghelare p. Philippo de Teukesbiri 




8 


0 


Laurentius de Cari h.r 




c 
0 


0 
0 


Priorissa Sancte Magdalene — 




I 


0 


Gillot le taillur — 




I 


0 


Johannes de Peterton — ib 




4 


a 


Johannes Tumberel h.r 




10 


0 


Johannes Longh p. Magistro Sancti Laurentii 




4 


0 


Walterus le Mareschal — Priori Sancti Jacobi 




12 


0 


Walterus le Whyte h.r.d. Willielmo de Kyngheston 




5 


0 


Prior Sancti Jacobi h.ibi r. 




2 


0 


Walterus le White h.r.ibi 




10 


0 


Thomas Swethinghe p. Johanni Wachet 




8 


8 


Idem — Priorisse Magdalene 




3 


0 


Thomas le Muleward h. pro. r. pro ij.s. 




4 


8 


Willielmus de Lions h.d.e.t ... ... 




4 


0 



242 Transactions for the Year 1894-95. 



Elias le Cok p. Matilde de Lions et Roberto de Horhurste ... 10 o 

Adam le Bole p. pro t. ;.. ... 5 0 

Walterus de Wynchestre h.r. ... 6 8 

Abbas Sancti Augustini h.ib.r 2 o 

Nicholas Camme — 10 8 

Ricardus Knith p. pro r. Agnete Hughes 2 8 

Thomas le Muleward h.r 2 o 

Matilda de Lions h.ib.r ... 1 o 

Galfridus Snel h.ib.d.r 4 0 

Walterus Sperth p. Abbati de Caynesham 1 o o 

Simon de Stok — Thome le Muleward 6 8 

Ricardus de Calne — Johanni de Kerdif 10 8 

Thomas le Muleward — Domine Burnel 15 0 

Idem — Matilde Lions 6 

Walterus atte Stone — Roberto de Otheri 13 4 

Alicia op the Were — Priorisse Sancte Magdalene 8 o 

Eadem — Johanni de Kerdif 2 o 

Priorissa Sancte Magdalene h.ib.r 3 o 

Robertus Bardeneye h.r.ib 2 o 

Ricardus atte Hok h. pro. r 6 8 



2nd Membrane. 

Edwardus le Bakere p. Johanni Welischote 10 8 

Johannes Welishote capellanus h.ib.r 13 4 

Willielmus Selewode p. Magistro Sancti Laurentii 4 o 

Prior Sancti (Sic) h.ib.r 4 o 

Willielmus Selewode — pro ij.s 8 o 

David de Wyth h.ib.r 5 4 

Idem David — 4 0 

Bernard atte Wold — 8 o 

Robertus Sotheri — 10 8 

Elias Springout — 17 0 

Johannes Brokingburgh — 4 0 

Abbas Sancti Augustini — 4 0 

Galfridus Lockinghe — 4 0 

Abbas Sancti Augustini — 9 8 

Gilbertus Franceys — 10 8 

Willielmus Sodbiri p. Everardo le Vrynsh r 8 o 

Petrus le Coireor — ,, „ 6 8 

Alicia le Saghiare — eidem inde 6 8 

Johannes Page — Thome atte Pipe 11 8 

Abbas de Flexlegh h.ib.r 9 o 

Thomas Rocelin — pro ij.s 6 8 

Idem Thomas h.ib.r 3 4 

Willielmus Monemue — ■•■ 5 4 

Johannes le-Newecomene — 10 8 

Idem — - • 100 



The Tallage of 6 Edward II. 243 





£ 


d. 


Maria Maide p. Alicie Godeshalf ... 


... IO 


8 


Robertus le peyntour — Johanni Monemue 


2 


0 


Idem — Johanni de Kerdif 


5 


4 


Idem — Johanni Giffard 


2 


0 


Johannes Monemue h.ib.r. pro ij.s 


7 


4 


Simon Forstal h.ib.r 


4 


0 


Willielmus atte Were p. Simon Forstal pro r 


19 


8 


Stephanus le Wales — Priori Sancti Jacobi 


6 


8 


Idem — Ricardo le White 


3 


0 


Robertus le Armere — Johanni le Taverner ... 


9 


4 


Ricardus Ca — „ ,, 


9 


4 


Magister Hugo le Plasterer — ,, ,, 


8 


0 


Juliana Scoll — ,, ,, 


5 


4 


Eadem — pred. Johanni 


5 


4 


Willielmus Thornbiri — Roberto Martin 


8 


0 


Thomas le Correor — ,, 


9 


8 


Robertus Ca — Thome Russel 


19 


0 


Ricardus Marecschal — „ ... . 


10 


8 


WalterusWombestronke — ,, 


8 


0 


Thomas Russel h.ib.r 


2 


8 


Willielmus Skinnare p. Priori Sancti Jacobi 


9 


4 


Johannes le Longhespeye — ,, ,, 


11 


4 


Johannes le Goldbetar — „ ,, , 


10 


7 


Ricardus Longhespeye — Abbati Sancti Augustini ... , 


5 


4 


Idem — Johanni Fraunceys 


5 


4 


Simon Forstal — „ 


5 


4 


Idem — Abbati Sancti Augustini , 


5 


4 


Petrus de Berdestaple — Abbati de Caynesham ... ... , 


1 4 


0 


Martinus de Brod — relicte Johannis de Fowell , 


13 


4 


Johannes Harbour — Willielmo Hail ,. ... 


13 


4 



Summa decime redditus in predicto quarterio 12 16 8 
Summa totalis tarn de mobilibus quam de 

redditibus quarterii Trinitatis £41 18 of 



Rot. 5. 


£ s - d. 


Hugo Grey habet in bonis 


7 6 


Johannes le Muleward ,, 


3 0 0 


Agnes Dale ,, 


6 13 4 


Philippus le Gurdeler ,, 


6 13 4 


Ricardus Cantok ,, 


(vacant) 


Robertus Bremel 


5 0 0 


Johannes Leghet ,, 


... ... 300 


Willielmus le Taillur ,, 


5 0 0 


Matilda filia Nicholai „ 


15 0 


Nicholas le Taillur et Willielmus frater ejus ,, 


5 0 0 



244 



Transactions for the Year 1894-95. 



habet 



Petrus le Boghiare 
Johannes Tornour . . 

Alicia le Brekkestere 
Galiana Oriel 
Johannes le Boghiare 
Johannes Hasard 
Henricus Valedire 
Avicia Sweynsheye 
Laurentius de Cary 
Simon le Carpenter 
Nicholas Seimor 
Hugo Sutor 
Reginaldus Totlee 
Margeria relicta Jacobi le Mazon 
Johannes le Parkere 
Johannes le Shethare 
Willielmus Godrich 
Willielmus de Tanton 
Johannes le Ropere . , 

Johannes de Axebrigge 
JohannesSnel 
Walterus de Bruges Mazon 
John Tankarde 
Thomas de Shirburne 
Johannes le Waterledare 
Thomas Laurence 
Ricardus le Palmere 
Galfridus de Berkham 
Thomas atte Shete 
Johannes de Kyngton 
Adam le Shethare 
Ricardus le Skynnare 
Henricus de Caynesham , 
Johannes atte Mercat 
Henricus de Berkeley 
Willielmus de Gremeshale 
Benedictus de Sowy 
Gylmynus de Boys 
Walterus de Salopia 
Betona de Norhamptone 
Walterus Stiward 
Johannes de Sodbiri 
Petrus de Cheptowe 
Walterus Clifford peyntur 
Walterus atte Pyrie 
Johannes le Hopere 
Willielmus Hugghes. , , 



bonis 



5 o 



20 



20 



2 13 

3 o 
I 10 
3 o 
I o 

5 
2 
10 
3 P 
15 
1 10 

15 
1 10 



o 
2 
10 

1 10 o. 
13 6 8 

2 o 
15 

5 
2 

3 o 
10 
10 

28 o 
15 
15 
15 
15 
5 
o 
o 

15 
o 
o 
10 

5 
o 



The Tallage of 6 -Edward II. 



Robertus le Gullere habet in bonis 

Radulphus le Glasworth ... ... ,, 

Nicholas le Peyntour «, ,, 

Johannes Hugghes 

Willielmus le Tighelare 

Walterus le Taillur . 

Paganus le Mulewarde ,, 

Robertus de Cliftone „ 

Adam Lumbernare 

Nicholas atte Maudeleyne ,, 

Johannes atte Wyniarde 

Elias Payn ,, 

Willielmus le Tighelare 

Alicia le Tighelare 

Randolff Oppehulle 

Willielmus le Nettare 

2nd Membrane. 

Thomas le Shephurde „ 

Ricardus de Reyni .... s4 . „ 

Johannes le Tannare ,, 

Adam le Clerke ,, 

Willielmus Popelin ,, 

Roger us le Warre „ 
Jacobus le Tannare 

Matheus le Taillur * , 

Radulphus le Tornour ,, 

Rogerus de Kedwelli ,, 

Nicholas de Sowy ,, 

Johannes le Tornour ,, 
Johannes le Neuport 

Adam Tokington ,, 

Johannes Gillare ,, 

Christina le menestere „ 

Henricus Petit .... ,, 

Rogerus Blanket „ 

Johannes de Stowell ,, 

Margareta Coce ,, 

Philippus le Hastare ,, 

Thomas de Glastunbiri „ 
Margeria de Hasele 

Robertus Grey ,, 
Thomas le Devenishe 

Johannes Rocelyn ,, 
Radulphus Buggheleye Tannare ,, 

Thomas le Breware ,, 
Thomas le Gogh 



246 Transactions for the Year 1894-95. 

£ d. 

Simon le Potter habet in bonis „. „ 2 o o 

Johannes le Warre ... ,, 500 

Johannes le Blake ,, 1 o o 

Thomas Rocelyn 10 o o 

Walterus de Tokyngton ,, 613 4 

Ricardus le Yonghe „ 5 o 

Stephanus le Carpenter ,, 15 o 

John Baron ,, 3 o o 

Robertus Tumberel ,, 6 o o 

Johannes le Palmere ... ... „ 6 o o 

Thomas atte 'Horchard 5 o o 

Walterus le Hopere „ 5 o 

Ricardus de Lewes ,, 15 6 

Robert Dundry ,, 5 o 

Radulphus de Comptone „ 5 o o 

Johannes Man ,, 7 6 

Walterus oppe the Bakke „ 1 10 o 

Willielmus oppe the Bakke „ 15 0 

Adam Mey ,, .100 

Adam the Rede ... ,, 1 10 o 

Adam the Northerne ,, 10 o o 

Robertus de Cadbiri ,, 6 13 4 

Philippus Dewe ,, 15 0 

Thomas Whitontobakke 15 0 

Adam le Bakere ,, 5 0 

Matilda atte Warre „ 5 0 

Laurentius le Workman ,, 5 0 

Johannes Billoc ,, 5 0 

Robertus Knithe ,, 2 6 

Johannes le Yonghe . „ 400 

Margeria le Coke .. ,, 613 4 

Rogerus Doubtinghe ... 2 o o 

Johannes Antoni ,, 1 10 o 

Walterus le Chaloner „ 1 10 o 

Johannes Coker ,, 15 0 

Johannes de Portbiri ,, 15 0 

Ricardus atte Rede et Thomas Lefrie „ 10 o o 

Ricardus Digon ,, 5 0 0 

Ricardus Stegel ... ,, 15 0 

Ricardus de Ciston ,, 15 0 

Adam le Glovere 5 0 

Thomas de Bustone ,, 2 o o 

Johannes Longhe . „ 5 0 0 

Walterus Sowy ,, 10 o 

Walterus le Mareschal ,.. ,, 5 0 

Thomas Swetinghe ,, 5 0 

Elias le Coke 1 0 0 



The Tallage of 6 Edward II. 



Adam le Bole 
Ricardus Knith 
Ricardus Mine 
Alicia le Webbe 
Walterus Sperth 
Simon de Stoke 
Thomas le Hopare 
Ricardus de Calne 
Thomas le Muleward 
Adam le Glovere 
Alicia up the Were 
Edwardus le Baker 
Editha Welishote 



habet in bonis 



247 
£ * d. 



5 

2 

2 o 
10 

15 
1 10 

15 
10 
10 o 
5 

6 13 4 
1 10 o 
100 



Dorso. 



Johannes Pope protulit rotulum de bonis mobilibus. 





£ s. 




Adam le Ster habet in bonis 


5 


a 


Willielmus Selewode ,, 


10 


0 


Alexander le Loriner ,, 


5 


0. 


Johannes le Walesh ,, 


15 


a 


Ricardus Stoke ,, 


15 


a 


Johannes Page 


6 13 


4^ 


Johannes de Calne ,, 


y. ... ... 1 10 


0 


Margeria Mayde ,, 


5 


a 


Robertus le Peyntour ,, 


1 0 


0 


Willielmus atte Were ,, 


5 0 


0 


Stephanus le Waleshe ,, 


. ... ... 1 10 


0 


Robertus le Armerer ,, 


1 0 


a 


Claricia de Legh ,, 


2 0 


0 


Willielmus Thornbiri ,, 


1 10 


0. 


Thomas le Coreor ,, ... ... . 


5 


0 


Matilda de Fromptone „ 


5 


0 


Robertus Ca ,, 


1 10 


a 


Ricardus le Mareschal „ 


10 


0 


Roesia de Weston ,, 


1 0 


0 


Walterus Wombestrongh „ 


15 


0. 


Walterus Skynnare „ 


5 


0. 


Johannes Longespeye ,, 


5 


0 


Willielmus le Goldbetare „ 


., .... ... 1 0 


0 


Ricardus Forstal ,, 


•• 5 


0. 


Petrus de Berdestaple ,, 


1 0 


0 


Robertus de Amhurste ,, 


2 0 





Summa bonorum mobilium de quarterio Trinitatis £29 1 4I 



248 Transactions for the .Year 1894-95. 

Rot 6. „, ... ... 



Quarterium'de' Maria Redeclyve ut de bonis mobilibus. 

£ s. d. 



Adam Snow habet in omnibus 


... summa 


2 


6 


Johannes Bat . ... ,, 


4 


0 


0 


Ricardus de Pelham ... ,, 




2 


6 


Walterus de Pedertone ,, 




8 


0 


Galfridus Broun ,, 





1 


3 


Johannes le Hattere „ 




5 


0 


Matilda le Corfestre . ,, 




15 


0 


Walterus le Hokere ... ... t > 




*5 


0 


Willielmus Hayl „ 


... 6 


13 


4 


Johannes le Hokere ,, 


3 


5 


0 


Robertus Jordan ,, 


1 


10 


0 


Robertus de Stapleton ,, 


... 1 


10 


0 


Rogerus de Stapleton ,, 


5 


0 


0 


Ricardus le Chaundeler ,, 




15 


0 


Henricus le Velterer „ 


1 


10 


0 


Margareta le Gurdeler „ 




15 


0 


Johannes Hyne ,, 




15 


0 


Wythett atte Grene 




15 


0 


Adam Walysschote ,, 


30 


0 


0 


Johannes Horlok ,, 




15 


0 


Henricus de Stowe „ 




15 


0 


Robertus Treowelove 


10 


0 


0 


Jordanus Coker „ 


1 


10 


0 


Johannes le Taverner ,, 


10 


0 


0 


Matilda la Lavendere ,, 




1 


3 


Johannes de Kyngesbure ,, 




5 


0 


Johannes Everard ,, 


1 


10 


0 


Bartholomeus le Neldare ,, 




1 


3 


Agnes Perekyn 


1 


10 


0 


Eva Brid ,, 


5 


0 


0 


Robertus le Teselere „ 


10 


0 


0 


Willielmus de Langport ,, 


5 


0 


0 


Stephanus Schep 


2 


5 


0 


Robertus Lomb ,, 




15 


0 


Thomas de Hereford Sutor 




15 


0 


Johannes Muryweder ... ... 




15 


0 


Jordanus de Wanewell ,, 


1 


10 


0 


'Ricardus Skwyrel ,, 


5 


0 


0 


Johannes de Kaynesham habet in mobilibus... .;. 


10 


0 


0 


Ricardus de Berdestaple habet in omnibus 


... 20 


0 


0 


Georgius Scissor ,, 




5 


0 


Radulphus atfe Slupe „ 


5 


0 


0 


Lucia le Hokestere ,, »-»„, ... 




5 


0 



The Tallage of 6 Edward II. 249 





£ s - 


d. 


Agnes Jordan ... habet in omnibus 


.. ... ... 1 


3 


Radulphus de Portbure . ,, 


1 


3 


Rogerus de London „ „ 


1 


3 


Johannes le Waleys 


7 


6 


Ricardus Pistor „> ,, 


7 


6 


Johannes de Eboraco ,, ....... . 


7 


6 


Editha Haukes ,, _ 


... ... 7 


6 


Willliemus Wedmor ,, 


.. 15 


0 


Willielmus de Kent ,.. „ 


15 


0 


Rogerus le Revesone ,, 


I 


3 


Willielmus Stif , ... ... „ 


I 


3 


Galfridus de Lockinge ,, 


3 0 


0 


Johannes de Wermenistre ,, 


15 


0 


Walterus le Chaloner , „ 


.. .... ... 4 0 


0 


Randulfus de Baa ,, ... 


.. ... ... 10 0 


0 


Willielmus de Cumptone ,, ; 


20 0 


0 


Agnes Colpeck 


15 


0 


Matilda de Lym 


1 


3 


Willielmus de Roberewe „ 


40 0 


0 


Thomas de Lodewelle ,, 


1 10 


0 


Robertus de Halse „ 


10 


0 


Johannes le Hopere ,, 


15 


0 


Willielmus de Brutone ,, 


1 


3 


Adam le Sawyare » ,, 


7 


6 


Margeria Scobbe ,, 


1 


3 


Robertus le Newcomen ,, 


.. .... ... 1 0 


0 


Willielmus Canon c ,, 


15 


0 


Rogerus le Kembere , , . , , ...... 


1 


3 


Johannes de Brutone 


1 


3 


Agatha la Kemestere ... ,, ... ... 


1 


3 


A Dorso. 






Agnes le Whyte ,, 


1 


3 


Johannes de Wodeforde ,, 


... 1 10 


0 


Thomas de Why teleye ,, 


1 


3 


Alexander Sutor ,, 


1 


3 


Thomas le Taverner ,, 


15 


0 


Johannes de Marsfield ,, 


2 10 


0 


Hugo de Uphill ,, 


! ... 6 13 


4 


Ely as Sprente ,, 


15 


0 


Adam Gurdon ,, 


1 


3 


Johannes le Hert ,, 


2 


6 


Petrus le Sivyare ,, 


7 


6 


Robertus Boot ,, 


1 


. 3 


Rogerus de Pobelewe ,, 


5 0 


0 


Walterus de Deveneys ,, * 


10 


0 


Nicholas de Uphill 


... .... ... 1 0 


0 



250 Transactions for the Year 



1894-95. 





£ s - 


d. 


Willielmus Scissor habet in omnibus 


1 


3 


Thomas de Leghe ,, 


20 0 


0 


Willielmus de Wermenistre 


5 0 


0 


Willielmus de Langport ,, 


1 


3 


Johannes le Jeofne „ 


... ... 4 0 


0 


Williemus atte Whytehorse „ 


... ... 1 


3 


Willielmus de Brutone „ 


1 


3 


Johannes le Whyte ,, 


10 0 


0 


Johannes de Lodewelle ,, 


5 0 


0 


Willielmus de Portlond ,, 


2 5 


0 


Martinus de Pobelewe „ 


5 0 


0 


Willielmus le Flemyng 


1 


3 


Felicia de Bradenorde „ 


1 


3 


Walterus Scissor ,, 


1 


3 


Johannes Ergleys Junior „ 


1 


3 


Johannes de Kyngestone „ 


4 0 


0 


Thomas le Velterere ,, 


40 0 


0 


Jordanus Parmentarius ,, 


3 0 


0 


Robertus le Webbe , , 


10 


0 


Johannes le Bonde „ 


5 0 


0 


Cristina le Hokestere ,, 


1 


3 


Willielmus atte Weye „ 


1 


3 


Johannes le Bellescotere ,, 


10 0 


0 


Johannes le Bellescotere Junior „ 


. 15 


0 


Robertus Payn ,, 


2 


6 


Willielmus le Peyntour ,, 


2 5 


0 


Nicholas de Norhampton 


5 0 


0 


Philippus le Webbe ,, 


2 5 


0 


Editha Fryaunt ,, 


5 0 


0 


Willielmus de Axebrigge ,, 


2 


6 


Galfridus le Veltere ,, 


2 5 


0 


Willielmus de Yattone „ 


15 


0 


Robertus Wyldemerss ,, 


5 0 


0 


Robertus le Taillur ,, 


4 0 


0 


Thomas Uppe Were 


15 


0 


Willielmus Cocus ,, 


1 


3 


Johannes Crees ,, 


1 10 


0 


Johannes Cheynes ,, 


1 


3 


Hugo Sutor „ 


1 


3 


Johannes le Workman „ 


2 


6 


Alicia de Knolle „ 


1 


3 


Isabel la Rydolstere ,, 


1 


3 


Margeria Jeoly ,, 


1 


3 


Editha le Cuppestere 


1 


3 


Alicia de Hereford ,, 


1 


3 


Robert le Tylare ,, 


5 


0 


Johannes de Why tewelle ,, 


2 


6 



\ 



The Tallage of 6 Edward II. 251 





/ s d 


Rogerus le Colymakyerc hcibet in omnibus 


■"■-> . u 


-L LIU 111 db iVXvJlCllU.llld.1 1 Lib M , 


1 3 


Agnes Woderove ,, 


1 3 


Robertus le Steor ,, ... 


2 6 


^tpr*!"! 3 n n q 1 f± C*' Vi 0 1 c\Y\ 

O LC-^Jllclll Uo 1C V_^llclHJllCl 9 f ... ... 


r 5 0 


WilliplmnQ 1p Tirlarp 

v v initial no ic x y iai c } j •••■■•«. 


1 3 


Isabella de Pedertone ■ ,, 


26 


Juliana le Crokkere ' ,, 


• ... 1 10 0 


Rot. j. 




Thnma<; rip T annrpQrlnnp 


5 0 0 


Johannes Minty ,, 


... 5 0 0 


Robertus le Ireys 


5 0 


J-\-lJlolcl IC Oj vydlc M . . ... 


1 3 


Thomas le Broke ,, 


7 6 

/ u 


Johannes le Comere ,, 


26 


~\A7i 1 1 ipl m n q 1p Wnriprp 


1 3 


Agnes le Kemestere ,, 


1 3 


Thomas Scissor • ■ ,, 


1 3 

1 j 


Lucia Ingram ,, 


T 3 


Margeria le Chesemongere ,, 


I IO O 


Thomas de Stauncton ,, 


SO 

0 u 


Editha le Hattere 


I 3 


Adam Bagge ,, 


■s O 


Robert le Berman ■ ,, 


I 3. 

x D 


Johannes de London , , 


x J 


T r>Vi ann pc C~* cil/p 

J UllctllilCo v^cLl\C ... ... 


1 3 


Johannes le Gurdeler ,, 


1 J 


Johannes de Cadebury ,, 


I 3 


^Nicholas Gylye ,, 




Ely as Molendinarius ,, 


2 6 


Agnes le Prechor ,, 


, I 3 

J 


Ricardus de Barowe ,, 


15 0 


Johannes le Comere ,, 


26 


T<"r1 mnnrlii <; nttp Rnnwp 


1 10 0 


Johannes Gove • ,, 


. 10 0 


Johannes le Polycer ,, 


I 3 

x J 


Johannes le Lytele , , 


TC 0 

O u 


Walterus Tyard ,, 


I^O 
J 


Robertus Gibet ,, 


2 6 


Gregorius Prior ,, 


76 


Michael de Kerdif ,, 


15 0 


Robertus le Mareschal ,, 


3 0 0 


Willielmus le Crokkere 


15 0 


Alicia le peyntour ,, 


2 6 


Willielmus de Whytewode 


*5 0 


Georgius le Barbour *•♦ ,, " 


.. . .. 26 



18 



Vol. XIX. 



252 Transactions for the Year 1894-95. 





r _ 
I S - 


d. 


Christina, de Banewell habet in omnibus 


2 


0 


Ricardus le Lunge ,, 


2 5 


0 


Walterus atte Bouwe ,, 


2 


0 


Nicholas de Portbury pistor ,, 


15 


0 


Thomas le Chaloner „ 


7 


6 


Johannes Mey Cocus ,, 


7 


O 


Alicia le Deghere ,, 


2 


6 


Rogerus de Whylechurche ,, 


3 0 


0 


Davit de Oxenford ,, 


1 


3 


Walterus le Gaunter ,, 


1 


3 


Robertus le Knight ,, 


1 


3 


Adam le Rede ,, 


2 


0 


Thomas de Uphille 


1 10 


0 


Johannes de Worspringe ,, 


I 5 


0 


Henncus de Cornwaleys ,, 


7 


6 


Nicholas de Baa ,, 


5 


0 


Alicia de Stodleye ,, 


1 


3 


Wilhelmus de Uphille 


1 


3 


Johannes Weol ,, 


... 1 


3 


Ricardus le Gaunter 


1 


3 


Willielmus de Leghe ,, 


1 10 


0 


Henricus Pistor ,, 


2 5 


0 


Simon le Bellescote ,, 


I 5 


0 


Petrus Trewelove ,, 


2 


c. 
0 


Johannes Redhed ,, 


3 0 


0 


Stephanus Ergleys ,, 


5 0 


0 


Rogerus le Carpenter ,, 


1 


3 


Johannes le Hopere ,, 


2 


0 


Johannes Schyn ,, 


5 0 


0 


Hugo le Proute ,, 


10 0 


0 


Johannes le Neucomen ,, 


10 0 


0 


Johannes de Poblewe ,, 


2 5 


0 


Johannes Babkary „ 


1 


3 


Willielmus de Mountfort ,, 


1 


3 


Henricus le Taillur ,, 


1 


M 


Johannes le Barbur ,, 


1 


3 


TTT'II' 1 J T/ 1 

Wilhelmus de Kaynesham ,, 


7 


6 


Wilhelmus Tyard ,, 


2 5 


0 


Nicholas de Tykenham ,, 


10 


0. 


A Dorso. 






Walterus de Cumptone ,, 




3 


Johannes Holewediche 


15 


0 


Johannes Broun ,, 


5 0 


0 


Johannes le Archer ,, 


15 


a 


Stephanus de Stoke ,, 


5 0 


0 


Johannes Reod ,, 


* 5 0 


a 



The Tallage of 6 Edward II. 



Jordan Parmentarius habet in omnibus 

Johannes le Cripse - 

Lynard Jordan 

Robertus Malyner 

Henricus Parmentarius 

Willielmus Edward 

Johannes Walysschote 

Ricardus Calpok 

Benedictus de Welles 

Hugo Heyne 

Robertus de Lincoln 

Robertus Randulf ,, 

Willielmus Bucston ,, 

Philippus le Parmentarius ,, 

Johannes le Northern 

Simon le Webbe ,, 

Willielmus de Brutone ,, 

Johannes Wolriche „ 

Nicholas le Blokkere ,, 

Thomas de Tory tone , , 

Willielmus le Wolbetere ,, 

Hugo le Tylare ,, 

Thomas le Tylare 

Stephanus le Carpenter „ 

Elena de Karlton ,, 

Thomas le Wolbetere 

Matilda le Northerne 

Ricardus Versschawe 

Sarra la Bakkestere 

Walterus Cokay ,, 

Ricardus de Welles ,, 

Hugo Parmentarius 

Nicholas Coker ,, 

Ricardus le Voltere 

Johannes Methelan ,, 

Johannes Wynfred 

Erneburga relicta Johannis de \ 

Whytechurche J " 

Henricus le Norreys 
Clarissa le Reckere 
Edith Bacon ,, 
Margeria Wombestrange ,, 
Johannes le Hopere ,, 
Johannes le Nottere „ 
Willielmus Forest pistor ,, 
Johannes de Mangodesfeld ,, 
Hugo de Langebrugge ,, 

■ 18 * 



253 

£ a- d. 

1 3 
15 o 
15 o 

2 6 
1 3 
7 6 

40 o o 

40 o o 

I 10 o 

6 13 4 

10 o o 

6 13 4 

10 o o 

1 3 

15 o 

10 o 

7 & 

1 3 
15 o 

J 3 

2 6 
15 o 

1 3 

1 3 

1 3 

1 3 

1 3 

1 3 

1 3 

1 10 o 

40 o o 

1 3 
300 

I 10 o 
1500 

0 15 o 

10 o o 

1 3 

1 3 

1 3 
7 6 

2 6 
2 6 

1 10 o 
10 o 

IOOO 



254 Transactions for the Year 1894-95. 





r 
£ 


s. 


a . 


1 wiictinico iyi yiixvwaici naucL ill \jllllllljkXj ... ... 




T 5 




Stephanus le Eir ,, 


3 


o 


0 


AValterus pistor t _ _ , , 


2 


5 


0 


TcaV»<=>11a 1p \A7r»l Vipfpvp 

J. OaUCllcl TV Ul UtlCl C j j ...... 






3 


Thomas atte Celer , , 




r 5 


0 


Johannes IVEarescalle ,, 




i 


3 


T? r^ArHi c 1a WnrVm c\ n 

1\UUC1 L LI 0 1C ¥ V Ul lYUIdlJL , , ... ... 






3 


"Willielmus Parmentarius ,, 




I 5 


0 


Johannes atte Wynche ,, 




J 5 


0 


A A q m rl a f^ViArlrlfA 

x\.QdIIl U.C v^llCLLLlIC j j ... ... 






3 


Walterus de Chiltenham ,, 


2 


5 


0 


Johannes de Baa ,, 


J 5 


o 


0 


R.ogerus de Bristolle , , 




IO 


0 


"Willielmus le Comere ,, 




7 


0 


j onanricb ic vv iiy iiduwydi junnji ,, 


5 


o 


0 


Thomas Wodeman ,, 




2 


6 


Gilbertus le forester 




!5 


0 


jRobertus de Busschopeworthe ,, 




I 5 


0 


.IvOlbld UC L/llcUUIC ,, 




z 5 


0 


AA/altArnc; 1a Wsmprp 

VV alLCl Uo le vv cl± yj\^L \^ t j • • • . . 




I 5 




VV cLlLCl Lib VvlaDl M ....... 






3 


K.OT. 0. 








OlLHlld Xvcyb 




2 


p. 
u 


Johannes de London 




I 


3 


Henricus Body ,, 


2 


5 


0 


TnViQnndc 1a T 1 /"it""! nrp 

J (Jlldllllcb 1c nupclc ,, 




i 


3 


"PIat-io qHa WnlrlA 

lilclld dl ic VV (JlUc 




i 


3 


AA/i 1 1i a1 m n <i 1a Dni 1 tpm p Wv3 t*a 

v V iniciiii Lio ic lij.1 Lciuan y die M ... ... . 




2 


e. 
0 


l^irmiciQ Ha Frnm 1 1 oH A 

J_ylUlllbld Lie X 1 UJ.1111ULIC M ... ... . 




2 


0 


OlcTJlldllUb IC L/UUlCUl ,f ... ... 




I 


3 


\A7i11iAlmnc 1a "\A7^alAt7C 

VV llllcllll Lib iC VV dlCy o M ... ••• 




I 


3 


rvoucrLUb v^iiyimuKc ,, 




I 


3 


Elyas Partrich ,, 




I 


3 


Rogerus de Wynterbourne ,, 





15 


0 


Matilda de Wynterburne ,, 




I 


3 


Thomas de Wynterburne 




10 


0 


Ricardus de Portbury ,, 




IO 


0 


Jj-UAVcllU. V V 11 V LilUUU. ... • 




IO 


0. 


VVdiLcrUb Uc VV Cllcb 




*5 


0 


VV llllcllll Ub Uc 1VJ.11UU1 11c , ., 




J 5 


0. 


WJ i 1 1 i a1 mn c T^f^ci npVi q m n 

VV llliLUll U.O XJCcl ll^LLdLXi \ J , , ... , , , , 




x 5 


0 


Ricardus Bernard .. ,, 


I 


10 


0 


Henricus Babekary ,, 


3 


0 


p 


Alanus de Wryngtone ,, 


2 


5 


0 


Johannes de Asschtone ,, 


I 


10 


0 


Robertus le Hay ward . ,, 


2 


5 


0. 



The Tallage of 6 Edward II. 255 





£ s - 


d. 


Radulfus Lyf habet in omnibus 


1 


3 


Johannes Whyteglove ,, 


1 


3 


Cecil le Tauverner ,, 


1 


3 


Gilbertus le Lunge ,, 


1 


3 


Johannes Pope ,, 


7 


6 


Johannes Lemman 


1 


3 


Petrus Sire ,, 


1 


3 


Rogerus Freond ,, . . 


7 


6 


Robertus Coklake ,, 


1 


3 


Johannes de Wyke ,, 


1 


3 


Willielmus le Blake ,, 


1 


3 


Robertus Clof ,, 


1 5 


O' 


Walterus Gywald ,, 


1 


3 


Willielmus le Goldsmith ,, 


1 


3 


Robertus le Olde ,, 


1 


3 


Adam Machon ,, 


2 


6 


Thomas le Clerke ,, 


2 


6 


Johannes Berkley ,, 


1 


3 


Johannes de Miltone 


1 


3 


Willielmus Hardy 


1 


3 


Adam Brente ,, 


2 


6 


Johannes Colrich ,, 


2 


6 


Robertus Spracston ,, 


5 0 


0 


Nicholas Ballard ,, 


15 


0 


Rogerus Hardy ng * 


1 


3 


Johannes Parmentare ,, 


.. ... .. 15 


0 


Johannes le Strange ,, 


1 0 


a 


Gilbertus Pokerel ,, 


5 0 


0 


Rogerus Page ,, 


6 0 


0 


Philippus de Miltone ,, 


1 10 


0 


Johannes le Reckere „ 


5 


0 


Willielmus le Syvyare ,, 


5 


0 


Rogerus le Cu „ 


17 


6 


Willielmus Reod ,, 


15 


0 


Johannes Cocklake ,, 


15 


0 


Galfridus atte Heth 


5 0 


0 


TT7M 1 ' 1 1 U/T'i 

Willielmus le Maister ,, 


15 


0 


Willielmus de Chiltone ,, 


10 0 


0 


Willielmus Spacston ,, 


15 


0 


Johannes Callan ,, 


7 


6 


Robertus Bool ,, 


15 ° 


0 


Johannes Sire ,, 


20 0 


0 


Johannes le Cu . 


.. ... ... 2 10 


0 


Cristina Brid 


.. ... ... 15 


0 


Henricus Vynypeny 


21 0 


0 


Nicholas Steer „ ... ... . 


1 10 


0 



256 Transactions for the Year 1894-95. 



Dorso. 

£ s. d. 



Walterus Alysaundre habet in omnibus 1 10 o 

Johannes atte Pole ,, 3 o o 

Johannes atte Rugge ,, 1 3 

Walterus Prentiz „ 1 3 

Gilbertus de Ely ,, 13 

Alicia le Hert „ 1 3 

Radulphus Pocoke 1 3 

Summa istorum trium rotulorum Consuetorum 



de bonis mobilibus de la Radeclive ... £57 15 



Rot. 9. 

Taxatio decime Reddituum in Qnavtevio Beate Marie 
de la Redeclyve. 





£ 


s. 


d. 


Adam Snow defert redditum communitati ville Bristollie ... 




10 


0 


Johannes Bat d.r 




12 


0 


Ricardus Pelham — ... 




IO 


0 


Willielmus de Petertone — Thome Clerico 




8 


0 


Johannes le Hattere — civibus ville predicte 




12 


0 


Matilda le Coyfestere d. Matilde de Wanewell de redditu ... 




10 


0 


Robertus de Lyncolne d.r. pro i selda Ricardo Cantok 




15 


0 


Willielmus Randalf Roberto de Lyncolne 




11 


8 


Willielmus Hayl d. Willielmo de Rouberewe d.r 


1 


0 


0 


Robertus Jurdan — Ricardo de Cheddre pro. i selda 


1 


0 


0 


Johannes le Hokere — Willielmo Randalf d.r 


1 


6 


8 


Robertus Jurdan d.r. Hospitali Sancti Laurentii pro i selda 




12 


0 


Robertus de Stapeltone d. Willielmo Randalf d.r 


.. 1 


4 


0 


Rogerus de Stapeltone — predicto Willielmo — 


.. 1 


4 


0 


Ricardus le Chaundeler — „ 


.. 1 


0 


0 


Henricus le Veltere — ,, ,, 


.. 1 


12 


0 


Margareta la Gurdelere — ,, 


.. 2 


0 


0 


Johannes Hyne — „ ,, 




16 


0 


Wychet atte Grene — ,, 




12 


0 


Adam Walyschote — Margerie Bruselaunce... 




4 


0 


Johannes Horlok — Johanni de Kerdif 




1 


0 


Idem Johannes d.r. Hospitali Sancti Laurentii 




15 


0 


Henricus de Stouwe — Johanni de Kerdif 




15 


0 


Robertus Truwelove d. pred. Johanni d.r 


•• 3 


0 


0 


Jordan Coker — ,, 


1 


6 


8 


Matilda le Lavender d.r. Johanni le Taverner 




8 


0 


Ricardus Herbard — pred. Johanni 




16 


0 


Johannes de Kyngesbury — Everardo le Fraunceis 




8 


0 


Walterus Mayleden — pred. Everardo 




10 


0 


Everardus le Fraunceis — Priori Sancti Jacobi 




13 


4 



The Tallage of 6 Edward II. 



257 





£ s - 


d. 


Bartholomeus le Nedlere — Everardo le Fraunceis 


IO 


0 


Agnes Perekyn — Willielmo de Wytyngdone 


I O 


0 


Eva Bryd Johanni de Kerdiff 


I 3 


0 


Robertus le Teslere — Ricardo le Wolbetere 


7 


10 


Idem Robertus — Hospicio Sancti Johannis 


6 


8 


Stephanus Schep — Johanni le Loung Naute 


12 


0 


Robertus Lomb — pred. Johanni 


14 


0 


Thomas de Hereford Sutor — 


8 


0 


Idem Thomas — Ade Welyschote ... , 


8 


0 


Johannes Muryweder — pred. Ade 


12 


0 


Idem Johannes — Johanni le Loung 


4 


0 


Torrlpn rip T-ianpwpIl nrprl ToVianni 

1 ui uau uc ijaiicwcii uicu. j kjlxcxl±lix ... ... ••• ■ ■ « ... ... 


A 


0 


Idem Jordan — Ade Welyshcote 


12 


0 


Ricardus Skyrel Willielmo le Wyte Irmangere 


2 O 


0 


Tohannes de Keynesham — de Langabule Mauricio de Bercleye 




6 


Ricardus de Berdestaple — Hospicio Sancti Johannis 


I c 


10 


Idem Ricardus — Ricardo Randalf 


I 12 


2 


Radulfus atte Slype — Abbati de Kyngeswode 


IO 


0 


Trlpm T?pr1nlfn<? T?ipprrlo rip AA/plKa 


I O 




Agnes Jurdan — Erneburge 


I Id 


0 


T?prlnlfnQ rip T-'nrrhnrv nrprl Frnphnroff 

0. V CX V 1 Llli. LIO \J.\Z X Ul LUU1 V \ L^Vi . IjllltUUlct . . . . . . ••• ... . . . 


7 




T?ocrprnc; rip T nnrlnn rliptp Frnphnrcp 

AViJ^^J LI O d J_/UilUull l^IUUUUi^b , ••• . . . ■ ■ ■ l# . 






Johannes le Waleys Petro le Fraunceys ... ... 






Ricardus Pistor — pred. Petro 


12 


0 


Johannes de Zork — 


12 




Editha Haukes — Thome Rossel 


10 




Willielmus de Wedmor — pred. Thome 


T T A 




Walterus de Kent — Nicholao de Rouberewe ... 


I O 




Rogerus filius Prepositi — pred. Nicholao 


IO 


0 


Willielmus Styf 


3 




Galfridus Lokkyng — Thome le Veltere 


10 




Idem Galfridus — Mauricio de Bercleye 




6 


Johannes de Werminstre — Galfrido Lokkyng .-. 


IO 


0 


W 7 alterus le Chaloner — Johanni de Gadecumbe 


I I ^ 


0 


Radulfus de Bathonia — Domui Sancte Katerine 


2 




Idem Radulfus — Beate Marie Magdalene 


2 


0 


Idem Radulfus Rectori Ecclesie de Chuw 


n 

1 




Willielmus de Comptone — Hugoni de Popham et Johanni le 






Schoyere de Londone et Domino Mauricio de Bercleye 


2 O 


8 


Willielmus de Rouberewe — pred. Mauricio 




6 


Thomas de Lodewelle — Hospitali Sancti Johannis et Willielmo 






de Axe 


I O 


0 


Robertus de Haseie — Abbati Sancti Augustini 


9 


0 


Johannes le Hopere — pred. Abbati 


13 


0 


Willielmus de Brutone — ' 


4 


0 


Adam le Sawyere — Willielmo de Chiltone 


IO 


0 


Margeria Schobbe — Johanni le Wyte 


5 


0 



258 Transactions for the Year 1894-95. 

£ ■■ d. 



Robertus Neucomen d.r. pred. Johanni 1 8 o 

Willielmus Canoun — ,, ,, 10 o 

Rogerus le Kemere — Petro le Fraunceys 1 6 8 

Agatha le Kemestere — pred. Petro 5 o 

Agnes le Wyte — ,, ,, 5 o 

Johannes de Wodeford — Willielmo de Chyltone 18 o 

Thomas de Wyteleye — Johanni le Wyte 13 4 

Thomas le Taverner — Abbati Sancti Augustini 16 o 

Johannes de Marsfelde — Abbati de Keynesham 7 o 

Thomas le Taverner — pro quodam t 13 4 

Hugo de Huphulle — Abbati Sancti Augustini . 10 o 

Idem Hugo — Hospicio Sancti Johannis 13 4 

Ely as Sprinte — Hugoni de Uphill 12 6 

Adam Gordoun — pred. Hugoni 5 o 

Petrus le Syviere — Alexandro Rop 12 o 

Robert Host — pred. Alexandro 8 o 

Rogerus de Pobelewe — Thome de Leye 1 6 8 

Willielmus le Devenysche — Johanni de Keynesham 90 

Willielmus Cissor — Hugoni de Uphill 6 o 

Thomas de Leye — Monachis de Kyngtone .. . 8 o 

Willielmus de Werminstre — Hospicio Sancti Johannis 10 o 

Willielmus Langport — pred. Hospicio 8 o 

Willielmus atte Wytehorse — Johanni le Joevene 5 o 

Willielmus de Brutone — pred. Johanni 8 o 

Johannes le Wyte — Hospicio Sancti Johannis 6 o 

Johannes de Lodewell — Thome le Veltere 1 10 o 

Willielmus de Portlond — Willielmo Randalf 12 o 

Martinus de Pobelewe — pred. Willielmo 1 6 o 

Willielmus le Flemyng — Priori de Westheed 6 8 

Felicia de Bradenord — Stephano Ergleys 6 o 

2nd Membrane. 

Walterus Offor — pred. Stephano 6 o 

Johannes Erkeleyes — Abbati de Cirecestre 6 o 

Johannes de Kyngestone — Johanni Erkeleyes 1 o o 

Thomas le Veltere — Hospitali Sancte Katerine 5 o 

Idem Thomas — subdecano Wellie 2 o 

Jordanus Parmentarius — Thome le Veltare 16 o 

Robertus le Webbe — Thome predicto 12 o 

John Roulbond — pred. Thome 2 o o 

Cristiana le Hockestere — Johanni le Beketore 9 o 

Willielmus atte Wye — pred. Johanni 180 

Johannes le Beketore d.r. a. Domino Mauricio de Berkeleye ... 6 

Robertus Payn d.r. Hospitali Sancti Johannis 80 

Willielmus le Peyntour — pred. Hospitali 8 o 

Nicholas de Norhamtone — Willielmo Randulph 1 o o 

Philippus Textor — pred. Willielmo ... ... 18 o 



The Tallage of 6 Edward II. 



£ s. d. 



Editha Friaunt — Rogero Forestare ... 6 8 

Willielmus Axebridge d. Ricardo le Veltare 9 o 

Galfridus le Feltare — Johanni de Kerdyf 6 8 

Idem Galfridus — Hospitali Sancti Johannis 7 4 

Willielmus de 3ettone — Johanni atte Wynch 1 o o 

Robertus Wyldemerchss — Hospitali Sancti Johannis Bathonie 4 o 

Robertus Cyssor — Hospitali Sancti Johannis , 1 o o 

Thomas Opthewere — pred. Hospitali 12 a 

Willielmus Cocus — ,, ,, 4 o 

Johannes Crees — Johanni de Keynesham 1 o o 

Johannes Chaynes — Hospitali Sancti Johannis 3 o 

Hugo Sutor — pred. Hospitali 3 o 

Johannes le Workman — ,, 15 o 

Alicia de Knolle — „ 6 o 

Isabelle le Ridelestere — ,, 4 o 

Margeria 3ork — ,, 4 o 

Editha la Coppestere — „ 5 o 

Alicia de Hereford — , , 5 o 

Robertus le Tylare d.r. Agnete Dale 4 2 

Johannes de Wytewelle d. Johanni atte Walle 4 o. 

Rogerus le Heolymakyare — Johanni Ergleys 14 o 

Thomas Molendinarius — pred. Johanni 4 o 

Magister domus Sancti Johannis percipit de ij. seldis 8 o 

Abbas Sancti Augustini p.d. uno t. cum ij. seldis 16 o 

Willielmus le Tylare d. Subdecano Wellie 8 o 

Isabella de Pedertone — Waltero Mostard 4 o 

Johannes Mynty — Hospitali Sancti Johannis 2 o 

Johannes le Syviere — Roberto de Holehurste ... 5 o 

Robertus Holehurste p. d. ij. seldis 10 o. 

Willielmus le Hopere d. Gilberto Fraunceys 4 o 

Gilbertus Fraunceys p.d. iij. seldis 13 o 

Subdecanus Wellie p.d. v. seldis 1 17 o 

Johannes de London d. Johanni Welysschote 3 o 

Willielmus de 3atton p. d. vij. seldis 10 o 

Johannes Cake d. Thome de Uphille 10 o 

Johannes le Gurdelere — Galfrido Lokkynge 3 a 

Erneburga p.d. ij. seldis 6 o 

Johannes de Gadebury d. Subdecano Wellie 4 o 

Magister domus Sancti Johannis p.d. iiij. schoppis 12 o 

Elyas Molendinarius d. domui Sancte Katerine 40 

Ricardus de Stoke d 3 o 

Willielmus Craddok de Asstone p. de una selda 3 o 

Ricardus de Barwe d. Nicholao de Roberwe 1 o o 

Johannes le Combere — Johanni de Marssfeld 7 6 

Edmundus atte Bowe — domui Sancte Katerine 4 o 

Johannes Gove — Johanni de Kerdyf 1 3 

Walterus Cissor — pro una selda 1 6 



26o 



Transactions for the Year 1894-95. 



£ s. d. 



Hugo le Proute — pro una selda 1 6 

Johannes le Policeur — Hugoni de Uphulle 8 o 

Cristina Battes — Johanni de Marssfeld 2 o 

Editha atte Bowe — Matilde Forestare 2 o 

Johannes le Longe — Hospital! Sancti Johanni 3 o 

Willielmus le Grindere — Radulpho de Baa 2 o 

Elena la Tylare — Waltero le Tylere 4 o 

Robertus Gibet — Roberto Otry 14 o 

Nicholas de Roberwe p. d. ij. Seldis 12 o 

Ricardus le Cupere d. Johanni de Kerdif 20 

Robertus le Marsschall — domui de Munchenbarwe 11 o 

Willielmus le Crockere — Hospitali Sancti Johannis 8 o 

Rogerus le Heolymakyare — Elye Goce de Bedminstre 70 

Walterus le Hokare p. d. iiij. seldis 8 o 

Alicia le Peyntour d. Hospitali Sancti Johannis 13 4 

Rector ecclesie de Bedminstre p. d. ij. t 3 o o 

Johannes atte Hethe d. Magistro Sancti Katerine 30 

Alanus de Frome — Willielmo Tyard 3 o 

(A Membrane lost here.) 

Dorse. 

Walterus Crast d. Edithe de Lodelowe 14 o 

Abbas Sancti Augustini h.d. r.a. in orto Templi 14 o 

Idem Abbas h.e.l. iiij. schopparum ,, ... 14 o 

Idem Abbas — j. schoppe 10 o 

Abbas Sancti Augustini h.r.d. iij. schoppis 12 o 

Dionisia de Fromilode d.r. Abbati de Keynesham 10 o 

Willielmus Randalf h.r.d. ii. schoppis 14 o 

Johannes Fraunceis Senior h.r.d. ij. schoppis 8 o 

Matilda de Wynterbourne d.r. Johanni Pyntayl 4 o 

Thomas de Wynterbourne — Roberto Hele pro ij. schoppis ... 80 

Johannes le Skryveyn h.r.d. ij. schoppis 1 o o 

Thomas le Veltere — ij. schoppis 1 6 o 

Ricardus Bernard d.r. Priori Sancti Jacobi 1 6 o 

Henricus Babbecary — Johanni Hobbes 1 4 o 

Alanus de Wryngtone — Johanni le Hunte 1 6 o 

Philippus de Mere h.r.d. ij. schoppis 1 6 o 

Radulphus Lyf d.r. Johanni Drasper 12 o 

Johannes Welyschote h.r.d. vj. schoppis 3 o o 

Johannes de Whythors d.r. Roberto Otry 1 4 o 

Robertus Holhurste — Abbati Sancti Augustini 8 o 

Rogerus Frend — ,, ,, ,, 4 o 

Robertus Coklake — Roberto Otry 12 o 

Willielmus de Henefeld h.r.d. vij. schoppis 2 9 o 

Johannes Bercley d.r. Johanni Tumbrel 9 o 

Johannes Tumbrel h.r.d. v. schoppis 3 12 o 

Rogerus Hardyng d.r. Johanni Honwelle 3 o 

1 A mistake vis. for vid. the tax is ob. qa. i.e., fd. 



The Tallage of 6 Edward II. 



261 



Johannes Parmentare — Rogero Hardyng 

Johannes le Straunge — Roberto Otry 

Johannes de Honwelle — pred. Roberto 

Gilberdus Pokerel — Johanni de Kerdyf et Johanni de 

welle ... 

Rogerus Page — Radulfo Zoely 

Johannes de Miltone — Waltero le Wyt 

Rogerus Page h.r. d. ij. schoppis , 

Rogerus Cocus d.r. Ricardo Page 

Willielmus Rord — Gilberto Pokerel 

Gaifridus atte Hethe — Gilberto Fraunceys ... 

Willielmus le Maister — in toto per annum 

Willielmus de Chiltone — Johanni de Kerdyf 

Willielmus Spakstone — Ricardo de Wellia 

Johannes Kalan — Abbatisse de Sheftesbury 

Robertus Bell — pred. Abbatisse 

Johannes Sire — Agnes Dale et Henrico le Kyng • .. 

Johannes Cocus — Abbatisse de Tarente 

Johannes atte Hurne — Johanni de Kerdyf 

Ricardus Randalf h.r.d. iii. schoppis 

Johannes le Taverner — d. iij. schoppis 

Henricus Finypeny — d. viij. schoppis 

Gilbertus Hely d.r. Galfrido de Lokkyng 

Gaifridus Lokkyng hr. d. ij. Schoppis 

Sumraa decime Redditimm quarterii de 

Radeclive £22. 8 if 

Summa totalis istorum quatuor rotulorum 

de Radeclive /80 3 8 

Rot. 10. 

Taxatio Bonoviim Mobilium in quarterlo Beate Marie in Foro. 

£ s. d. 



Robertus Fairemay habet in bonis 4 o o 

Ricardus Pinnoke ,, 5 o 

Ricardus Caa ,, 7 6 

Willielmus Clef ,, 3 o o 

Ricardus de Apperleye ,, 3 o o 

Ricardus Brian „ 15 o 

Ricardus de Weston ,, 6 13 4 

Rogerus de Apperleye ,, 613 4 

Ricardus de Bortone ,, 1 10 o 

Nicholas Dunstere „ 6 13 4 

Agnes Maen ,, 5 o 

Robertus de Boys ,, 5 o 

Robertus le Wayte „ 2 o o 

Nicholas de Oxonia ,, 1 o o 



Hon- 



2 o 
1 o 
3 

1 4 
I 4 
6 16 
6 
12 



262 



Transactions for the Year 1894-95. 



Rogerus le Broun 
Ricardus de Lemestre 
Willielmus de Flore 
Simon Forstall 
Thomas le Fourbour 
Johannes Yaletot 
Walterus Brounman 
Ricardus le Carter 
Hawisia le Cornmangere 
Adam de Temple • • 

Rogerus le Costretmaker 
Rogerus le Noble 
Robertus de Haywode 
Robertus le Wirdrawere 
Robertus le Baker Pelliparius 
Gregorius Pistor 
Willielmus de Pridie 
Robertus le Tilere 
Ricardus de Pridie 
Robertus Vallet 
Humfridus Carnifex 
Henricus Lovel 
Elias Springaut 
Alicia de la Corner 
Johannes le Hare 
Willielmus Springaut 
Johannes le Hopere in vico Beate Marie 
Johannes Willenikks 
Editha Tovey 
Thomas le Bole 
Robertus le Taverner 
Robertus de Portbury 
Willielmus de Stoke 
Thomas de Cadebury 
Robertus de Hailles 
Walterus Bardestaple 
Rogerus Parson 
Willielmus atte Oldehalle 
Willielmus de Welles 
Johannes Laurence 
Willielmus Galemyn Sutor 
Edwardus Carnifex 
Ricardus atte More 
Willielmus atte More 
Johannes Adrian 
Milisanta atte Bouwe 
Johannes Rop 



habet in bonis 



£ 
1 
1 

10 

3 
1 
1 
5 



The Tallage of 6 Edward II. 263 





£ s. 


d. 


Blissota Vallet habet in bonis 


... 2 


0 


Eiias de Axebrugge ,, 


30 0 


0 


Willielmus Maci 


1 10 


0 


Walterus de Medewelle ,, 


1 10 


0 


Thomas de Pridie ,, ... ... 


2 5 


0 


Johannes Eliot „ 


0 7 


6 


Dors. 






Thomas Abraham „ 


5 0 


0 


Johannes de Scheftebury 


1 0 


0 


Johannes Vallet Carnifex „ .. ... 


1 10 


0 


Willielmus de Medewelle ,, 


3 0 


0 


Walterus le White „ 


10 0 


0 


Ricardus Sely ,, 


1 10 


0 


Ricardus Holle „ 


15 


0 


Walterus de Stoke 


7 


6 


Editha Vallet ,, 


10 


0 


Johannes Vallet ,, 


7 


6 


Bernardus atte Wolde ,, 


30 0 


0 


Ricardus le White Irmangere ,, 


6 13 


4 


Philippus Lespecer ,, 


15 


0 


Johannes le Hunte ,., 


5 0 


0 


Henricus de Framtone ,, 


30 0 


0 


Johannes le Gurdlere ,, 


15 


0 


Agnes Super Pontem ,., 


7 


6 


Thomas de Cornubia ,* 


1 10 


0 


Mabilla Burgeis 


15 


0 


Johannes Lespecer ,, 


5 0 


0 


Robertus atte Vairoke ,, 


15 


0 


Willielmus le Porsere ,, 


15 


0 


Willielmus Randalf 


30 0 


0 


Thomas le Barbour ,, 


7 


6 


Johannes Brid ,, 


15 


0 


Johannes le Cu ,, 


20 


0 


Ricardus de Miltone ,, 


3 0 


0 


Hugo Payn ,, 


1 0 


0 


Johannes le White Taillor ,, 


1 0 


0 


Thomas Hemynge Textor ,, 


1 10 


0 


Johannes de Whiteborne „ ... ... 


1 10 


0 


Phillipus Snew ,, 


• 15 


0 


Willielmus de Berewe ,, 


3 0 


0 


Johannes le Bonde „ 


7 


6 


Radulfus de Crikkelade 


7 


6 


Adam Everard ,, 


.. ... .. 1 10 


0 


Willielmus de Axe ,, 


15 0 


0 


Johannes Douce ,, 


15 0 


0 


Johannes le Tilere ,, 


1 10 


0 



264 Transactions for the Year 1894-95. 





£ 


d. 


Ricardus le Heir habet in bonis 


1 10 


0 


Johannes Otri Tabernarius ,, 


1 10 


0 


Phillipus Standiche ,, 


3 0 


0 


Rebertus Gering ,, 


1 10 


0 


Johannes Waget ,, 


5 0 


0 


Nicholas le Combere ,, 


7 


6. 


Johannes Erneborgw ,, 


3 0 


0 


Walterus le Barbor ,, 


1 10 


0 


Johannes atte Weye ,, 


15 


0 


Ricardus Horncastel 


5 0 


0 


Willielmus le Bakere Pelliparius ,, 


2 0 


0 


Willielmus de Comptone Cissor ,, 


7 


6 


Johannes de Budicombe ,, 


7 


6 


Rogerus le Teslere ,, 


7 


6 


Galfridus Cissor ,, 


7 


6 


Radulfus Pikard ,, 


1 10 


0 



Sumraa totalis istius Rotuli infra et extra £26 3 7 
Rogerus de Apperle protulit rotulum Beate Marie in foro. 



Rot 11. 

Taxatio ReddiUmm in quartevio Beate Marie in Foro. 

£ s. d. 

Prior Sancti Jacobi h.r. de domo i.q. Ricardus Pinnoke inhabitat 1 10 o 



Ricardus de Welles — de schoppa Roberti Fairemay 1 10 o 

Johannes Syre — d.s. Ricardi de Apperleye 18 o 

Johannes Legat — d.s. Ricardi Brean 16 4 

Priorissa de Kingtone — d. pred. s 1 4 

Abbas de Cirencestre — d.d. Ricardi de Weston 1 6 8 

Ricardus de Bortone — d.s. Ricardi de Welles 1 3 2 

Abbas Sancti Augustini — d.s. Ricardi de Apperleye 1 o o 

Idem Abbas — d. celario Ade de Temple 13 4 

Predictus Abbas — d.d. Agnes Maen 1 6 8 

Bartholomeus de Grenville — d.d. pred 13 4 

Matilda filia Nicolai — d.s. Rogeri de Apperleye 16 o 

David de Wygt — d.s. Lucie Carles ... 16 8 

Elias de Axebrugge — d.s. Willielmi Russel 13 4 

Abbas Sancti Augustini — d.s. Thome de Salopia 1 6 8 

Magister Hospitalis Sancti Johannis — d. pred. s 8 o 

Alexander Rop — d.s. Johannis de London 16 o 

Priorissa Sancte Marie Magdalene — d.s. Nicholai de Oxonia... 15 o 

Ricardus de Welles — d.s. Rogeri le Brun 16 o 

Abbas Sancti Augustini — ij.s. in Wynchstret 4 o 

Nicholas de Roubergwe — ij.s. ibid 5 9 

Willielmus de Tauntone — d.s. Willielmi de Were 94 

Thomas de la Pipe Willielmi de Budiford 8 o 

Nicholas de Roubergwe Ricardi de Lemestre 9 4 



The Tallage of 6 Edward II. 265 

£ *• d. 

Johannes de Oldebury — d.e.s.... ... ., ... 6 o 

Abbas Sancti Augustini — d. toto tenemento i.q. Willielmus de 

Flore inh ... .... 128 

Dominus Johannes Bisshop Miles — d.d. Simonis Forstall ... 1 5 o 

Simon Forstall — d.d. i.q. Thomas le Fourbour inh 111 o 

Johannes le Tavener — d.d. Ricardi le Cartere 6 o 

Reginaldus le Ropere — d. pred. d 12 o 

Willielmus Textor — d.d. Hawisie Cornmangere 13 io| 

Johannes de Chyw — d.d. i.q. Stephanus le Sarum inh 17 io| 

Abbas Sancti Augustini — d.d. Margarete de Buttone 13 4 

Edwardus Skicher — d.d. Ade de Temple 16 8 

Hospitalis Sancte Raterine — d. pred. d 10 o 

Johannes Alius Cristine de Calne — d.s. in Wynchestret 6 8 

Ricardus de Calne — d.d. Nicholai de Portbury 5 o 

Idem Ricardus — d.s. Hugonis le Cornmangere 6 o 

Ricardus Snow — d.s. in Wynchestret 4 8 

Prior Sancti Jacobi — d. pred. s 1 o 

Alicia de Bruges — d.s. in Wynchestret 5 4 

Johannes de Bruges — d.s. ib 2 8 

Thomas de Lyouns — d.j.t. in Wynchestret 2 o 

Joceus de Reyni h.d.e.r 3 o 

Robertus de Holhurst h.r.d.s. Roberti le Mareschall 2 8 

Thomas de Lyouns — d. pred. s 2 o 

Joceus de Reyni — d.s. versus Bloude3ete 2 8 

Johannes Lespecer — d.s. ib ... 8 o 

Galfridus Lokkinge — d.s. ib. ... * , 1 4 

Ricardus Horncastel — d.d Roberti Haywode 5 8 

Prior Sancti Jacobi — d. pred. d 1 6 

Johannes Welisschote — d.s. ante Novam Portam 40 

Elias de Axebrugge — d.s. juxta Castrum 1 12 o 

Johannes Welisschote — ib 19 4 

Johannes Hasard — d.s. juxta Castrum 12 o 

Ricardus Horncastel — d.i.s. juxta ecclesiam Sancti Petri ... 3 4 

Mabillia le Deveneys — d.d. Gregorii Pistoris 80 

Abbas Sancti Augustini — d.j. curtilagio ib. 3 o 

Prior Sancti Jacobi — d. terra Ricardi Horncastel ib 30 

Abbas de Keynesham — d.d. Willielmi de Pridie 8 o 

Elias Springaut — d. pred. d 8 o 

Ricardus de Welles — d. Celario ib 8 o 

Laurentius de Cary — d. Solario ib 6 8 

Prior Sancti Jacobi — d.d. Roberti Vallet ... 2 o 

Executor Thome de Wyth — d. pred. d 6 8 

Abbas Sancti Augustini — d. quadam aula juxta Ecclesiam 

Sancti Petri et de alia aula ib ... 1 o 8 

Magister Sancti Johannis — d.s. in vico Beate Marie 1 4 8 

Prior Sancti Jacobi — d. quadam s 1 6 

Thomas de Cornubia Clericus — d.s. in predicto vico ... ... 5 4 



266 



Transactions for the Year 1894-95. 



£ d. 



Simon le Porter — s.ib 8 o 

Thomas de London Cissor — d.s.ib 4 8 

Magister Sancti Johannis — d.s. Rogeri Fromylode ibidem ... 28 

Dors. 

Margareta le Gurdelere — d.s. Johannis Waget 10 o 

Johannes Clof — d.d.i.q. Johannes le Hunte inh 1 6 8 

Magister Hospitalis Sancti Johannis — d.d. Henrici de Fromtone 100 

Johannes Welisschote — d. pred. d 8 o 

Willielmus Randalf — d.d.i.q. Johannes Lespecer inh 13 4 

Idem Willielmus Robertus de Fairoke inh 12 o 

Erneburga — d.s. Willielmi le Porsere 6 8 

Willielmus Randalf — d.d. Johannis Douce ib 1 o o 

Erneburga — d.s. Ricardi Cormalot 6 8 

Abbas Sancti Augustini — d.d. Willielmi Randalf 5 o 

Dominus Ricardus de la Rivere Miles — d s. in vico Fullonum .112 o 

Erneburga — d.d. Johannis Brid 13 4 

Johannes Syre — d.d. Johannis le Cu 13 4 

Johannes Tumbrel — d.d. Ricardi de Miltone 17 4 

Domus Sancti Johannis Bathonie — d. pred. d 4 o 

Johannes Tropin — d.d.i.q. Hugo Payn inh 16 8 

Idem Johannes — d.d.i.q. Johannes le White Cissor inh 13 4 

Abbas Sancti Augustini -- d.d. Thome Hemyng Textoris 5 o 

Galfridus Snel — d. dicta domo 5 o 

Johannes Fraunceys — d. pred. d 4 o 

Walterus Cotes — d.s. Galfridi atte Hethe 15 8 

Domus Sancte Katerine — d.d.i.q. Johannes de Whitebourne inh. 12 o 

Dicta domus — d.d.i.q. Philippus Snow inh 12 o 

Willielmus de Lye — d.d.i.q. Willielmus de Berewe inh 12 o 

Galfridus atte Hethe — d.s. in vico Fullonum 12 o 

Willielmus de Lye — d.s. ib 112 o 

Idem Willielmus — d.t.i.q. Adam Everard inh 9 4 

Predictus Willielmus — d.sch. ib 7 8 

Erneburga — d.d. Johannis Douce 12 o 

•Cecilia le Clerke — d.i. celario ib 10 8 

Johannes de Berewike — d. tenementis suis juxta portam Abone 215 

Abbas de Keynesham — de eisdem 2 13 4 

Johannes de Kerdif — d. celario Roberti le Teslere ib 50 

Johannes de Berewike — d.t.i.q. Robertus Geringe inh 1 o o 

Ricardus de Weston — d. pred. t 6 8 

Stephanus atte Wike — d. pred. t 13 4 

Johannes le Taverner — d.d.i.q. Johannes Ernebergw inh. ...114 

Robert Snow — d.d.i.q. Walterus le Barbour inh 5 6 

Prior de Goldclyve — d. pred. d 13 4 

Willielmus Arthur 2 10 

Margeria Brid - 14 o 

Ricardus de Welles — d.d. Roisie de Polesworthe 9 o 



/~f-\ /T\ - T T 

The Tallage of 6 Edward II. 




267 




{ 


s. 


d. 


Roisia de Polesworthe — d.s. ib . ... . 




7 


8 


Johannes Turtle — d.d.i.q. Ricardus Horncastel inh. ... - . 


.. i 


0 


*h 


Johannes le White Tinctor — d. pred. d. 




T 3 


4 


Johannes Turtle — d.s. ib 




18 


0 


Liberi Willielmi Pouhel — d.s. ib 


i 


4 


0 


Abbas de Keynesham — d.d. Willielmi le Bakere Pelliparii . 




8 


0 


Ricardus de Welles — d.t. ib 


.. i 


9 


4 


Willielmus Russel — d.s. — ... 




10 


8 


Johannes le White Tinctor — d.d. Galfridi Cissoris . 




10 


8 


Willielmus Arthur — d. pred. d . 




2 


3i 


Reginaldus Onder3et — d.t.i.q. Radulfus Pickard inh. .. 


.. i 


6 


.8' 



(Lower Membrane perished.) 



Rot 12. 

Taxatio xv^e omnium bonorum in Mercato Bristollie. 



Ricardus Longus 
Thomas Sely 
Johannes Everard 
Robertus Daniel 
Willielmus Hail 
Agnes la Rede 
Johannes Hondibody 
Agnes Plomer 
Johannes de Bannebury 
Agnes la Carrectaria 
Alicia atte Mede 
Willielmus Sutor 
Johannes Giffard 
Johannes Forestare junior 
Willielmus le Wodere 
Hugo le Wayte 
Johannes de Kemesynge 
Willielmus Faber 
Isabella Steve 
Ricardus de Wichwelle 
Willielmus Swetynge 
Robertus le Barbator 
Johannes Morkoke 
Ricardus atte Heyhome 
Adam Morkoke 



habet in bonis 



Summa 



In pvimis. 

£ s. d. 
..100 

18 6 



18 
15 
15 
o 

7 
5 
5 
5 
2 

10 
o 
5 

10 
*5 
15 
7 
15 
7 
o 

4 
o 



Vol. XIX. 



19 



268 



Transactions for the Year 1894-95. 



Taxatio Redditmim in mercato pv edict 0. 





£ s - 


A 

Q. 


J-/ \z* iciiciiitinu uiiaiinio i>v ciaiu ata ata aaa aaa aaa 






De duabiis shopis ejusdem Johannis et Willielmi Copere 




8 


T)p t ToViannii T f*&at 

-L^t L. 1 \_/XicXJ.J.XilO Ij^waL B «« ... aaa aaa aaa aaa aat aaa ... 


4 




T^jpi nnatnnr cVirn"»iQ \A7i1lip1mi 1 #=» TaiHrmf 

i-J\Z U UdLUUl blUJLJlo VV lillClllil 1C XcLlllLFUl ... aaa aaa ... 


... 10 


8 


De t. Abbatis Sancti Augustini 


r 
D 


o 


Abbatis de Keynesham 


6 




— ejusdem Abbatis 


A 
*t 


Q 


Willielmi Herle 


2 


2 
D 


Cristine de Kemesynge 


3 
J 


o 


— Johannis Hendileys 


I 


6 


J UlldllAllo V^LH^l ... aa aaa aaa aaa aaa aaa ... ... 


4 




Nicholai Poyns 


/ 


o 


De pred. t 


12 


o 


jje t. id. 


I 


4 


Hp nnatiinr QVirirnc Qonrfl T anrpnti'i 

JL/t: U Ucl I UUI ollUUlb Odll^Ll J^rClUl CXXL11 . . a aaa aaa aaa aaa aaa 




g 


De t. Fraunceys 


2 


2 i 


X liUIIlC VVyilLdCIC , • 


5 


4 


J UlldllXXlo vjrllld-lLl aaa ... aaa aaa aa , ... ... 


... 2 


u 


— Lraiinui ie xvekKer 


2 


o 


— Johannis Giffard 


I 


o 


XJlcLl. I Oildlllilb aaa ttt « aa aaa aa . ... ... 


... 2 


o 


De duabus shopis Willielmi Herle 


4 


o 


De t. Johannis Welischote 


io 


o 


— Emme atte Redelond 




IO 


— Johannis le Forester 


5 


o 


De pred. t 


7 


a 


De duobus t. ib 


io 


o 


De t. Willielmi Medewelle 


2 


8 


— Johannis le Toller 


8 


o 


— Waited Rekke 


i 


6 


— Ricardi Leget 


2 


o 


Item de e.t 


3 


6 


De t. Ricardi atte Heyehome 


II 


6- 


A Dorso. 






De t. Luce Marty n 


4 


o 


— Johannis de Heyehome 


4 


4f 


— Johannis le Bonde 


6 


o 


— Ricardi Longe 


3 


o 


— Johannis le Taverner 


3 


0 


— Johannis Forestarii 


3 


o 


— Roberti le Crokere 


3 




— Thome Sely 


6 


a 



The Tallage of 6 Edward II. 269 





£ s - 


d. 


De t. Johannis Morkoke , 


8 


0 


— johannis de Kerdife 


2 


0 


De duabus shopis de Henrico de Framptone 


4 


0 


De t. pred. Henrici 


2 


8 


De duabus shopis Sancti Bartholomei 


5 


0 


De t. Ricardi Rood 


6 


0 


— Nicholai de Rouberou 


13 


4 


De quatuor shopis Willielmi Pax 


12 


0 


De t. Priorisse de Bradenestoke 


8 


0 


De duabus shopis ibidem ,. 


2 


0 


De t. Ricardi de Welles 


7 


0 


De duabus shopis Sancti Laurentii 


... ... 5 


8 


De t. Roberti le Crokere 


4 


0 


— Abbatis de Stanleye 


5 


4 


De una shopa Prioris Kalendariorum 


2 


0 


De t. Thome Wytynge 


2 


8 


— Margarete Coce 


4 


0 


De i shopa ib 


2 


8 


De curtilagio Willielmi de Medewelle 


3 


0 


— Johannis Fraunceys 


2 


0 


— Johannis Tollere 


1 


0 


— Matilde Chambre 


2 


0 


— Ade de Templo 


, 2 


0 


— Roberti de Dene 


2 


0 



Summa £1 10 2 

Summa Totalis ... £3 8 9 



SUBSIDY ROLL 1 EDW. III. 

The Subsidy Roll 1 Edw. III. runs in the form simply of a 
list of names, and the tax paid by each person named. As 
of the two forms, assessment and tax, in the Tallage Roll 
6 Edw. II., the assessment alone has been printed, it has 
been thought advisable, for the purpose of readier comparison, 
to transform the values of the separate items of taxation in 
the Subsidy Roll into the equivalent amounts of assessment. 
Shillings therefore have been turned into pounds, and the two 
rolls as printed both give assessment values. The Christian 
names therefore had to be transformed from the Latin 
ablative case, as the form ran " de Willielmo Hayl xijs." and 
they are here printed as ordinary English names, 

19 * 



270 



Transactions for the Year 1894-95. 



EXCHEQUER LAY SUBSIDIES GLOUC. — 

Taxacio vicesime Burgomm et antiquomm dominicorum domini Regis 
in comitatu Gloucestrie facta per Willielmum Tracy et Robertum 
de A stone a.r.r. Edwardi tertii post conquestum primo. 

The Roll begins on M. 1 — Villa Gloucestrie. 

, . , . Villa . Bristollie. 

M. 1. Dors. 

Quart erium de Radeclyve. 





£ 


s. 


d. 


William rlayJ , 


12 


0 


0 


Roger Stapeltone 


3 


0 


0 


Robert Westbury 


*•• •'• u 


0 


0 


KoDert btapeitone 


5 


0 


0 


William Thornbury ... ... 


••• ••• 5 


0 


0 


Eobert Gerynge ... 


1 


0 


0 


Thomas atte Hulle 


... 8 


0 


0 


John Kerdyfe 


3 


0 


0 


Adam Welyshote 


4 


0 


0 


Eborard Fraunceys 


... 20 


0 


"O" 


John Northerne , ... 


8 


0 


0 


William de Londone 


••• 3 


0 


0 


John de Keynesham 


43 


0 


0 


Roger Teslare •• : 


16 


0 


0 


William Edward 


2 


0 


0 


Agnes Curteys 


0 

> ... 0 


0 


0 


William Bruges ,. ; 


2 


0 


0 


John Wermenstre 


2 


0 


0 


Cristina Mauduyt 


4 


0 


0 


John Wycombe 


6 


0 


0 


John Marsfeld ... 


••• 7 


0 


0 


Roger Bonde 


... 5 


0 


0 


William le Veltare 


3 


0 


0 


William atte Forde ... .... 


12 


0 


0 


Robert Hayl . ... 


1 


0 


0 


John de Okyntone 


4 


0 


0 


John le Veltare 


... ... ... 10 


0 


0 


John Bonde 


2 


0 


0 


Geoffry le Veltare ... ... 


••■ 3 


0 


0 


Philip le Webbe 


4 


0 


0- 


John le Botiller ... ... 


••• 4 


0 


0 


Robert Cameleye ... ... _ ... 


■•• * 4 


0 


0 


Robert. Wyldemersshe 


... ... .... ... ... 3 


0 


0 


Robert le Taillur ... ... ... - 


••• • ••• 4 


0 


0 



The Tallage of 6 Edward II. 



271 





£ 


s. 


d. 


Roger Stanes ... ... 


1 


0 


0 


John Mynty -. 


.. 2 


0 


0 


Edward atte Doghe ... 


.. 1 


0 


0 


Robert le Mareschal ... 


1 


0 


0 


John Broun ... 


1 


0 


0 


Thomas Uppehulle 


.. ... . 6 


0 


0 


John Dykare 


2 


0 


0 


Mereys de Welles 


6 


!3 


4 


John Frye 


1 


0 


0 


Thomas le Veltare 


.. 2 


0 


0 


Roger Pebbelewe ... ... 


., ... 8 


0 


0 


Nicholas de Pridie 


.. ••• 4 


0 


0 


Richard Plomer 


.... ... 3 


0 


0 


Richard de Stoke 


4 


0 


0 


Robert Fenel 


.. ... 2 


0 


0 


John Welysshote -. 


4 


0 


0 


Richard Heyne ... 


4 


0 


0 


Walter Malleden 


1 


0 


0 


Margaret Rondulphe 


••• 4 


0 


0 


John at Mersshe ... 


* ••• 3 


0 


0 


Hugh le Tylare 


1 


0 


0 


Richard Leyr 


8 


0 


0 


Richeman de Welles 


• • 40 


0 


0 


John Hugges 


4 


0 


0 


John Methelan 


.. ... 7 


0 


0 


Robert Muleward 


4 


0 


0 


Philip Standisshe 


.. 8 


0 


0 


William Wassheman ... 


2 


0 


0 


Simon Webbe 


... 4 


0 


0 


Walter de Welles ... ... ... 


14 


0 


0 


Henry de Welles 


... ••• ••• 3 


0 


0 


Thomas Hendy 


■ •" ••• 5 


0 


0 


Robert le Heyward 


2 


0 


0 


Richard Bel ... ... 


.. 6 


0 


0 


Walter Scire ... 


4 


0 


0 


Adam Irisshe 


2 


0 


0 


William x de Handlesettare 


2 


0 


0 


Henry le Shipman , 


20 


0 


0 


John Coke 


.. ... 6 


0 


0 


Walter Prentiz 


14 


0 


0 


John Milton ... 


4 


0 


0 


William Brid ... "... ... 


3 


0 


0 


John atte Pole 


5 


0 


0 


Robert Wryngtbne 


... 6 


0 


0 


Roger Coke ... ... ... ... 


. ... 3 


0 


0 


William Eweyn 


- ... 4 


0 


0 



1 A clerical err.or doubtless for " le. 



272 Transactions for the Year 1894-95. 





£ 


s. 


d. 


Robert Page ... ... ... ... ... ...-•»... ... ... 


. 6 


0 


0 


Gilbert Pekerel <• 


• 3 


0 


0 


Walter atte Rigge ... • 


1 


0 


0 


Robert Spakstone 


• 3 


0 


0 


John de Coumbhaweye , 


. 10 


0 


0 


William Fort ... ... 


1 


0 


0 


Summa xx e dicti quarterii de la Radeclyve £24 14 i 


5 






William de Cumptone Subtaxator ... 


8 


0 


0 


Thomas Dygel — 


. 8 


0 


0 


John le Prey our — 


. 8 


0 


0 


William Warman — ... 


. 6 


0 


0 


John de Dene — 


2 


0 


0 


Hugh le Proute — 


10 


0 


0 



Summa £2 2 o 

Summa xx e dicti quarterii de la Radeclyve 

cum taxa subtaxator um £26 16 8 



Quarterium Omnium Sanctorum. . dkte Ville Bristollie. 





£ s. d. 


Henry le Taillur ... 


200 


Robert Cocus • . 


100 


Richard Bryan ... 


1 10 0 


John de Stoke ... 


1 10 0 


Thomas le Sullare 1 ... ... ... . 


..' 5 ° 0 


Roger le Gurdlare ... ... ... . 


1 0 0 


Margaret de Stapeltone 


1 13 4 


John le Hunte 


.. 300 


William Reynald ... "'. 


500 


Reginald Leke 


300 


Thomas Lammer 


600 


Stephen le Spycere 


13 0 0 


Walter Corneke 


400 


Thomas de Romeseye ... ... . 


3 0 0 


John Cory 


600 


William de Wyghte 


100 


Robert de Horhurst 


100 


William Cornwaleys 




Thomas de London ... ... ... . 




John Porsere 




William Gurdlare ... 




John Draper ... . 




Thomas Wath ... 




Nicholas le Draper ... ' ... . 




Hu S h \ illegible 

Edward J 4 ... 





The Tallage of 6 Edward II. 273 





£ 


s. d. 


xienry i en . . . iur 






John Horncastel ... ... 


... • ... 15 


0 0 


William le Sullare 







Richard de Standisshe ... 


1 


0 0 


John le Crokkare 


3 


0 0 


M. 2. 






Robert atte Tour ... 


1 


0 0 


Richard de Panes 


5 


0 0 


Walter Writhe Irmongere 


1 


0 0 


Thomas Ponchard ... 


5 


0 0 


John Pecoke ... 


1 


0 0 


John le Sullare 


— ... 3 


0 0 


Robert Snow ... ... 


5 


0 0 


William le Taillor ... 


2 


0 0 


Robert Longeforde ... 


5 


0 0 


John atte Fisshewere ... 


1 


10 0 


John Pewtrer 


8 


0 0 


Simon le Taillor 


2 


0 0 


John Colpeke 


2 


. 0 0 


Philip le Wodeward 


5 


0 0 


Lucy de Cheseberghe 


15 


0 0 


Roger de Wodehulle „. ... 


7 


0 0 


Thomas Russel 


5 


0 0 


Thomas de Chyselberghe 


10 


0 0 


Richard Writhe * 


25 


0 0 


Matilda Russel 


15 


0 0 


John Hopere 


... 2 


0 0 


Robert Frelond 


3 


0 0 


John Fichet 


2 


0 0 


John de Derby 


5 


0 0 


Richard Blanket 


7 


0 0 


Geoffry Methelan 


2 


0 0 


John Dounynge 


2 


0 0 


William Babey ... 


1 


0 0 


W 7 alter Taillor 


4 


0 0 


Roger Breware 


1 


10 0 


Robert Passour 


, , 10 


0 0 


Philip de Camulle ... ... 


.... 1 


0 0 


Robert Taillor 


5 


0 0 


Richard Taillour 


1 


0 0 


William Ropere ... 


1 


0 0 


William de Wyrcestre 




15 0 


Richard atte Shoppe 


2 


0 0 


Richard de Wodhulle .. 


••• 7 


0 0 


Adam le Ropere 


1 


0. 0 


Adam Carpenter 


3 


0 0 



274 Transactions for the Year 1894-95. 





t 


g 


d. 


_ ' 

xLaitn Ssnekyn ••»,»•••• •••••• • 




J 5 


c* 


IVlLildl U lVUUClC ••• «.« *•• »•« , «« tlf •*« . , # , 


3 




Q, 


AA7i11iam rip T)prhv 

v v xiiiaiii llc J_/ti i_/ y # t • • t • • ••• «•• ••« • t • ••• 


4 


o 


o 


T?nhprr "Wrvthp 

Iv.UUtl L \ V I y IJ1C , • • ••• ••• ■ . , ••• ... t . , ,,1 , , , ,, v , , , 


5 




o 


Hugh Payn ... 


2 


o 


o 


1 pTi 3 Trl ^nnfarp 

-LvlLvllcllH OUULdlC ••• ... «.« h'i ... ... 








A IpvQnrlpr' rip T-^pfrlpwtrVp 

ii.lCAcLIlU.CI UC JJCI U.CW VAC . ,« i«« in »•« ••• . ♦ , ... 








Inan rip T-TanirnDrfplrlp 






o 


^>inil hp Pnrvp 

jiua uc 1 ui yc ••• ,«« hi t, o 0 - j « « • t • • • ■ • • ••• ••• 








AIipp atfp OItp 








Qnmma w6 rHpti mioff ptii nm nin m Q2n/*frtrnm /* t r\ 
OUlllIlld. aa UlL-ll UUclIlCJ.ll U111111U111 OdllULUI Li III f 1U iy 


c 
o 






Roger Pluphe Subtaxator ... 


2 


o 


o 


Richard de Apperleye — , 


4 


o 


o 


Simon de Ely — 


5 


o 


o 


Summa £0 11 0 








Summa xx e dicti quarterii omnium Sancto- 








rum cum taxa subtaxatorum ... ... £17 10 8 








QucivteviuMi Saticti A^udocni dictc Villc Bvistollie. 










t 




d. 


Richard Langeberghe ... .... 


i 


0 


o 


lbd.DC.Ud. OKyXlildlC ... ... ■ 


2 


o 


0 


TV/To rrr&rxT r 1 o \ \ ^ Q 1 1 r^il.' ^> 

lYlctl HCi V Lie V V cili-JKC ... ... ... .... ... ... ... ... ... 








Atrnps Rnnpwallp 

J igii^j XJUiicvvaiJt ... ... ... •■« ... ... ... ... ... ... 


I 






^A/ilKam T^nnrip 

V V 1111CX111 UUllLiU ... ... •«. . . i - . • ■ ... ... ••• 


3 


o 




TVTaro'arpt Hp Rnmpnpvp 

XVXCtl C1CL1 Gl Li "3 lVvllltilty C .•«. ... ... ..« •■. ... ... ... 


4 






Thomas de la Grave > . . . . . . 


i 


o 


O' 


Thomas Pennard ... .... 




o 


O' 


XVUUCIL KJy d.11 ... ■ ... 


2 5 






T n f^-r»H m q n 

1 Willi VJUUillall ... ... ... ... *••■ ... ... . ... . . 


2 






i *~\ 1 o c Hp T? An r\pt*fY h p 
IN lL-llUldb Uc IVUUUcrgliC .... ... .... 








John Mathou .... 


*r 


o 


o 


TnVifi WvQman 

J Willi VVVOlllclll ... a..- ' . . a ... . a . ... ....... .a . . . •** 


IO 


o 


o 


fZ-Pwa qp Hp C^af\r 

vjrci v doc lac v^cli y ... ... ... ... ... < . . . ... ... ••• 


12 


o 


o 


Roger Beauflour ... ... ... . ,, ... - 


5 






William de Clyf =....»..... 


6 


o 


o 


John Reymond ... 








T/-»Vi« Turtle 

jonn i ur tie . =, 








Thomas Loksmythe > , , , «».., ... ■ 








"N'lr^Vinl a q Hp Ovnnisi . 

IN ICIlL-UciO L1C KJ AWlllCL '..a -.. ... t . . ■ . . a • • . • • a . . 




o 


o 


1 Willi 1VU UCl C . , . ... .a .aa .«»•->..« aaa* ? • • « aaa a . a 1 ... ... 


A 
"r 


o 


o> 


R. atte Walle .... ... ... .... =... 


5 


o 


o 


William Colram ... ... .-, ... 


i 


o 


o 


Peter Riche ... ... 


i 


o 


o 


. . de Axebrugge ... .... ... .... 


4 


o 


o 


; . atte Walle ... .... ... ... 


25 


o 


o 



The Tallage of 6 Edward II. 



Illegible 



Illegible 



leche ... 

Pygon ... 

Turtle ... 

Fraunceys 

Walsshe 

Tumbrel 

Fraunceys 

Methilan 
. . pas 
. . year 
. . hale 

Mariner 
. . deville 

Plomer 
. . Senior 



. Sancti Audoeni ^14 9 6 



£ 

1 

5 
2 
1 
5 

8 

10 
10 
2 

3 
1 
2 
1 
10 
2 
2 

3 
1 
• 1 
10 

25 
20 
2 
1 
1 
3 

£ 
20 

15 
12 



275 
s. d. 



These four last would be the subtaxors, and w 
xx a of the quarter of St. Ewen's would be £17 o 6 



ith them the total of the 



Quavtevium beate Marie in buvgo dicte ville Bristollie. 
(Five lines illegible.) 



Simon Varstal 

Thomas Fourbor ... ... 

Roger Chaundeler 
Richard Sheftebury ... 
Thomas de Haukesbury 
Thomas de Bristletone 



276 Transactions 

Walter Goby 

"William de Kyngestone 

William Medewelle 

David de Haleweye 

William de Stapeltone ... . 

John le Porter 

Robert Wybyndone . 

Elena de Camme 

Nicholas Donstere 

William Newmaystere ... . 

Thomas Lymages 

Roger Ondeslowe 

Johne Chedderne ... . 

Robert Boddebury 

Thomas Tryllyke 

Thomas Broun 

Thomas Abraham 

Thomas de Rouberghe ... 

John Jolyfe 

John Chaloner 

John Wylmynge 

Nicholas Modewelle 

John Valete 

William Stevene 

William Whyte 

Stephen Pridie 

William Reynald 

Roger Peutrer 

Robert Cotiler 

William de Wynchestre ... . 

Henry de Fromptone 

Roger de Fromptone 

John Hunte 

Walter Colemon 

Adam Girdlare 

William Randulphe 

Richard Multone 

John Forthrugge 

Walter Latham 

Thomas Trepyn 

Roger Westram 

John Vysshe ... . 

John Curteys ... 

John Douse 

Walter Barbour ... .... ... . 

John Turtle •. 

William Deepinge . .... ... . 



for the Year 1894-95. 

£ s; ; d 

• 4* o 

. • I' o» 

I* O 

• I* O 

. ... T O 

• 4' * 

. ... I - o 

. ... 2 O 

. ... ... I o 

... 20 • o 

... ... -10 

3 ° 

. ... 6 o 

1 o 

... -10 

I o 

. ••• 4 0 

4 0 

1 o 

. I o 

. ... I 10 

5 o 

1 10 

. ... I o 

4 9 

1 o 

I o 

. i ... 2 0 

10 o 

13 6 

20 o 

2 O 

... 3 o 

10 

I o 

3 o 

2 o 

I o 

I o 

6 o 

I o 

. ... I o 

. I o 

. ... ... ■ 6 13 

. ... ... .., 1 b 

• ... • ... 3 o 

10 



The Tallage of 6 Edward II. 

Hugh de Langebrugge ... ..• 

William Bakere ... ... . 

Henry Chaloner ... ... . 

John Romeseye ... .,• ... 

Summa dicti quarterii beate Marie ... £10 c 

John Regnald Subtaxator ... 

Robert Halewy — ... 

Roger de Apperleye — 

Summa ... 13s. od. 
Summa xx e dicti quarterii beate Marie cum 

taxa subtaxatorum ... ;.. ... £10 



£ s. 

6 13 



277 
d. 



13 2 



Quavtevium Sancte Tnnitatis dicte ville Bristollie. 



£ s. d. 



Philip Gurdlare ... ... 

John Leghe 

Elias Averey 

Robert Bremel 

Thomas de Salopia 

Milo Dosy 

Alice Clere ... 

Peter Mountstevene ... 

Margery Masoun 

John Pigaz 

John de Axebrugge 
William le Taverner .. 

Adam atte Boure 

Henry de Berkele 
Edith atte Markete ... 

Thomas Tybaud 

David Tymbresberghe 

Walter de Purie 

Robert Gurdlare 

Thomas Shepherde 

Richard Passour 

Walter Coce 

Richard Deveneysshe ... 

Roger Dowelle 

Thomas Rosselyn 
Walter de Tokyntone ... 
Eichard Beauflour 

Robert Leof 

Michael Whyttawyare 

John Bat 

John de Boyfelde 

John Delrobe 



5 
4 

8 

5 
15 
3 
5 
6 
2 

5 
2 
2 
2 
1 
3 
5 
4 
6 
1 
1 
1 

5 
2 

7 
2 
2 
3 
3 
4 
3 
2 
1 



278 



Transactions for the Year 1894-95, 



Simon de Stoke 
Edith la Hunte 
John Hendybody 
Richard atte Heyhome 
Thomas Fynet 
Thomas Swetynge 
Robert le Mareschal 
Florence 1 de Stoke 
Robert Heybone 
Richard Cartere 
Robert Tylare 
Adam Sawyare 
John Leche ... 
Simon de Apperleghe 

Summa xx e dicti quarterii Sancte Trinitatis... £y 
Robert Tumbrel Subtaxator 
John Morcoke — ... ... 

John de Wydyhulle — 

Walter Hervy — 

Summa ... 16s. od. 

Summa xx e dicti quarterii Sancte Trinitatis 

cum taxa subtaxatorum ... ... ... ... £8 11 

Summa xx e tocius ville Bristollie cum taxa 

subtaxatorum £%o 13 



£ 
2 
2 
1 

2 
2 
2 
2 
1 

5 
10 
2 
2 
1 



Endorsement. — Hos xxviij rotulos miserunt hie Willielmus Tracy et 
Robertus de Aston Taxatores et Collectores xx e Regi a laicis concesse in 
comitatu Gloucestrie sub sigillis suis per manus Petri de Eggesworthe 
liberatos xv die Junii anno regno Regis Edwardi tercii post conquestum 
secundo. 

1 A man's name. Florencius. 



HARESFIELD : MANORS AND CHURCH. 



By the Rev. J. M ELL AND HALL, M.A., 
Rector of Harescombe. 

Haresfield is a parish in Whitstone Hundred, in the County 
of Gloucester, situated partly in the valley of the Severn, 
and partly in the combes and on outlying spurs of the 
Cotteswold Hills. It rises in elevation, above the sea level, 
from 50 feet, at Park End Farm, to 800 feet, the height of 
the ancient British Camp which crowns the hill to the south- 
east. Bounded on the west by Longney, on the east by 
Painswick, on the south by Standish, and on the north by 
Hardwicke, Colthrop and Harescombe, it is nearly four 
miles in length, with an average breadth of one mile. 

The area in 1816 (the date of the Enclosure Award) was 
estimated at 2940 acres 3 roods 36 perches, divided into three 
tythings, or townships, viz. : Haresfield (or Middle Division), 
Harescombe, and Park End. By the operation of the 
" Divided Parishes " Act, however, the Harescombe tything 
has been added to the parish of that name, whilst the hamlet 
of Colthrop, formerly in Standish parish, is included in that 
of Haresfield, which accordingly now has an area of 2835 
acres 3 roods, with a rateable value of ^"9201 15s. 

Foremost among the antiquities of the parish of Hares- 
field must be placed the ancient British Camp, formerly 
known as the Eastbury, but latterly as Haresfield Beacon, 
crowning the summit of the hill. This camp conforms to 
the irregular shape of the ground, and is defended on two 
sides by steep escarpments. It extends for nearly a thousand 
yards from the Beacon at the western end to the Bulwarks 
on Broadborough Green ; these consisted of a bank eighteen 



28o 



Transactions for the Year 1894-95. 



feet in height from the bottom of the ditch ; the total area 
enclosed is stated to be 44 acres. A portion of this camp 
(about a third of the original area) was afterwards occupied 
by the Romans, who, not having wives, children and cattle 
with them, did not require so large a space, and threw up a 
strong bank thirty feet high four hundred yards from the 
west end, with four gates as usual. Here are two never- 
failing springs of water, which would amply suffice for their 
needs. The camp occupies a commanding position, and its 
highest point is, as already mentioned, 800 feet above the 
level of the sea. It is described in an interesting "Account 
of a Chain of Ancient Fortresses extending through the South- 
west of Gloucestershire," by Thos. J. Lloyd Baker, Esq., 
F.S.A., published in 1819 (Archaologia, xix.). 

A crock containing nearly 3000 Roman coins was found 
in 1837 inside the southern gate. These are all with one 
exception [in memory of Claudius II. (Gothiens)] of the 
Constantine type, and range from Constantine the Great, 
a.d. 306-37, to Constantius, a.d. 337-61 : the date of the 
majority, however, may be given as circa 337. They do not 
appear to have been in circulation, as they are in Mint 
condition. 

In the combe below, on the north-eastern side of Broad- 
borough Green, now known as the hamlet of Stocking, the 
remains of a Roman villa (probably the residence of one of 
the chief officers of their army) were discovered. Large 
numbers of tesserae, two columns, roof-tiles, flue-tiles, pottery 
and coloured plaster were found, together with one silver 
coin of Theodosius, circa a.d. 376. 1 For many years the 
remains of this villa were used, it is said, to mend the roads 
of this secluded spot. It was situated by the side of Daniel's 
Brook, near a field known as " Rudge Dowler," and the 
existing boundary fence is stated to be the actual wall of the 
villa. 

On the north side of the church, and adjoining the church- 
yard, is a very striking entrenchment, the work probably of 
1 Of. Arch. Handbook (Witts), pp. 23, 62. 



Haresfield : Manors and Church. 



281 



the Saxon or the Dane. It consists of a mount somewhat in 
the shape of a horse-shoe, standing nearly ten feet above the 
level of the adjoining land, measuring 78 yards from north to 
south, and 68 yards from east to west. This mound (now 
used as a garden) is surrounded by a moat or ditch 18 feet 
wide and still nine feet deep. In the centre of the mound is 
a level platform about thirty-five yards square, standing two 
feet six inches high, and between this central platform and 
the main moat, running parallel with the latter, is a slight 
ditch and bank, which was probably surmounted by a stock- 
ade, the whole work forming a strong vale fort very similar 
to that of Leckhampton, near Cheltenham. A great authority 1 
states: " These works thrown up in England in the ninth 
and tenth centuries are seldom if ever rectangular. First 
was cast up a truncated cone of earth standing at its natural 
slope from twelve to even fifty or sixty feet in height. This 
mound, £ motte ' or ' burrh,' the ' mota ' of our records, was 
formed from the contents of a broad and deep circumscribing 
ditch." It seems to have been a common practice from an 
early period, certainly from the ninth century, in constructing 
a stronghold, to place it upon the summit of a mound. On 
this we have only to imagine a central timber house built of 
half-trunks of trees set upright between two walling pieces 
at the top and bottom, like the old church of Greensted, 
Essex, — with a close paling along the edge of the table top, 
perhaps a second line at the base, and a third along the outer 
edge of the ditch, with a bridge of planks, and huts of 
"wattle and dab" or timber within the enclosures, — and we 
shall have a very fair idea of a fortified dwelling of a thane 
or franklin in England, or of the corresponding classes in 
Normandy from the eighth or ninth centuries down to the 
date of the Norman invasion. 

It has been remarked that these moated mounds, the site of 
the " maison seigneuriale," are usually near the parish church. 
This might be expected, since the parish like the manor was 
a private estate, and the church was originally provided by 
1 Clark, Mediceval Military Architecture. 



1282 Transactions for the Year 1894-95. 

the lord for the accommodation of his tenants and his own 
family. 

In the Roman de Ron : — 

" Hubert de Rie est a sa porte 
Entre le mostier 1 et sa mote." 

THE DOMESDAY SURVEY. 

Turning to Domesday Book (1085), we have the following 
record : — 

" Terra Regis." 

" In Dudstan Hundred a certain thane Edmar held three 
manors, Hersefel and Athelai (Hatherley) and Sanher (Sand- 
hurst). This man could give and sell his land as he willed 
to do ; it was rated at two hides. In demesne there were 
eight plough tillages, four villeins, four borders, and thirty 
serfs with five ploughs, with meadow sufficient for the 
ploughs." " These (together with Hersecome and Brostorp) 
Earl Harold took away (abstulif) after the death of King 
Edward." 

In a subsequent entry : " This Durand (Sheriff of Glou- 
cester) holds in Hersefel seven hides paying gheld. In 
Witestan Hundred Godric and Edric, two brothers, held 
them for two manors, and they were able to go whither they 
would (potemnt ire quo volehant). In demesne are three plough 
tillages, nine villeins, four borders, with nine ploughs. 
There are also four serfs and five potters (figuli), paying 
forty-three pence. There is a wood half a league in length 
and three-quarters in breadth ; it is, and was, worth six 
pounds." 

It will be noticed that three manors are mentioned in the 
Survey ; it would appear, however, that Edmar's manor 
would be probably absorbed in Durand's, from whom Hares- 
field, as a whole, passed to the celebrated Milo FitzWalter 
the Constable, created Earl of Hereford by the Empress 
Matilda, whose cause he so strenuously upheld. He died on 
1 Here "mostier " is the church. 



Haresfield : Manors and Church. 283 



Christmas Eve, 1143, 1 being accidentally shot by an arrow 
whilst hunting in the forest. 

Earl Milo had five sons, Roger, Earl of Hereford, Walter, 
Henry, Mahel and William, who appear (except possibly the 
last named) to have successively held the great office of 
■" Constable of the King," or " of England." The third of 
these, Henry de Hereford, gave in the year 1161 the church 
of " Harsfeld " and the church of " Caldicote " to the Priory 
of Lanthony (founded by Milo in 1137) in pure and perpetual 
alms, which gift Roger, Bishop of Worcester (the Lanthony 
Register tells us) confirmed at the instance of the said lord 
Henry, and fortified with his seal. This is the first mention, 
as we believe, made of the church of Haresfield, although 
we may conclude that many existed in the County of Glou- 
cester at the Domesday Survey which are not recorded 
therein. Henry de Hereford was treacherously murdered by 
the Welsh previously to the year 1175, in which year William 
de Braose, junior, is said to have slaughtered many in revenge 
for his uncle's death at Abergavenny Castle. His wife was 
Ysabel : " Habet Ysabel uxor Henrici de Hereford v. Mil. in 
dotem. Hos habet eciam feofatos de dominiis suis post 
mortem Henrici Regis quos pater suus et fratres feodaverunt ; 
Willelmus de Cernai, Willelmus Torel, Helyas de Kokerel, 
Rogerus filius Alani, Ricardus Murdac." 

All the sons of Earl Milo having died without issue 
(Maihel, the last of the brothers, being killed before the end 
of the first year of his succession by a stone which fell from 
the principal tower of Brynllys Castle on the occasion of a 
fire whilst he was on a visit to Walter de Clifford ; Giraldus 
Camb. speaks of him as a cruel persecutor of David, Bishop 
of St. David's, although the chartulary of the Priory of St. 
John the Evangelist, of Brecon, contains his confirmation of 
the gifts of his ancestors and their men to that house), their 

1 "In vigilia natalis Domini, Anno Domini MCXLIII." — Book of 
Lanthony. 

"1143. Comes Hereford Milo, 9 Kal. Jan. sagitta, occisus obiit. " — 
Book of Brading. 

20 

Vol. XIX. 



284 Transactions for the Year 1894-95. 

vast possessions in England and Wales came to their three 
sisters as co-heiresses : Margaret, Berta and Lucy. Of these, 
Margaret married Humphrey de Bohun, Sewer to Henry II. ; 
Berta, William de Braose ; and Lucy, Herbert FitzHerbert. 

When the partition of their inheritance was made, these 
manors of Haresfield were divided between the Lady 
Margaret de Bohun and the Lady Lucy FitzHerbert. 1 

I.— MANOR OF DE BOHUN. 
The chartulary of the Abbey of St. Peter, Gloucester, 
among the donations to the monastery, states that Roger, 
Earl of Plereford, when he became a monk at Gloucester, 
gave to the church there " centum solidatas terras in Her- 
fordschire " ; it also contains a grant by Walter de Hereford, 
" Constable of the King," of land in exchange for this, 2 viz., 
" Sex virgatas terras in Harsefeld, liberas et quietas ab omni 
servicio seculari — quatuor videlicet in Hersecumbe, et duas 
secus viam de Bristoll juxta parcum." This exchange was 
made in the time of Abbot Hameline (a.d. 1148 — 1179). 

We meet with few records of Other lands acquired by the 
monastery in this parish, but they are referred to in the 
following charters : — 

" Margerie de Boun, Countess of Hereford, grants to God 
and S. Peter, and the Abbot and Convent of Gloucester, in 
free alms, the tenement of Robert FitzOrgan in Hersfeld, 
free, &c, of Denegeld, hidage, and other regal services, 
which she has in her demesne of Hersfeld. 

"Witnesses, Humphrey the Chaplain. 

" Roger FitzAlan (living in 1181). 

" Nicholas de St. Brigida. 

" Nicholas Avenell, and others." 

1 That other manors were dependent upon these seems certain from 
an inquisition 1 Hen. V., which speaks of the manors of Moreton Valence, 
and Whaddon, held of the lord the King, as Earl of Hereford, as of his 
manor of Harsfild, of the inheritance of Gilbert Talbot, knight, son and 
heir of Rich. Talbot and Ankareta his wife, in her dower, after the death 
of the said Richard her husband, reversion to Gilbert. 

2 Vol. i., p. 331, Rolls edition. 



Haresfield : Manors and Church. 285 

A question having arisen concerning a certain parcel of 
meadow, called " Upmede," between Humphrey, Earl of 
Hereford and Essex, and the Almoner of St. Peter's, Glou- 
cester, who claimed the meadow, it was settled by a writing 
of the Earl, in which it was agreed that though after the 
cutting of the hay the Almoner could have no enclosure, and 
that this was usually done by the Feast of the Assumption 
B.V.M., yet, that in the event of late seasons, the meadow 
should not become " common " until after the octave of the 
said feast. This writing was signed and sealed in two parts 
—one to remain with the Almoner ; the other, signed by him, 
with the Earl's bailiffs. Witnesses : " the lord Henry de 
Boun, my son," and Master Giles, the Treasurer of Hereford, 
and others. 

" Humphrey de Boun, son of Henry de Boun, Earl of 
Hereford, for self and heirs, ancestors and successors, grants 
(so far as appertains to him) a way, between his lands, leading 
from Little Haresfeld to Herdewike, of a certain breadth, so 
that chariots and wagons may pass without impediment ; 
the monks to make a causeway and a bridge at their own 
expense sufficient for such traffic. Witnesses : Turstin Dis- 
pensator, 1 Nicholas de St. Brigida, and others." 

Similar charters respecting this road are given to the 
monks by Nicolas de St. Brigida, Peter de Aula Regis, and 
Reginald FitzPeter. Witnessed by Turstin Dispensator, 
Henry le Rous, knight, Rich, de Cromhale, then sheriff of 
Gloucester, Will, de la Mare, knight, and others. 

Lands called " Belrepeir " appear to have been held by 
the Abbey of St. Peter, Gloucester, before the time of Abbot 
Henry Foliot (1228 — 43), when the Abbey grants " to William 
de Parco and his heirs the land which was Godebert's of 
Harsfeld, which Roger de Tykeham held of us, to be held 
of us in fee and inheritance, rendering five shillings and 
' servitium regale.' " 2 

1 " Thurstanus despenser tenet centum solidat, terrae per seriantiam 
quod sit dispensator domini Regis." Placita Coron. de Com. Glouc' a.d. 1221. 
5 Hen. III. (Maitland), p. 50. 2 Cart. Mon. S. Petri. CXIV. 

20 * 



286 Transactions for the Year 1894-95. 

In 1397 (20 Rich. II.) Sir Almeric Boteler died seised of 
the manor of Park End and of a furlong called " Beaure- 
peyre," in Harsfeld, held of the Abbey of Gloucester by 
serjeanty ; and later a descendant of the same name, dying, 
left two daughters co-heiresses, viz. : Elizabeth, who married 
John Trye, Esq., and inherited the estate at Park Court, 
Hardwick; and Isabel, who marrying John Kenne, received 
the hamlet of Park End as part of her portion. 

In Escheat 16 Hen. VI., John Kenne dies seised of 56 
acres here and in Hardwick (as heir of Boteler) held of the 
Abbey of Gloucester and Giles Brugge (Robert, son of John, 
son of this John, heir). 1 He was also, it seems, seised of 50 
acres arable, 24 acres pasture and 6 acres meadow in Hares- 
field. Fifteen years subsequently Robert Kenn is mentioned 
as "lord of Beaurepaire," in this parish. 2 

The De Bohuns were a noble race, brave in war, earnestly 
contending for the liberties of their countrymen, ever fearless 
of the royal displeasure. We find one of them opposing 
John, that worst of kings, shewn by a writ on the Close 
Rolls (12 1 6) addressed to the Sheriff of Gloucester, com- 
manding him to allow Ralph Musard to have in peace a 
hundred solidates of land which William Marshall assigned 
to him out of the lands of Humphrey, Earl of Hereford, in 
" Harsefeld." And in 4 Hen. III. the Sheriff is to return 
without delay to William Briwere three and a half marcs 
received for the herbage of the park of Harsfeld, in his 
custody. 

This earl died on pilgrimage in 1220, 3 and when the news 
reached England his lands were committed to the care of 
William Briwer, with the exception of the Manor of Wicke- 
say (Oaksey), assigned for the support of the widow till her 
son Humphrey could give her dower, and also excepting her 
marriage portion in the Manor of Witehurst, which Geoffrey 

1 Inq. pm. 16 Hen, VI., No. 37. Fosbrooke, I. p. 300. 
2 31 Hen. VI., 1453. 
3 Cf. " Testa de Nevill." Sir Hen. Barkley. {G. and B. Arch. Trans. 
XIII.; p. 303.) 



Haresfield: Manors and Church. 



287 



FitzPeter, her father, gave to the Earl of Hereford on his 
marriage with his " said daughter Matilda." 1 

His son Humphrey, who succeeded him in the earldom, 
married for his second wife, Maud of Avenbury, 2 a member 
of a family connected with that of Le Rus, or Rous, lords of 
Harescombe and Alansmore ; by her he had, as Dugdale 
tells us, two sons, viz. : the lord John de Bohun of Hares- 
field, and the lord Edmund de Bohun. She died in Gascony 
on the Eve of St. John, 1273, and sixteen years afterwards 
her eldest son caused her bones to be brought to England, 
where they were interred with great solemnity in the choir of 
the church of Lanthony, near to the body of Earl Humphrey, 
her husband, on the Festival of St. Kyneburg the Virgin, 
a.d. 1290. 

The " Placita de quo Warranto " Rolls, 1 5 Edw. I. (1287), 
state that "John de Boun claimed view of frank pledge, in- 
fangthef, weyf, strays, and free warren, in his manors of 
Hasefeld, Elmor and Harescombe." He pleads that Elmor 
and Harescombe are members of the manor of Haresfield, 
that Milo, Earl of Hereford, was seised of royal franchises 
there, and had three daughters, of whom the eldest was 
seised of a third part of the manor, &c, and that Humphrey 
de Bohun, her son and heir, gave to the said John this third 
part of the said manor, together with view of frank pledge 
and other liberties, and free warren; and that he has here 
gallows and tumbrel and judicial inquests : that they pay 
no dues to the lord the King by the hand of the sheriff, and 
that inquests are not held in the presence of the bailiffs of 
the lord the King. 

William Inge, the King's attorney, pleads that John is not 
fully seised of view of frank pledge, and that John Fitz 

1 " Eodem anno obiit Henricus de Bohun Comes Herefordiensis et 
Saerus de Quenci Comes Wyntonrse versus Jerusalem." — Annates Londini: . 

2 " Humfredus de Bohun, Comes quintus de Hereford, desponsaverat 
etiam alteram mulierem dictam Matilda de Avenbury, de qua procreavit 
dominum Johannem de Bohun dominum de Hersefeld, fratrem domini 
Edmundi de Bohun."— Dugdale II. 68. 



288 Transactions for the Year 1894-95. 

Reginald has the third part of the issues thereof. The" 
jurors find that John FitzReginald has received nothing of 
these, and that John de Boun is fully seised of the privi- 
leges claimed in his manor of Heresfield. 

This Sir John de Bohun, who is said to have taken part 
with the Barons against the King, " made his peace 50 Hen. 
III." He died 20 Edw. I. (1292), as shewn by the inquisition 
taken at Harsefeld, on Friday next before the Feast of St. 
Matthew the Apostle : jurors, Thos. Kecke, Will. Bisset, 
Ric» Organ, John Odierne, Henr. le ffremon, Edmund de 
Thornhulle, Will, de Pydesmore, Tho. Bee, Roger the Cook, 
Walter Carpenter, Mylo de Stok, Rog. de Minsterworth ; 
who say on their oath that John de Bohun held no lands in 
the County of Gloucester of the lord the king, in capite, but 
on the day on which he died he held the manor of Harse- 
feld of the lord Humphrey de Bohun, Earl of Hereford and 
Essex, by the service of on.e clove of gillyflower at the Feast 
of St. Michael the Archangel, for all services and secular 
demands in soccage .... and they say that the said 
manor is worth in all issues ^33 10s. 8d., and that Henry de 
Bohun, son of John, is the nearest heir, and of the age of 15 
years. 

This Sir John de Bohun was permitted to fulfil the im- 
portant duties of " the Constable of England" for his 
nephew Humphrey de Bohun, Earl of Hereford, who by the 
king's licence remained in the parts of Brecknock, " et facit 
officium constabularii, per Johannem de Bohun avunculum 
cum Rege." 1 

This was the Earl Humphrey, Constable of England (at 
that time not more than twenty-five years of age), of whom 
mention is made in the " Roll of Karlaverock, containing 
Banners and Shields of the Knights in Arms at the Siege of 
July 10, 1300": the earliest roll of Arms we possess: in 
1302, he married the King's daughter, Elizabeth, widow of 
the Count of Holland : — 

1 Rolls of Pari., 10 Edw. I., 1282. Rhuddlan, Aug. 2. Sunday 
Morrow of St. Peter and Vincula. 



Haresfield : Manors and Church. 



289 



" Ses compaigns fu ki Conestables 
Joefnes horns, riches e mettables, 
Ki Quens estoit de Herefort ; 
Baniere ont de Inde cendal fort 
O une blanche bendelee, 
De deus costices entrealee 
De or fin, dont au dehors asis 
Ot en rampant lyonceaus sis." 

Translation : 

" His (Hugh de Lacy, Earl of Lincoln) companion was 
the Constable, a young man rich and elegant, who was Earl 
of Hereford : he had a banner of deep blue silk, with a white 
bend, between two cottices, of fine gold, on the outside of 
which he had six lioncels rampant." 

He joined the party of Thomas, Earl of Lancaster, was 
present at the beheading of Piers Gaveston, near Warwick, 
acted zealously with his party against the Despensers, and 
was killed at the battle of Boroughbridge, March 16, 1322. 
For his Will, and Inventory of effects, vide Avchceol. Journal, 
ii., pp. 338-349- 

How long the manor was held by Henry de Bohun does 
not appear, but it would seem that he was succeeded by 
another Sir John de Bohun, who was living in 1317 (as we 
learn from an Inquis. Ad. Quod 10 Edw. II., No. 98) and in 
1327 when he paid as subsidy in the parish of Haresfield. 
xs. viijd. 

In 13 18 he is mentioned in the Register of the Bishop of 
Worcester (Cobham) " Licencia c'cessa dno Joh'i de Bohun 
pro divinis audiendis in capell' sua." 

Thomas, by divine permission, Bishop of Worcester, to 
our beloved in Christ, the lord John de Bohun, greeting, &c, ; 

" . . . Ut, in capella tua in manerio tuo infra p'och' 
eccles' de Harsffeld in nost' Dioc' situata tibi . . . valeas 
divina facere celebrari." 

Given at York 6 November (13 18) 1 

1 Reg. Cobham, fol. 11. 



2go Transactions for the Year 1894-95. 

Henry de Bohun, on the eve of the battle of Bannock- 
burn, as the van of the army approached Stirling under the 
command of the Earls of Gloucester and Hereford, perceiv- 
ing a body of Scots at the side of a wood, advanced against 
them with his Welsh followers, and was drawn into ambush 
by Robert de Brus, who, engaging in single combat with 
Bohun, cleft his skull with his battle-axe. Henry de Bohun 
was a distinguished knight, and Brus's followers hailed his 
prowess as an omen of victory. 

His successor, we gather from the following, was Edmonde 
de Bohun Chivaler. 

Pedes Fin. No. 214. 17 Edw, III. (1344). Between 
William de Bohun, Earl of Northampton, and Elizabeth 
his wife quer., and 

Edmond de Bohun, chivaler, defor. concerning the Manor 
of Harsffeld, with appurtenances, the said Edmond acknow- 
ledges the manor to be the right of said earl, of the gift of 
said Edmond, and the said earl and Elizabeth have granted 
to the said Edmond the aforesaid manor with appurtenances 
for the life of Edmond, rendering one rose at the Feast of 
the Nativity of St. John Baptist for all services ; after the 
decease of said Edmond, manor to revert to the earl and his 
heirs. 

William de Bohun, Earl of Northampton, and Elizabeth 
his wife, quer : Edmond de Bohun, chivaler, deforc. Edmond 
grants to the said William and Elizabeth the said manor, 
warrants, &c, &c, and for this grant earl and wife have 
given to Edmond £100 sterling. 1 

Dated in the octave of St. Michael the Archangel. 

37 Edw. III. Inquis. p.m. No. 10, taken at Gloucester, 
1364. March 3. Jurors say upon oath that Humphrey de 
Bohun, Earl of Hereford and Essex, defunct, held of the 
lord the king in capite on the day on which he died, the 
manor of Harsffelde, with appurtenances ' per servicium 
essendi constabularius Dni. Regis Anglian ' — it is worth per 
annum in all issues ^"13 6s. 4^d., and in the said County of 
1 No. 215 (Ibid) 1344. 



Haresfield : Manors and Church. 291 



Gloucester. Also the manor of Whytenhurste with appur- 
tenances, by the services aforesaid, worth per annum in all 
issues £21 ys. od. He also held of the lord the king in 
capite by the said service, the Court of the Honour of 
Hereford, held at Gloucester, worth per annum in all issues, 
6s. 8d. x 

He was succeeded by his nephew Humphrey, the son of 
William de Bohun, Earl of Northampton, who died January 
16th, 1372. His will is in the Lambeth Registry and has 
been printed in the " Vetusta Testamenta." 

II.— MANOR OF FITZ HERBERT. 

We have seen that Lucy, daughter of Earl Milo, — a co- 
parcener in this Manor, — married Herbert Fitz Herbert, and 
it may be well to trace the descent of that mediety which fell 
to her share. 

Before however doing this, the question arises, who 
Herbert Fitz Herbert her husband was. There is no positive 
information to be derive^! from charters or registers, but 
Mr. A. S. Ellis, in his f ' Domesday Tenants of Gloucestershire," 2 
in connection with Durand the Sheriff, has pointed out the. 
fact that Walter the Constable (father of Earl Milo) confirmed 
lands in Westwood in Erchenfeld, Co. Hereford, to St. Peter's, 
Gloucester, for the souls of his father, mother, and brother 
Herbert, given by Durand for the soul of his brother Roger: 
(Walter's father) before 1086, since it appears in the 
Survey. 3 

"It is not unlikely," continues he, "that in this brother 

1 By his last will he bequeathed money to persons who were to make- 
pilgrimages on his account, and specially desired that "a good man and 
true" should be hired, and charged to go to Pountefreyt (Pontefract) and 
to offer there at the tomb of Thomas, late Earl of Lancaster, 40s. A 
chapel had been built on the "mountain 1 ' where the Earl had been be- 
headed, after the battle of Borough Bridge; — Nigholls' Wills of Kings 
and Queens of England (1780), p. 54. 

2 Trans. B. and G. Arch. Soc, vol. — , pp. 163, 166. 

3 Hist, et Cart. Mon. S. Pet. de Glouc., i., p. 118. 



29^- Transactions for the Year 1894-95. 

Herbert we have that Herbert the Chamberlain who was 
holding two manors in Hants of the King, and another of 
Hugh de Port. Proof of this would be particularly interesting, 
as he was the progenitor of the great house of Fitz Herbert, 
and grandfather of that Herbert Fitz Herbert who married 
one of the grand-daughters and ultimate co-heirs of Walter 
himself." 

This conjecture receives some support from the statement 
of Dugdale, that a certain Herbert was chamberlain to 
Stephen, and in his fifth year, together with his son, gave 
him the sum of ^"354 in silver for the livery of lands : also 
that Thomas, Archbishop of York, gave to the Herberts 
the lordships of Launsborough, Totterthorpe, Weyverthorpe, 
Helperthorpe, and the two Lottams, Co. York, and in Co. 
Gloucester all the lands that Herman and Turketill held, by 
the service of three knights' fees. In an old Register Book 
of the Church of York it is written: " Sanctus Willelmus 
Ebor : Archiepiscopus fuit films Herberti Wintoniensis 
Camerarii et Thesaurarii Henrici Regis." 1 

No inquisitions after the deaths of Peter Fitz Herbert or 
his son Herbert Fitz Peter are extant ; but that of his brother 
Reginald, who, on Herbert's dying childless in 1248, suc- 
ceeded, shows him to have died seised of the important 
fief — or indeed Barony of Haresfield — with the Court of the 
Constablewick of England at Gloucester, 2 which had been 
apparently transferred to him in consequence of the adherence 
of his cousin, the Earl of Hereford, to the side of the 
Barons. 

This inquisition (14 Edw. L, No. 18), which is unhappily 
illegible in some portions (blackened now through the appli- 
cation of some temporary reviver), is as follows : 

"Extent of the Lands and Tenements of the lord Regi- 
nald Fitz Peter deceased in the Manor of Harsefeud in the 
County of Gloucester made on the Sunday next after the 

1 Reg. Alb. Ebor., Pars, i., c. 69. 
2 " Testa de Nevill," Trans., xiii. , p. 318. 



Haresfield : Manors and Church. 293 



Feast of the Ascension of the Lord in the year of the reign 
of King Edward the fourteenth (1286) 

By the oath of Rog' de Queddesle, John the Clerk, 
John de Colethrop, Henry Piscator and others : — 
who say on their oath that there is a certain Capital 
Messuage there, with appurtenances, worth by the year 
x s - 

Also, in Demesne 109 acres Arable, price per acre 4 d - — 
36- 4 d - 

Also, ten acres Meadow, price of each xviii d - 

Also, a separate Pasture {sepavabilis) for the support of 
10 oxen, price per head 4 d - 

Also, another Pasture .... at i2 d - 

Also a certain small Wood worth nothing yearly except 
for the use of the- house, therefore this is not extended. 

Also, they say that there are Rents of Assize of Stanshawe 
at the aforesaid Manor of Harsefeud paid at Michaelmas 
and Easter. .... 

Also, at Harsefeud of Rent of Assize 6 s - 5 di , payable by 
I s - 6 d - at Easter, &c. 

'Nativi.'' 

They say that Philip atte Parke and John de Cottele are 
serfs (nativi) and hold one virgate of land in Villenage, by 
services in every week from the Feast of St. Michael to the 
Feast of St. John the Baptist (ferial days excepted) and the 
work of every day is worth one halfpenny, and to plough 

They owe at Christmas 4 hens, and at Easter 2 hens : 
price of each hen, i d - 

Also, they owe labours on . . . day in each week 
between the Feast of St.. John the Baptist and the Gule of 
August, and the work of each day is worth 2 d - . . 

They will give at Easter 30 eggs, value f d - . . 

Also there are two Virgates and the fourth part of a 
Virgate — each Virgate is worth . Total 62 s - io d - 

Also, there are two Lundinarii (Mondayers) each of whom 
will work with one man &c. price of a day i d - Sum u s - 9 d - 



294 Transactions for the Year 1894-95. 

Also, four Cottars, each owes . . . days work, price 
of the day, one halfpenny. 

Also, that all Villeins Lundinarii and Cottars owe at the 
Feast of . . . . Sum 9 s - 

Also, they say that the Manor of Haresfeud is held in 
Capite of the King . . . . Pannage worth yearly, 6 d - 

Also, that Pleas of Court are worth i 8 - 6 d - yearly. 

Also, that Six Knights Fees are held of the aforesaid 
Manor of Harsefeud which owe suit at the Court of 
Gloucester." 

From an Extent made at Gloucester on the next day 
(Monday) before the Escheator of the lord the King, the jurors 
say that the Manor of Barnesley is also held in the County of 
Gloucester — and that the aforesaid Reginald Fitz Peter held 
these lands and Tenements of the King in Capite, and that 
they belong to the Barony of Harsefeud ; also that John son 
of Reginald is the next heir, and of the age of 30 years. 
Sum of this extent, £j 19 s - n d - 

Other inquisitions shew that he held many other manors, — 
in no less than eight Counties, Berks, Southampton, Somerset, 
Wilts, Yorkshire (with many Knights' fees), Salop, Essex 
and Norfolk, also in Wales. 

John Fitz Reginald 1 was summoned to answer to the lord 
the King by what warrant he claimed to have View of Frank 
Pledge in " Hareffeld " — and by bis attorney says that he- 
holds the said View in common with a certain John de Boun, 
so that he receives the third penny of the profits of the said 
View— as to which indeed the said John claims no liberties 
in the present "iter": and he says that the whole ville of 
Hareffeld is of their fee ; And he says that they have gallows 
and tumbrel there, Also that presentments, which for the con- 
servation of the peace ought to be made before the Sheriff in 
his tourn, are made in their court at Hareffeld, and that the 
View is held twice a year, and in the absence of the^ bailiff of 
the lord the King : he claims the said View ab antiquo : It is 
ordered that the Sheriff take into the King's hands two parts 
.i "Placita.de Quo Warranto Com. Glouc, " Ratv 16. 



Haresfield: Manors and Church. 



295 



PEDIGREE OF FITZ HERBERT. 



Herbert 
the Chamberlain 



Adela 



Herbert Fitz Herbert Stephen 
= Lucy, 3rd d. of Earl Milo, 

Co-parcener with sisters 
Margaret and Berta 



William 
Chaplain to King Stephen, 
Archb. of York 1143. 
Canonized 
" S. William of York." 



I 

Reginald Fitz Herbert 
Consents to Grant of 
lands in Boviette to 
Monks of Waverley, 
Surrey. 



Matthew Fitz Herbert 



One of Barons 
of Magna Carta ; 
d. 1235, buried 
at Reading 
Kal. Julii. 
(AnnalesTheok.) 



Peter Fitz Herbert 

= 1. Alicia, 

d. of Robert Fitz Roger 
5 John 1204 - 

Plac. Mich. T. 

2. Alice, 
d. of Sir Blethin Brodspere, 

lord of Llan Howell. . 

3. Isabella, • 
d. and co-heir of William de Braose, 

and widow of Prince David ap 
Lewelin. 



Herbert Fitz Peter 
d. s. p. 1248 



inald Fitz Peter 



d. 1286 
Inq. P.M. 



=Johanna de Vivonia 
one of co-heirs of 
WD1 de Fortibus 
Pat. Rot. 22 Edw. I. 
Inquis. P.M. 8 Edw. II., 
No. 42. 



John Fitz Reginald 

born 1256 = Agnes .... 

Inq. 3 Edw. II. 
No. 39. 



Herbert Fitz John 

d. Morrow of Nativity 
S. J. Baptist 

A.D. 1321 

(14 Edw. II.) 



Peter Fi'tz Reynaud 
=Matilda 
5 Edw. I. acknowledges service 

of 2 Knts. fees. 
8 Edw. II. do \ part Somerset. 
20 Edw'. II., No. 40. 

Alianora 

d. of Sir Roger le Rus ot 
Harescombe, Co. Glouc. 
Sunday after Feast of 
St. Mark Evangelist 

a.d. 1291 
" ad ostium ecclesias." 



Matthew Fitz Herbert 
d. s. p. 
Dee. 4, 1357. 



Margareta . . . 
Inquis. Ad. Quod. 
30 Edw. III. 
1357- 



Reginald Fitz Herbert 
d. s. p. 
1352. 
Inquis. P.M. 



296 



Transactions for the Year 1894-95. 



of the said View, because the aforesaid liberty is not yet 
claimed, &c. And William Inge (on the part of the Crown) 
says that he ought not to enjoy the said View, because he is 
neither seised of it nor of any profit thereof, inasmuch as 
John de Bohun wholly holds the said View, as appears else- 
where. And he seeks judgment. 

Herbert, son of John FitzReynaud, was married to 
Alianora, daughter of Sir Roger le Rus, at the Church of 
Harescombe, on the Sunday after the Feast of St. Mark 
the Evangelist, a.d. 1291, when " ad ostium ecclesiae," with 
the assent and good will of his father, he endowed Alianora 
with a third part of the Manors of Barnesley (Glouc.) and 
Crookham (Berks), together with a third part of the Castle 
of Blen-leveney, with the Honour of the Castle of Built- 
Dinas, Talkard (Talgarth), Llangellan, Cathedyn, and 
La Mare, in Wales. 1 

Two sons were the issue of this marriage, Matthew and 
Reginald: the father, Herbert Fitzjohn, died in 1321 : 
Alianora surviving him, appears in a Subsidy Roll for Hares- 
field in 1327 (''Alianora que fuit uxor Herberti fiT Joh is "). 
In the same year she petitioned the Council for justice in the 
matter of the Manor of Barnesley, having " never quit-claimed 
her action for dower to Hugh Despenser, Senior, nor to any 
other alleged lord of the Manor " : and the said Manor being 
then in the hands of the lord the King, by reason of the 
forfeiture of the aforesaid Hugh le Despenser. 

Matthew Fitz Herbert 2 died without issue on the 4th Dec, 
1357, his brother Reginald having pre-deceased. him in 1352. 
An Inquisition taken at Gloucester before Robert de Hildesley, 
on Wednesday in the Feast of St. Peter in Cathedra, 31 
Edw. III., and " 18th of his reign over France," shows that 

1 Cf. Trans. Brist. and Glouc. Arch. Soc, vol. x., p. 150. (Harescombe.) 

2 A release [dated London, in the Ward of Baynards castell in the 
house of William de Herleston (Clerk), Wednesday before the Feast of St. 
Valentine, 1353] from Matthew Fitz Herbert to Philip ap Rees, Chev., of 
the Manor of Talgarth (Wales) is preserved among the Berkeley Charters, 
No. 581. 



Haresfield : Manors and Church. 297 

Matthew held on the day on which he died a Messuage with 
a Carucate of land, &c, in Harsefeld of Edward St. John 
"le neven," in fee-tail by fine in the King's Court between 
Edward and Matthew, to wit, that Matthew acknowledged 
the Messuage, &c, to be the right of Edward, which he had of 
the gift of Matthew, to whom and the heirs of his body in the 
same Court, Edward had granted the Messuage, &c, aforesaid, 
yielding to him and his heirs one rose at the Feast of the 
Nativity of S. J. Baptist for all services — also doing due and 
accustomed service to the chief lord of the fee. If Matthew 
should die without issue, the said Tenements to remain to 
Reginald his brother during life, and afterwards entirely 
revert to said Edward and his heirs, quit of any other heirs 
of Matthew, and also of Reginald. The jurors add that 
Edward, who was Mesne between the King and Matthew, 
held the lands, &c, of the King in Capite by the service of 
a fourth part of a Knight's fee: also, that the said Messuage, 
&c, was worth yearly in all issues, £10, and that the said 
Matthew held no more lands in Co. Glouc. 1 

In 1383 (6 Ric. ii.) we^meet with an Inquisition " ad quod 
damnum," 2 in which the jurors say on their oath that it is 
not to the hurt of the lord the King to grant that Edward 
Sente Johan, chivaler, and Johanna his wife, may enfeoff 
William Heyberer, John Hede, and Simon Parker, chaplain, 
of the Manor of Harsefeld (which was of Matthew Fitz 
Herberdj with appurtenances in the County of Gloucester, 
held of the lord the King in Capite— to have and to hold the 
same by service owed and accustomed for ever, Rendering 
annually to Edward and Johanna during the life of Edward 
£11, and after the decease of Edward, to Johanna £10, during 
her life. The said Manor, together with the homage and 
service of John Stanschawe, who belongs to the said Manor, 
is worth yearly ioo s - No lands beyond the Manor remain to 

1 Rot. Orig., 13. 31 Edw. iii. Robt. de Heldesly, escheator, to give 
seisin to Edw. de Sc e - Joh e le neven. (1358.) 

2 Taken at Gloucester on Saturday after the Feast of the Holy Trinity 
before Hugh Bysseley, the Escheator. (No. 120, Glouc.) 



-298 Transactions for the Year 1894-95. 

Edward and Johanna, held of the King in Capite or any 
others. 

In 10 Hen. iv. (1409) we find further mention of this 
Manor : Sir Thomas Brugge holds of the King in Capite by 
knight service — " with Alice his wife, viz. to himself and 
heirs male,"— " one Manor in Haresfeld with appurtenances 
from the enfeoffment of Henry Zakeslry and Hugh Tylesly 
(royal license previously obtained), which Manor was formerly 
of Sir Edward St John, Knight 1 : so that if Thomas and 
Alice decease, without heirs, &c, the Manor ta remain to the 
heirs of the body of Thomas : if said Thomas deceased without 
heirs, then to the right heirs of John Cassey of Whithfield to 
hold by the services of the said Manor, which was worth 
102 s - 8 d - per annum-" Thomas Brugge died on Saturday the 
Vigil of Palm Sunday last : wife Alice still living : Edmond, 
son and heir, aged 23 years and more. Sir Thomas Brugge 
also held a moiety of the Manor of Coburley as the right of 
Alice, of Richard Cheddar and Isabella his wife, as of the 
Manor of Dorseley, worth 40 s - per annum. 

In 2 Hen. v. (1415) An Inquisition P.M. No. 7 was taken 
at Gloucester 2 before John Grevill, Escheator, in which the 
Jurors, John Haresfield, Jas. Gaynere, Robt. Page, Jno. 
Richman, Jno. , Rich. Colwall, Jno. Kyngus, Will. 

Dobyn, Jno. Maun, Jno, Bryd, Jno. Kington, and Jno. 
Sherman, say on oath that Alice, who was the wife of John 
Browning Armiger, held on the day she died (Saturday next 
before the Feast of the Ascension of the Lord), in remainder 
as of fee tail a manor with appurtenances in Haresfield of 
the gift of Henry Yakesley and Hugh Tyldesly made to the 
said Alice and Thomas Brugge, late hex husband, and heirs 
male of the body of Alice and Thomas, worth yearly in all 
issues besides reprises £6, and that Giles, son of Thomas and 
Alice, is next heir, and aged 17 years and more. 

John Fitz Reginald was summoned with others by writ 

1 Arms : " Sire Edward de Seint Johan d' argent ore le chief endente 
de goul ii moles dor." 

2 On the Vigil of the Feast of the Holy trinity. 



* 



Haresfield : Manors and Church. 



299 



15 Edw. i. with horses and arms for an expedition in the 
parts of Brecknock against " Rese fiT Mereduc' rebel," and 
two years later writs to the Barons, including him, order them 
to reside on their lordships till this rebellion is put down. 

In 25 Edw. i. {Close Rolls) he is bidden to send from 
Talgarth 50 Welsh "de melioribus et potencirz" to Win- 
chelsea for service in France; John Giffard (Built) 100. 1 

In 1307 (1 Edw. ii.) John Fitz Reginald was summoned 
with the Barons to Parliament and to attend the Coronation 
of the King, by writ dated Jan. 10. 

John Fitz Reginald had license, 34 Edw. I., of enfeoffing 
his son Herbert with the Manors of Wighton, Lownesburgh, 
and Wyrthorpe, Co. York ; and later on with the Manor of 
Staunton Wilts, Denas (Dynas), Blenlevenny and Talgard 
(Wales), lands and tenements there to the value of £200 per 
annum. 2 

And in the course of the year the same Herbert Fitz John 
makes a fine with the King in ioo s - for license " ingrediendi 
man 1 ium de Staunton'." 3 

John Fitz Reginald was dead in 1310 (3 Edw. II.), in 
which year the King committed to Roger de Mortimer de 
Chirk the castles of Blen-leveny and Bulkedinas, with all 
lands and tenements which he had held for the term of his 
life, of his concession, in the parts of South Wales and 
Nether Went, and which, after his death, came into the 
King's hands, rendering each year the true value. 4 

In 13 16 (Nomina Villarum) Matthew Fitz Herbert was 

certified as lord of the following townships : Berks, Stanford, 

and Dingley ; Southampton, Wolverton ; Wilts, Staunton ; 

York, Weighton, Shipton, W r eaverthorpe, Helperthorpe ; 

Norfolk, Limpenhoe, and Southwood. 

1 As "Lord of Blen-levenny " he signs the letter to Pope Boniface 
from the Barons of England (1301), affirming that the King would not 
submit himself to the judgment of the Pope concerning the dominion of 
Scotland, or any other temporal right. Seal remains attached. Seven 
Earls and ninety-six Magnates and Barons take part in this protest. 

2 34 Edw. I. Inquis. P.M., Nos. 108, 134. 3 Rot. Orig., 1306. 
4 Ibid, 1 3 10. 
21 

Vol. XIX. 



3oo Transactions for the Year 1894-95. 



In 1324 he submitted to a fine of £\o in the County of 
Southampton, "to be exonerated from taking the degree of 
Knighthood for one year from Christmas then next." 1 

In 1325 (18 Edw. II.) he fines in 20 marcs with the King 
for license to enfeoff Walter Tye, parson of the Church of 
Wolferton, of the Manor thereof. 2 

Matthew Fitz Herbert paid 20 s - for half a Knight's fee- 
here, "which John FitzReginald formerly held" as an aid 
demanded by the King Edw. III. on the occasion of making 
his son the Black Prince a Knight. 3 

It has been noticed that the family of the de Bohuns 
were as remarkable for the magnificence of their estate as 
for the paucity of their issue : the earldom came to an end in 
1372, by the death of Humphrey, Earl of Hereford; by his 
wife, Joan, daughter of Richard Fitzalan, Earl of Arundel 
and Surrey, he left two daughters, Eleanor and Mary,, 
co-heiresses : the first of whom married Thomas of Wood- 
stock, Duke of Gloucester, and died in 1399, leaving one 
daughter, Anne, Countess of Stafford ; her monument is 
in Westminster Abbey : the second daughter, Mary, became 
the wife of Henry of Lancaster (Bolingbroke), afterwards 
Duke of Hereford, and King Henry IV., and thus became 
the mother of the valiant Henry V., the conqueror of 
France. 

The vast possessions of the de Bohun family having thus 

become vested in Henry V. and Anne, Countess of Stafford; 

the partition took place in 9 Henry V., and the particulars 

are given in the Rolls of Parliaments 

" La purpartie del Dame Anne la Countesse de 

Stafford ":— 5 

1 Pari. Writs, ii., 267. 2 Rot. Orig , No. 26. 

3 Book of Aids, Glou., 20 Edw. III. (1349). 4 Vol. iv., 137. 

5 A portion of a tripartite indenture, dated 1482, is preserved in the 
Library of the Dean and Chapter of Canterbury, by which the Prior and 
Convent of Lanthony bind themselves, in consideration of favours received, 
to perform pious offices for Cardinal Bourchier, his father, and Anne, 
Countess of Stafford, his mother: the remaining portions being in the 
hands of the Cardinal and the Priory of Lanthony. 



Haresfield : Manors and Church. 



301 



Gales — 

Les Chastell et Manoir de Brekenok ove les \ xx #> j 
membres ... ... S cc iiii X1U 



Un Foreste. J V J V11 J- 

Les Chastell et Manoir de Hay ove les 

membres Lj H - 

Le Chastell et Manoir de Huntyngdon ... xxviij lu 
Un Park, 
ii Boys. 
La Somme ... £"372 6 8 

Glouc'. — 

Le Manoir de Haresfeld ove les membres ... xx 1 '- 
Un Park. 

La Court de l'Honour de Hereford ten' a 
Glou' x s - 

Le Manoir de Newenham ove les appur- 
tenances xl s - 

Le Manoir de Southam xx 1L 

ii Boys. 

Portion of Dame Anne ^1202 18 2^- per ann. 
Portion of King Hen. V., /"noo 9 o with Forests." 



Humphrey Stafford, Duke of Buckingham, died seized 
of the Manor of Haresfield, 39 Henry VI. (1461), and the 
Staffords as heirs-general of the De Bohun family remained 
lords of this Manor till the attainder of Edward, Duke of 
Buckingham, " a most wise and noble prince and the mirror 
of all courtesy." He was the son of Henry, Duke of 
Buckingham, executed in 1483 — was descended from Thomas 
of Woodstock, son of Edw. III., and quartered the royal 
arms. He built a stately mansion at Thornbury, and enclosed 
a vast park there to the extreme discontent of the people 
around. On his trial he was charged with aspiring to the 
Crown as long back as 151 1, and with consulting with 
Nicholas Hopkins, a Carthusian monk, who pretended to 
divine revelations, and assured him that he should become 

21 * 



302 



Transactions for the Year 1894-95. 



king. Charged with treason, he was convicted by his peers 
May 13th, 1521, and executed May 17th. 1 

The value of the Duke of Buckingham's possessions (13 
Henry VIII.) is given in Rentals and Surveys, P.R.O., c. 181, 
p. 45. (Chapter House Books) :— 

Inter alia " Harsfelde." 

£ s. d. 

Rents of Assize there, per annum 31 2 

Rents of Customary Tenants 9 18 7^ 

Farm of Manor, with Arable lands and Pasture, 

per annum ... 10 16 4 

Sale of Meadows, per annum ... 4 19 3 

Increase of Rents of Land, with New Rent of 

John Hatholl 10 o 

Agistment of Animals in the Park there 45 6 

Sale of Underwood for this year 63 7 

Perquisities of Court for this year 32 8 



^"34 17 

d. 



Allowance of Rent of one Toft ... ... 6 

Fee of the Parker of the Park at 2 d - 

per diem 60 8 

Stipend of Accountant 20 o 

Stipend of Clerk 2 o 

Expenses of Seneschal 13 9 



4 16 11 



Clear value per annum ^"30 



After this attainder, we find that Sir William Kyngston 
had a grant (13 Hen. 8 — 1522), of divers lands, lately the 

1 "In 1523 he was attainted by Act of Parliament (14-15 Hen. VIII., 
c. 20) ; but this act was intended to protect the interests of numerous 
persons who had held lands or office under him : and by subsequent 
statutes of the same Parliament, some provision was made for his wife and 
his son. The latter was restored in blood under the title of Lord Stafford 
by Edward VI." — Annals of England, vol. ii. 



Haresfield : Manors and Church. 303 

possessions of Edward, Duke of Buckingham, in the County 
of Gloucester ; also of the Stewardship of the Manor of 
Bedminster, with various payments customarily made ; also 
the Stewardship of the Castle of Thornbury, together with 
the Park of Haresfield, with the herbage and pannage : He 
was " Master of all the hunts in the Co. of Gloucester, and 
Parker of Harsffyld Park," with the fees thereof, twopence 
per day for the term of his life. 1 

Of this well-known personage, who was greatly favoured 
by the king, Lloyd observes (Worthies, p. 464), that he was 
one of the best courtiers at Masks and Revels, one of the 
best Captains at Sea, and one of the most valiant and skilful 
Commanders by Land. He was knighted for his service at 
Tournay, and made Marshal for his success at Flodden." 
" He was Knight of the King's Body, Captain of the Guard, 
and Lieutenant of the Tower : had custody of Cardinal 
Wolsey upon his attainder, also of Queen Anne Boleyn. 
Upon the Dispersion of Monastic Property he shared very 
largely, having received from the King several Manors in 
this County, belonging to the dissolved Priories of Llanthony 
and Flaxley." (Fuller's Worthies, p. 368, and Bigland). 

He died at Painswick, 14 Sept., 1546, and was buried 
there. Upon the inquisition taken at his death for the 
County of Berks, it was found that Anthony Kingston was 
his son and heir, aged 21 years and more. There is no 
inquisition extant for the Co. Glouc, but his Estates here 
evidently devolved upon Anthony, who, in order to secure 
the inheritance, surrendered to the Crown the grant made to 
his father, and received by Letters Patent a new grant, as 
follows: — "4 Edw. VI. (1551) Part 9, No. 27, a Grant to Sir 
Anthony Kyngston, Knight, and his heirs." It recites that 
King Henry VIII., by Letters Patent, under the Great Seal, 
dated at Westminster, May 12th, in the 14th year of his 
reign, granted to Sir Anthony Kyngston, Knight, pro corpore 

1 Patent Roll, 13 Hen. 8, Part 2 M. 27, Also Letters and Papers, Hen. 8, 
Vol. ii., Part 2, p, 1530. Duke of Buckingham's Lands : Account of 
Officers, &c, &c. [1523]. 



304 Transactions for the Year 1894-95. 

suo, his Manor of Haresfield, with appurtenances, in the 
County of Gloucester, together with the Advowson of all 
Churches, Chapels, Religious Houses, &c, whatsoever to the 
said Manor pertaining, with all manorial rights whatsoever — 
view of Frank pledge, Fairs, Markets, &c &c, just as 
Edward, late Duke of Buckingham, or his ancestors, formerly 
held, which said Manor was formerly of Edward, Duke of 
Buckingham, who was lately attainted of high treason, and 
which to the hands of said father came by forfeiture, — To 
have and to hold to the said William and his heirs (male) lawfully 
begotten, of the said father and his heirs, in capite, by Knight 
service, and as held before the forfeiture, without rendering 
any account for the said premises, excepting the service 
aforesaid : — Which said William Kyngston is dead, by reason 
whereof Sir Anthony Kingston, Knight, is now seised of and 
in the Manor aforesaid : who restores the said Letters Patent 
into our Chancery to be cancelled, and which are now can- 
celled with the intention that We should grant other Letters 
Patent to the said Anthony Kyngston, in consideration of 
such snrrender and of the faithful service he hath done to 
Us, to him and his heirs and assigns for ever — which said Manor 
and Appurtenances now extend to the clear yearly value of 
^38 2s. 7id. 

Dated 24 April: by Writ of Privy Seal. 1 

NOTES. 

Sir Anthony Kingston was of the age of 21 years at the death of his 
father, in 1540. His lot was cast in stormy times, and he acquired a bad 
name for his cruelties as Provost Marshal in connection with the insurrec- 
tion in the Western Counties in 1549. " During these disturbances martial 
law was executed in every part of the kingdom, and often, as we are told, 
with little attention to justice. Sir Anthony Kingston distinguished him- 
self by the promptitude of his decisions and the pleasantry with which he 
accompanied them. Having dined with the Mayor of Bodmin, he asked 
him if the gallows were sufficiently strong. The Mayor replied that he 
thought so. " Then," said Kingston, "go up and try," and hanged him 
without further ceremony. On another occasion, having received informa- 

1 The father held in Fee tail ; the son had grant in Fee simple — "to 
him and his heirs and assigns for ever." 



Haresfield : Manors and Church. 



305 



III.— MANOR OF THE. PRIOR AND CONVENT 
OF LANTHONY. 

Lanthony Priory held considerable estates here, which, 
according to the custom of ecclesiastics, were termed a 
Manor, not possessing any jurisdiction but exemption only 
from the suit and service at the Court Baron." 

tion against a certain miller, he proceeded to the mill, and not finding the 
master at home, ordered his servant to the gallows, bidding him be oon- 
tent, for it was the best service he " had ever rendered to his master." — 
Lingard. 

In 1554, through the general antipathy to the Spanish marriage, to 
which Parliament had strongly expressed its dislike, Sir Thomas Wyatt, 
of Kent, with Sir Peter Carew (Devon), Sir Nicolas Arnold, and Sir 
Nicolas Throckmorton (Gloucester), with others, confederated together, and 
we may believe that Sir Anthony Kingston also took part in the same. The 
insurrection, after some vicissitudes, was put down, and many suffered 
death. As Sir Anthony escaped, this was probably owing to the fact that 
his father's stepson, Sir Henry Jerningham, was in high favour at Court. 

In the following year, "Syr Anthony Kingston, Knight," was appointed 
by the Queen's Letters one of the Commissioners (together with Sir John 
Bridges, Lord Chandos, Sir Edmond Bridges, and others) to see execution 
done at the burning of Bishop Hooper, which must have been a painful 
task, as he had peculiar reasons for gratitude through the reformation of 
his life, effected through Hooper's teaching and influence. It has been 
pertinently said that this awful scene may have intensified his hatred to 
the Queen, and made him again an open rebel, for in the following year he 
took part with Sir Henry Dudley, undertaking to raise 10,000 men in Wales 
and the Marches to bring about her dethronement, under the auspices of 
Noailles, the French Ambassador ; but some delay having been proposed 
by the French Monarch, the desperate circumstances of Kingston, Throck- 
morton, Udall, Staunton, and other conspirators, led them to determine to 
carry out a part of their design forthwith. Philip had been accused of 
devoting to Spanish purposes the revenue of the English Crown, and as a 
portion of the treasure, ^50,000, was still lodged in the Exchequer, a plan 
was devised to surprise the guard, and to obtain possession of this money. 
A traitor among the conspirators revealed the plot ; some were apprehended 
and paid the forfeit with their lives. Sir Anthony Kingston was appre- 
hended at Cirencester, and died on his way to London, April 14th, 1556. 
Cf. Lingard, v. 142, 245. 

For further particulars, see The Cotteswold Club Trans., 1878 ; " On some 
Archaeological Remains in Gloucestershire relating to the Burning of Bishop 
Hooper." J. Bellows, Gloucester. Also, Parker Soc. Orig. Letters (Zurich), 
Part ii, page 442. 



306 Transactions for the Year 1894-95. 



As we have already stated, the Church of Haresfield was 
granted in pure and perpetual alms to this Priory by Henry 
de Hereford in 11 61. Many subsequent gifts are recorded in 
the Registers of the Priory 1 : unfortunately many of these are 
without date. " Humphrey de Bohun gave us a certain piece 
of land in Hersfeld of six perches in length and four in breadth, 
lying near to the high way, for the making of a certain 
granary." "John de Bohun gave us half an acre of land for 
the enlargement of our Court House there. It lies to the 
west of our Court." 2 " Henry de Bohun gave to us a piece 
of land within the Manor of Harsfeld, lying 'in latitudine' 
within the land of the Lord Herbert (' filii P... ') on the one 
part, and the King's highway which leads to Gloucester on the 
other, in pure and perpetual Alms." " Humphrey de Bohun 
gave to us the course of a running stream in Harsfeld, 
' addeducendu et currendu ' to our Court house in the 
same Vill 1 singulis diebus Sabbati ' for ever, without any 
annoyance or hindrance on the part of himself or his 
heirs." 

"Pope Nicolas' Taxation" (1291) gives some particulars 
as to the lands of the Priory here at that period : 

" Item, at Harsfeld one Carucate of land, value per annum 
Thirty shillings ; of Rents of Assize, Six shillings ; of Profits 
of Stock, Seven shillings: £1 17s. 6d." 

This return affords some interesting information as to the 
situation, fertility, or state of cultivation of the Priory lands, 
viz.: a Curacate at Haresfield, " Quedgsleye," Brocworth, and 
Podesmead was valued at Thirty shillings: at " Matsdon," 
27 s - : at Prestbury, 25 s - : at Hatherly, 12 s - : at " Turkedene " 
14 s - : at Colesbourne, io s - per annum. 

At this period we find mention of " the portion of the 

1 Now in the Thirlestaine House Library, Cheltenham. 

2 Richard Partrich, as attorney for Sir John de Bohun, 18 Edw. I., 
gave Prior and Convent of Lanthony seisin of l?md given for the good of 
the souls of Humphrey his father, and Matilda his mother. — Reg. Lanth, 
54-55. The License for the alienation of this land in mortmain is 011 
the Patent Roll, 18 Edw. I. (1290), memb. 20. 



Haresfield : Manors and Church. 307 



Abbot of Tewkesbury in money io s -" Richard de St. Brigida 
had given to that abbey a moiety of his tythes here, which, 
Lanthony Priory was holding for io s - rent. 1 This was 
commuted after awhile, for the Register of the Priory records : 
"Thomas Abbot of Tewkesbury and the convent, have 
released to us all right and claim whatsoever they might 
have had * in pensione sua porcone p indepnitate ' of their 
church, and for the remission of the said claim and their 
expenses they have received from us Twenty Marcs in the 
year of Our Lord 1377." 

Henry de Bohun Earl of Hereford gives to Richard de 
Veyne 50 solidates of land in his Manor of Haresfield — viz., 
Two and a half Virgates in his demesne in Northgarst and 
in Henmenmere fifteen acres and a half, and . . . six acres, 
and in Mor .... eight acres and a half, in Totterac and in 
Middelfield twenty seven acres, and Brodeley thirty two 
acres, and one acre . . on . . Margaret de Bohun built when 
partition was made between Margaret and Lucy, and two 
acres meadow .... and two acres of Meadow near to Lan- 
thony which Pagan de Dudmerston held : and of his Villen- 
age in Haresfield, two Virgates — and a half sellion— and half 
a Virgate which Walter de Forde held, and the said Walter, 
together with all his family {sequela) and half a Virgate which 
Walter .... held, and himself, with all his family : and a 
Farundel which Silewin Purs held, together with said Silewin 
and all his family : one Farundel which Walter Carpenter 
held, himself and all his family : one Farundel which Mabilla,. 
relict of Richard Cordewain held, and his family : one Far- 
undel which Alexander Purs held and the said Alexander,, 
with his family : one Farundel which Hugh le Haiward 
held, himself and his family : one Farundel which Hugh de 
Laci held, himself and his family : and Pasture for eight oxen 
and Stock together with his own oxen. Moreover he gave to 
the said Richard a certain parcel of Wood which stretches 
as far as the above said Arable land. To be held by the 

1 Reg. Tewkesb. M.S. Cott. Cleop. — 



3 o8 



Transactions for the Year 1894-95. 



right of inheritance by the service of . . . parts of a 
Knight's Fee. 

Witnesses: Ylberto de Graunavill ; Rad. fil' Will'; 
Rog;' fil Alan : cum multis aliis. 
Richard de Veyne, Knight, 1 for the salvation of his 
soul and the soul of his wife Beata, but especially for the 
soul of his lord, Henry de Bohun, Earl of Hereford, 
gives to the Church of Lanthony all the land he has in 
the manor of Haresfield, of the Gift of his said lord, with 
two acres Meadow which adjoin Lanthony : the Canons to 
have the whole with Wood, "salvo regali servicio Comiti 
Heref." 

" This donation I make to the Prior and Canons of Lan- 
thony to augment and sustain the hospitality of their house, 
and especially for the sustentation of Two Canons who shall 
pray," &c, as above. 

Witnessed by Humphrey de Bohun, Earl of Hereford, 
Constable of the King, Peter Fitz Herbert, and the lord 
William de Putot, then Sheriff of Gloucester, 2 and many 
others. 

A Charter exists among the documents belonging to the 
Duchy of Lancaster, date between 1199 — 1220, No. 14, with 
seal attached, which contains the result of this or a similar 
grant : 

Gilbert the Prior and the Convent of St. Mary of Lan- 
thony, Gloucester, to provide a Canon to perform divine 
offices in their Convent for the soul of their patron Henry de 
Boun, Earl of Hereford, and for the souls of Matilda his 
wife, Humphrey his father, Margery his mother, the Earl 
Milo, Margaret de Boun and other defunct. 

The Return of their "temporals" in the Valor Eccles. 
is as follows : 

1 1 199-1220. Carta Henrici de Bohun Comitis Herefordie super 
messuagio de Fremelade. 

Witnessed by " Ricardo de Veim, tunc temporis senescallo meo," with 
others. — Winchcombe Cart. i. p. 229. 

2 Sheriff of Gloucester 1222-8. 



Haresfield : Manors and Church. 309 



Free tenants ..." ... ... ... ... .. 

Farm of Manor Scite with demesne lands pertain 

ing to the said Manor 

Customary Tenants per annum ....... 

Perquisites of the Court there, per annum 



nil. 

6o s - o 

108 s - 1 1 
I2 d 



Sum 

Reprises : 

Rents '\Resol" Wm. Kyngston Knyght 

p. a. 4 s - . 
John Trye Esq. p. a. 14 4 

Fee of Thos. Rollys Bailiff 8 s - 8 cL 

Sum 



12 10 



Clear Temporal Value ... £7 15 3 J 

41 Spiritualia " in the same : 

Rector' de Harsffeld D' p'deo P'ore eo quod 
est p 1 petar' et Rector' ibm, et het firma bloz 
x is et feui dim' Thomse Rollys firmar' eoz dm 
p' indentur' ad t'min' annoz Sma ^"9 18 8 

Et rem' clare de spu'al valore per ann £g 18 8 

Two years after the new grant, Sir Anthony Kyngston 
alienated an interesting portion of the Manor, viz., Haresfield 
Park, together with the Mansion House, as is shown by the 
following conveyance, 1553, 6 Edward VI., Feb. 21 : 

Indenture of Feoffment between Sir Anthony Kyngston 
of Payneswik, in the County of Gloucester, Knight, and 
Richard Andrewes of Woodstok, in the County of Oxon, 
Esquire. 

Witnesseth that said Anthony Kyngston for the sum of 
£1800 of lawful money of the realm (of which he has already 
received £1650, the remainder whereof is to be paid at or 
before the Feast of Pentecost, 1553) hath granted to the said 
Richard Andrewes all that his Park or Pasture called Hars- 
ffeld alias Haresfeld Park, and all the Mansion House, 
together with all buildings woods &c contained within 



Transactions for the Year 1894-95. 



certain ditches or boundaries, which Park the said Anthony 
Kyngston had among other things of the gift and grant of 
our Sovereign lord the King that now is, by His Grace's 
Patent, dated 24 April in the fourth year of his reign [1551] ♦ 

Due services to be rendered to the chief lord of the fee &c. 

On the death of Sir Anthony Kingston the Manor passed 
to his niece, Lady Frances, wife of Sir Henry Jernyngham. 1 
(See pedigree of Kingston.) For what period it continued in 
the possession of that family is not very clear. In 1592 
(34 Elizabeth) Henry Jernegan the elder Esq. and his wife 
Frances levy a fine in connection with certain manors, includ- 
ing Haresfelde and Painswick, and ^"20 rent to John Arundell 
and Chas. Waldegrave. Sum ^2600. 

It appears that two, if not three, presentations to the 
Vicarage were made by them ; viz., in 1571 and 1577, perhaps 
also by assignment of grant in 1624, but in this latter case 
there were apparently disputes. 

Henry Jernegan the elder, of Cossey, Co. Norfolk, by 
Indenture dated May 7, 1607, "grants to ferme letten " to 

* The Jerninghams, or Jernegans (for this seems to have been the 
original name) were an ancient family in the eastern counties. Blomfield 
{Hist, of Norfolk) commences their pedigree with one settled at Hougham 
Jernegan, who died in 1182. Sir Hubert Jernegan, on the side of the 
Barons, obtained pardon, temp. Henry III. The residence of another was 
at " Stonham Jernegan." Henry Jerningham was one of those who openly 
declared for Mary on the decease of Edward VI., was Captain of her 
Guard, and knighted. He obtained large grants of manors in Norfolk, 
Suffolk, and Hereford, particularly Costessy (or Cossey) in Norfolk, and 
Wingfield Castle, Suffolk. Costessy was rebuilt, and here he entertained 
Queen Elizabeth. His wife, Frances Baynham (as we have seen), was 
heiress to her maternal uncle, Sir Anthony Kingston. Sir Henry Jerning- 
ham died in 1572, and was succeeded by his eldest son, also Henry. His 
son of the same name was created a baronet October 16, 1621, and married 
Eleanor, daughter of Thos. Throckmorton, Esq., of Throckmorton, Co. 
Worcester. The family suffered much in the Civil Wars ; their park was 
let down and the deer destroyed. Sir George Wm. Jerningham, Baron 
Stafford, inherited the dignity through his great-grandmother, Mary 
Howard, wife of Fr. Plowden, Esq., grand-daughter of Viscount Stafford 
(attainted 1678), and mother of Mary, wife of Sir Geo. Jerningham, the 5th 
baronet. This barony was created by patent Sept. 12, 1640, and conferred 
upon Mary Stafford (jointly with her husband, Sir Wm. Howard), sister 
and sole heiress of Henry Stafford, 13th Baron Stafford, a barony created 



Haresfield : Manors and Church. 



Richard Robins of Harsfeild, "yeoman," in consideration of 
£j$o received, " the manor or. farme place, &c, &c, late in 
the tenure or occupation of William Curteis deceased, 
excepting the Woods growing in grounds called Harsfeild 
Wooddes and upon Evesbury Hill, to have and to hold the 
said scite of the manor or farme place to the said Richard, 
for and during the term of his natural life, and lives of 
Margaret his wife, and Henry his son, or the longest liver of 
them all, paying £y 6s. 8d. per annum ; with the best beast 
in name of Heriot on the decease of the said Richard, 
Margaret, and Henry." 1 

The last will of Richard Robins 2 (who died in 1638) shews 
that he had just assigned his interest in this lease, by indenture 
dated Nov. 30, 14 Car. I., to Thos. Nicholas, Esq., John 
Arden, Clerk, and Thos. Keble, Gent., for a term of four- 
score years, if his wife Margaret and son Henry should so 
long live, and afterwards to executors for his son Richard and 
his heirs. 

In 2 Edw. iv. (1463) 3 a messuage and toft were among 

in 1299, hut forfeited by Edward de Stafford, Duke of Buckingham, Lord 
High Constable and KG, who was beheaded in 1521. Henry Stafford, 
the Duke's son and heir, was restored in blood by an Act of Parliament 
1 Edward VI., whereby it was enacted, " That the said Henry, Lord 
Stafford, and the heirs male of his body, may be taken and reputed as 
Lord Stafford, and that the said Henry be restored in blood." After the 
attainder of William, Viscount Stafford (said to have been the last and 
most distinguished victim in connexion with the Titus Gates plot) in 1678, 
the dignity (except for a brief interval) remained in abeyance : but in 1824 
an act of Parliament was passed, reversing the attainder, and in the follow- 
ing year the House of Lords resolved that " Sir George Jerningham had 
made out his claim to the title, dignity, and honour of Baron Stafford, 
under certain letters patent, bearing date 12th Sept., in the 16th year of the 
reign of King Charles I." — Burke's Peerage. 

1 Probate Court, Gloucester Registry. He leaves to his son Thomas 
£26 13s. 4d. per annum : son Henry £10 : Henry & Elizabeth, children of 
his son Richard, 40 s - apiece : to grandchild (Thos. Arden, son to son-in- 
law Thos. Arden of Stratton, Clerk), 40 s - : all servants in his dwelling house 
5 s apiece : poor of the parish of Haresfield £5 : residue to his wife 
Margaret. 

2 ID 55- John Robins of Haresfield, Gent., £ox 15 00. — Dring's 
■Catalogue of Compounders. 3 Inquis. 2 Edw. IV., No. 22. 



312 



Transactions 



for the Year 1894-95. 



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Haresfield : Manors and Church. 313 



the lands forfeited by Thomas Mulle, Arm., William Mulle, 
Knight, and Margaret his wife, attainted during the wars of 
the houses of Lancaster and York, with the manors of Hares- 
combe, Duntesbourne Rous, and Alynesmore, Avynbury, and 
Tregett, Co. Hereford : these were granted to Thomas Herbert, 
Esquire, for the King's body, in special tail, viz. to his heirs 
male, together with the Advowsons of the Churches of the 
said Manor: afterwards, 14 Edw. IV., to Sir Richard 
Beauchamp, knight: when, however, Henry VII. ascended 
the throne, petition was made for restitution, on the ground 
" that the said William Mylle was at the Feld comynly called 
Palme Sondaye Felde " (Battle of Towton, March 29, 1461) 1 
"to the uttermost of his powers assistyng, according to his 
duty then his late Sovereign Lorde Kynge Henry the sixth 
in his ryght & tytle, & that the said William lost all his landes, 
possessions, and godes, by Act of 1 Edw. IV., forfeit to the 
Kynge," 2 — the petition was granted in part at least : for in 
1509 (1 Henry VIII.) an inquisition taken on the death of 
Thomas Mylle, shews that he was seised of one messuage 
in Harsfeld called Henbarrewes, and of three farundels of 
land with appurtenances m his demesne as of fee, at the rent 
of xvj d - per ann. for all secular services, and that the said 
messuage and lands were worth per ann. in all issues, beyond 
reprises, xxvj s ' viij d - ; and that he died the 7th day of October 
in the first year of the reign of King Henry VIII. ; Edward 
Mylle son and heir, and of the age of 23 years and more. 3 

In 15 Eliz. (1573) the Jurors 4 found that Edmund Brydges, 
knight, Lord Chandos, died seised of Three messuages, one 
cottage, and one hundred and three acres of land in Haresfield 
& Estyngton with five acres meadow. The Manor, they say, 
is held of the Lady Frances Jernegan (Jerningham), widow, 
as of her Manor of Haresfield, 5 but by what services they do 
not know : it is worth in yearly clear value £11. The three 

1 Cf. "Field of the Battle of Towton." Visits to English Battlefields, 
by R. Brooke, F.S.A. 2 Rot, Pari, v., 586. 

3 Inquis. P.M., 1 Hen. VII., No. 4 Inq. P.M. Glouc., No. — . 

5 This was evidently the Fitz Herbert Manor (Inq. 10 Hen. IV., 1409), 
alienated by them to Sir Edward St. John — tempore Edw, III. 



314 Transactions for the Year 1894-95. 

messuages, &c, as above, also held of the Manor, services 
unknown, are worth yearly 51 s - 8 d \ Lord Chandos, Baron of 
Sudeley, died at the Castle there March 11, and by will gave to 
his wife the Lady Dorothy all his manors and lordships for 
life. Giles Brydges, now Lord Chandos, son and heir, age 25 
years or more. This lord died in Feb., 36 Eliz. (1594), 
without issue male of his body, but leaving one daughter 
and heir, the wife of Francis Russell, knight. The Inquisi- 
tion concerns the above-mentioned lands, and states that 
Gyles, Lord Chandos "was seised in fee of the Manor of 
Haresfield," and that this Manor with appurtenances was 
held, and is held [at the date of this Inquisition, 7 Jac. I. 
(1610)] "of Sir Francis Jerningham as of his Manor of 
Haresfield. 

During the Commonwealth, in the proceedings of "the 
Committee for Compounding," 1643-60 1 George Bruges or 
Brydges, Lord Chandos of SudeleyCastle, and William Brydges 
of Uxbridge, Middlesex, his brother, are dealt with: the 
former appears to have been imprisoned in 1644, and in 1646 
he begs leave to compound : — the fine at " a third " amounts 
to ^12,440, and at "a tenth" to ^"4,976. An abatement of 
^"1,000 is to be made, if he allow £100 per annum to the 
Minister of Haresfield, Co. Glouc, for which he is to produce 
the deed before making the second payment : that there was 
some delay and unwillingness is evident, since, on the 14th 
April, 1648, it is ordered that if the said sum of £100 p. a. 
be not settled upon the Church of Haresfield within the 
space of one month, " his estate be re-sequestered." 2 

From the Jerninghams, the Manor seems to have passed 

to the family of Mynett, for in 1636 (11 Car. I.), Glouc. Mich. 

Term, No. 49, the Exchequer Depositions shew particulars of 

a suit concerning the Manor, wastes and Commons, intrusion, 

1 Vide Calendar, 1643, vol. iii., p. 60. 

2 "Committee for Compounding": Thomas Robins of Haresfield, 
Co. Glouc, 2 Jan., 1651, begs leave to compound though not sequestered, 
yet fearing he is sequestrable for being induced to reside in the late King's 
quarters in the beginning. of the Wars: Petition, Jan. 7, 1652, referred to 
Brereton to report : later, Fine at |th, £1 5 s - . — State Papers, Rolls Series, 
1643-60. 



Haresfield: Manors and Church. 315 

&c, and rights on Eastbury Hill. George Mynett, plaintiff, 
John Lane, Jno. Michell, Edw. Beard, Jno. Harris, Wm. 
Warner, Robt. Beard, and Alice Warner, widow, defendants. 
John Browninge and others depose to the building of a house 
in Cherryfield or Mereye's Grove by plaintiff, wherein four 
people (widows) dwell rent free, near the Churchyard, and 
that there is sufficient way for Carts and wains to pass along, 
notwithstanding the building of the Almshouse. 

The following are some of the Interrogatories of Wit- 
nesses on behalf of defendants : 

1. If Common sufficient for Commonable Cattle of 

Freeholders, and Inhabitants, in summer time or. 
Eastbury Hill. 

2. If the lords of the Manor have used the rignt of free 

warren. 

3. If they know a certain messuage — a half yard land, in 

which John Michell is seised in his demesue as of 
fee, and whether he have had Common for his sheep 
belonging to said messuage. 
4, 5. If the people of the Parish of Haresfield, when plff. 

wished to build an Almshouse, did say that if he 
would build it and lay Ten pounds per annum to it, 
in a convenient place, they (the said inhabitants) 
promised to remove and set it up in a fit place at 
their own charges and not cost him a penny. 1 

6. If the said plaintiff did utterly reject their proposal. 

7. If they knew that complainant since he became lord 

of the Manor did threaten to sue by Court of Law 
divers poor people living in cottages before built for 
poor impotent people, to enforce them to pay rent. 

8. If they know how many other cottages (beside the pre- 

tended Almshouse) complainant had erected without 
laying Four acres of land thereunto, to be continually 
used therewith, according to the wording of the 
Statute. 

1 The Building, lately " sett " up, measures 18 feet in length, by 10 feet 
in breadth. 

22 



316 



Transactions for the Year 1894-95. 



A Ground called Dransome, in the occupation of one Thos. 
Hawkins, tenant to Wm. Lane, Gent., " the inhabitants of 
Haresfield doe challenge " : one witness deposes that it is 
Common from Lammas to Candlemas Day, but whether 
parcel of the Manor, he knoweth not ; but knoweth that the 
bayliffe of Sir Henry Jernegan hath caused Trees to be felled 
there: another, Will. Osborne of Painswicke, Gent., says 
that the Meadow (Dransome) is part of the Manor of Hares- 
field, and not of Rudge and Farleigh in Hardwicke — has 
known it 50 years ; was bailiff and rent gatherer of the 
Manor of Haresfield for now 50 years, and did receive of 
the tenants Two shillings and sixpence for a chief rent, and 
that Mr. Lane hath paid him this once or twice since Plain- 
tiff became lord, but being forbidden by Plaintiff he received 
it no more. 1 

In 1629 (5 Car. I.) we meet with a conveyance of the fee 
of Haresfield Wood Park, &c, from John Andrewes of 
Haresfield Park, " Esquier," and Richard his son and heir, 
to William Trye of Hardwick, for the sum of ^1,480 : they 
grant to him, Ann his wife, and John son and heir, a Messu- 
age, &c, in tenure of Wm. Bainknett, 60 acres Wood Park 
(now divided into three parts); Green Park, 35 acres; Meadow 
Park, 14 acres, " all portions of Haresfield Park," &c. 2 

In the year following, they release certain Tythes of the 
above — "issuing out of the herbage, pastures, &c, of the 
said Park." 

Two years later, 1632, we have an Indenture of Feoffment 
between Rich. Andrewes, and Rebecca his wife, and Nathaniel 
Stephens, in which they grant to him : all that Capital Mes- 

1 In Book of Compositions for not taking the Order of Knighthood at the 
Coronation of King Charles I. these two names occur : 

John Michell of Harsefeld, Gent £10. 

George Minate of Harsefeld, Gent £10. 

In 1626, all persons possessed of /40 a year had been ordered to present 
themselves to receive Knighthood, before Jan. 31. 

2 These lands now form part of the Park belonging to Hardwicke Court,, 
the property of G. E. Lloyd-Baker, Esq., but are still in the parish of 
Haresfield. 



Haresfield : Manors and Church. 317 



suage in which the said John Andrewes now lives, and known 
as the Lodge, situate in or near Haresfield Park; Lodge 
Hay, 3 acres; a Messuage, "Upper House," Plashete, 12 
acres ; Cowleaze, 40 acres, lately parcel of the Park, for the 
sum of £620. 

John Andrewes, " de Harsfeild Parke," Esquire (son and 
heir of Rich. Andrewes Arm. defunct), in consideration of a 
certain sum of money paid by William Trye of Hardwick, 
Esq., 12 Nov., 1636 (12 Car. I.), grants to him and his heirs 
for ever, all Tythes issuing out of the Meadow or Pasture 
called " Morgan's Leaze," by estimation 30 acres, and lately 
parcel of the Park of Haresfield . . . formerly apper- 
taining to the Priory of Lanthony dissolved, to hold as freely 
as the Lady Elizabeth lately Queen by Letters Patent, dated 
Westminster 21 July in the fifth year of her reign (amongst 
others) granted to Wm. Partridge and Robt. Partridge, Gent., 
and their heirs, &c, for ever. And, also as fully as the said 
William and Robt. Partridge granted to George Lloyd Arm. 
his heirs, &c, Oct. 20, 5 Eliz. And also as freely as Walter 
Lloyd, son of the said George Lloyd, granted to Richard 
Gardner, Gent., his heirs, &c, by deed Feb. 9, 29 Eliz. And 
also as freely as the said Rich. Gardner granted to the said 
Richard Andrewes, Gent, by deed, dated 10 June, 40 Eliz. 
(1598) To hold of the lord the King, &c, as of his Manor of 
East Greenwich, by fealty and common socage, and not in 
capite or by military service. 

An Indenture, made March 22, 1654, between George 
Mynett, alias Miniett, of Harsfeld als Haresfeild, in the 
County of Gloucester, Gent., son and heir of George Mynett, 
Gent., deceased, and Bridget, now wife of the said George 
Mynett, party to these presents, and Cresset Mynett, alias 
Miniett, widow of Geo. Mynett, deceased, and mother of 
Geo. Mynett, of the one part, and William Trye of Hard- 
wicke, Esquire,, of the other part, Witnesseth that for the 
consideration of the " sumrae " of ^550 of lawful money, &c, 
to the said George Mynett well and true in hand, and for the 
V sum me of tenn shillings '' to the said Cresset Mynett, have 

22 * 



3*8 



Transactions for the Year 1894-95. 



granted, bargained, sold and aliened to the said Wm. Trye 
"All that Mannor or Lordship of Harsfeld alias Haresfeild 
&c. and all and singular Messuages, Tenements, &c. &c, 
fishings, huntings, hawkings, preserves, parks, warrens &c. 
Quarries, Commons, &c., dry-rents, quitt-rents, rents of assize, 
copyhold rents and all other services whatsoever, Courts leet, 
views of Frankpledge, Courts Baron, Profitts and Perquisites 
of Courts, waifs, strays, goods and chattels of felons and 
fugitives, felons of themselves, outlawed persons, deodands, 
Knights' fees, wards, marriages, escheats, reliefs, customs, 
fines, amerciaments, and all other royalties, priveledges, immu- 
nities, hereditaments with appurtenance, to the said Manor 
or lordship belonging : Also, all wastes, waste ground, 
wooded ground, royalties, franchises &c. whatsoever in the 
said parish : Also all Copyhold or Customary Messuages, 
tenements and lands of the said Manor of Harsfeld : Grove 
or Woodland (Eastbury Hill), all those ' Cheife ' rents &c. 
described in a certain Schedule, And all that Advowson 
Donacon, Presentation, and Right of Patronage, Guift and 
Free Disposition of and in the Vicaridge of the Parish Church 
of Haresfeild, with all and singular, &c. &c, to have and to 
hold to the said William Trye his heirs and assigns for ever. 
Excepting nevertheless, all charges &c. given by George 
Mynett, or by Sir Henry Jernegan, Knt. and baronet, de- 
ceased, Wm. Osborne and Thos. Neast Gent, or by any 
ancestor of the said Sir Henry Jernegan." 

The Final Concord in the Court of Common Bench in the 
next year, 1655, before Oliver St. John, Edw. Atkyn, Matthew 
Hale and Hugh Wyndham, justices, and others, mentions 
the Manor with Appurtenances; — eight messuages, twenty 
cottages, twenty gardens, six orchards, thirty acres land, 
twenty acres meadow, fifty acres pasture, one hundred acres 
wood, fifty acres furze and heath, and a hundred shillings of 
rent ; Common of Pasture &c, free warren, view of frank 
pledge, &c, &c, in Haresfield, Parkend, Harescomb, 
Colthrop, Brookthropp, Payneswicke, Standish, Moreton 
Valence, Randwick, Oxlynch, Little Haresfield, and also the 



Haresfield : Manors and Church. 319 



Advowson of the Vicarage of the Church of Haresfield ; 
acknowledged to be the right of the said William who has 
given to the said George Mynett ^"300 sterling. 

Seisin was given by James Davis and Ferdinando Meighen; 
appointed attorneys of Mynett, May 8, 1655, i n tne presence 
of Anth. Andrewes (vicar), John Trye, Robt. Powell, Anth. 
Shalford, and others ; viz. : Of the Grove or Woodland at 
Eastbury Hill, and also " a certeyne Cottage or Tenement 
standing upon part of the said hill, and now in the possession 
or occupation of one Thomas Chaundler, in the name of all 
and singular, the Manor, Messuages, &c. &c, mentioned to 
be conveyed." 

John Gilbye, Gent., died seised of lands here, 8 Car. I. 
(1633), one messuage called Rowles Farm, and 120 acres of 
land meadow and pasture thereto belonging, held of the 
King in chief by knight service, and worth p. a. £\ clear. 
Giles Gilbye, of 12 years of age, son and heir. 1 

In 1632, William Warner, 2 a wealthy clothier of this 
parish and Pagenhill, bequeathed by will lands bought of John 
Redfern, of Haresfield,, yeoman, in " Clay Hill," and known 
as "Grate Hill," Middle Hill, Pignehill, 3 and in 1641, in an 
Inquisition taken at Paynswicke, on the death of his so T ~ 
Thomas Warner, it is shewn that lands here — two messuages 
and one and a half virgates, called Addams House and Downes 

1 Inquis. P.M., 8 Car. I., Part I, No. 5. Glos. and Bris. Record, Series I., 
p. 160. 

2 Rudder speaks of "a handsome house, formerly Warner's," after- 
wards Mr. Trye's, now the property of Mrs. Elizabeth Longford, descended 
by her mother from the Tryes. 

3 " John Warner, son of William Warner of Haresfield, in Gloucester- 
shire, was born there about 161 1, entered at Magdalen Hall, Oxon, 1628, 
being aged 17 years : took his degrees in Arts (M.A. 1635), and at length 
became Vicar of Christchurch, in Hampshire, where he was much resorted 
to by those of the Presbyterian persuasion. He wrote several Tracts in 
Divinity." — Wood, Ath. Oxon., vol. ii., p. 142. 

"Damna temporalia spiritualiter resarta."— Lond., 1643. 

" Diatribam fidei justificantis qua justificantes." — Oxon., 1657. 

Rudge's Glonc. 

Inq. P.M., 17 Car. 1., Part 3, No. 38; also, Glos. and Bris. Record 
Series, vol. ii., pp. 173 — 5. 



320 



Transactions for the Year 1894-95. 



Houre with appurtenances, closes of pasture, Great and 
Little Northfield, Longcroft, Puttingeworth, two acres arable 
belonging to a messuage called Dornie's house, "one acre in 
Brondfield at the Portway there," — were held in trust for 
Sarah his wife, daughter of William Machen, the said pre- 
mises being held of the King in chief by knight service, but 
by what part the jurors know not. 

We have little information concerning lands in the Upper 
division or Harescombe tithing, which includes that por- 
tion which adjoins the parish of Harescombe, and is said to 
have formerly been the demesnes of a castle, built by the 
De Bohuns (possibly in the vicinity of the Church of Hares- 
combe). The principal property in the last century belonged 
to James, Lord Sherborne, together with the great tythes. 

" The family of Roberts had a considerable estate, which 
descended by marriage to the Woods of Brockthrop, and is 
now (1798) jointly vested in the families of Clutterbuck and 
Peach." The Neale family also held lands here in 1816, — 
136 acres or thereabouts, — some of the field names suggesting 
the existence of an old manor house on the property — then 
destroyed ; e.g. Upper Park, Lower Park, Park Orchard 
and Old Buildings, and Lamp Acre. Other lands, consist- 
ing of seventy-three acres, belong to the Lysons Clergy 
Charity Trustees. 

Bigland writes : " The chief estate is attached to the Moat 
Place" — (this is the present " Haresfield Court") 2 — which 
was rebuilt in its present form by John Rogers, Esq., who was 
descended from the family settled at Dowdeswell, in 1670." 3 
It was the site, we believe, of the Manor House belonging to 
Lanthony Priory (as Leland writes : " There longid to this 
Priory many fayre Mannour Places ") : and in the course of 
improvements in 1890, old and massive foundations were 

1 Bigland. 

2 In 1 81 6, a deed describes Daniell John Niblett, the then owner, as of 
" Moat Place." 

3 For Pedigree of the family of Rogers, of Dowdeswell, Haresfield, and 
Okie Clifford, see Visitation of Gloucestershire, a.d. 1682-3. 



Haresfield : Manors and Church. 



321 



discovered stretching across the present lawn towards the 
Church. 

On the death of Mr. John Rogers, in 1683, he was suc- 
ceeded by his nephew, Richard Pulton, Gent., who, dying in 
1701, was buried in the chancel. Arms: On a fess Azure 
between three mullets three roundlets, for Pulton : impaling 
Rogers, Argent a Mullet Sable on a chief Gules, a Fleur-de- 
lis Or. 

Samuel Pulton, son of Richard, died Jan. 4, 1744, aged 
61 years, bequeathing to his nephew, Richard Pulton, son of 
his late brother Richard, all messuages, &c, of which he was 
seised (not in jointure), and the residue on the decease of his 
wife : also among numerous other bequests, ^"40 to the poor 
of Haresfield, "to be set out at interest in the name of his 
nephew Rich. Pulton and the Churchwardens, and afterwards 
in the name of the Churchwardens for ever." 

By Indenture dated June 25, 1764, Richard Pulton of 
Painswick, Apothecary, conveys to Samuel Niblett, of the 
City of Gloucester, all that Capital Messuage or Tenement 
in Haresfield, wherein ^Richard Pulton deceased, his father, 
dwelt — together with sundry fields of Pasture, — Church Croft, 
18 acres; Bibbingworth, 18 acres; Eddy Croft, 6; Oxleaze, 
8; Meads, 21 acres; also another messuage or tenement 
known as " Watsales,'' with Little Oldbury, Great Oldbury, 
Toots, &c. &c. 

" The Mount " and estate were held in the seventeenth 
century by the family of Roberts, of whom Lewis Roberts, 
Gent., dying June 9, 1679, lies buried under a flat stone in 
the Chancel. Anns: Parti per pale Argent and Gules, a 
Lion rampant Sable, impaling Gules seven Lozenges 3, 3, 1, 
conjoined Vaire on a Canton Or, a Mullet Sable, for Guise. 1 

A Conveyance dated 1716 refers to an earlier one of 
24 Car. II., and incidentally furnishes us with a glimpse of 
part of the ancient building known as "The Mount." In 
this, Lewis Roberts grants to John Gyse of Sandhurst, the 

1 He had married Elizabeth, daughter and co-heiress of William Gyse, 
of Lincoln's Inn and Gloucester: the said William Gyse died in 1641. 



322 



Transactions for the Year 1894-95. 



Capital Messuage or Mansion House in which he dwelt, and 
all buildings appertaining — " that part of the dwelling-house 
adjoining to the Great Old Stone house, and shooting towards the 
Moat, only excepted.''' 

Through marriage with Elizabeth, his daughter and 
heiress, this estate passed to Edw. Smyth of Nibley, Esquire, 
" a justice in Wales : " on her death, 1 she bequeathed by her 
last will, dated July 10, 1719, "all her Messuages, Mansion 
House, buildings, lands, &c, to her nephew Robert Brabant, 
Clerk, Rector of the parish church of Berkhampstead S. Peter, 
Herts., and to her niece Elizabeth, wife of Henry de Chair of 
London, Silk Mercer, subject to an Annuity of £6 to Catharine 
Blanch, and /200 to Henry de Chair in case he refused to 
release the same." 

We next meet with a Lease and Release of the date Oct. 
29-30, 1722, between Henry de Chair of London, Silk Mercer, 
and Elizabeth his wife (niece of said Elizabeth Smyth), of the 
one part, and Robert Brabant, Clerk, of the other part: it 
recites the above-mentioned will, and that the said estate was 
subject to a Rent Charge of £10 p. a. to Wm. Rogers, Esq. 
and his heirs, 2 and also £6 p. a. to Cath. Blanch, and wit- 
nesses that for ^955 paid by said R. Brabant in consideration 
that he had agreed to accept the estate subject to a former 
mortgage of ^"1000 (1700), and Rent Charges, the said Hen. 
de Chair and Elizabeth did grant, &c, "All that moiety or 
half part (the whole in two equal portions to be divided, &c.) 
devised to the said Robt. Brabant and Elizabeth de Chair by 
the will of Elizabeth Smyth, subject to the said mortgage : 
Covenant to levy a fine, ' Sur conuzance de droit come ceo 
&c,' which was duly levied (Mich. Term 9 George I., 1723), 

1 " Mrs. Smith, widow of Edw. Smith of Nibley, Esq., has likewise a 
handsome House Seat, and a good estate : she was the daughter and co- 
heiress of Mr. Roberts, formerly possessor of this estate." — Cf. Rudder. 

2 In 1727, William Rogers of Philberts, in the parish of Bray, Berks, 
bequeaths to his nephew John Rogers of Dowdeswell all his Manor or re- 
puted Manor of Dowdeswell, with the Advowson of the Parsonage, &c, 
also a Rent Charge of £10 p. a. bought of Colonel Gyse. In 1781, May 22, 
Wm. Rogers of Dowdeswell, Esq., and Anne his wife, release Annuity of 
£10 to Samuel Niblett, Esq., in consideration of /250. 



Haresfield : Manors and Church. 



between Robt. Brabant, Clk., and Hen. de Chair and 
Elizabeth his wife : Moiety of three Messuages, four Barns, 
three Stables, one Dovehouse, three Gardens, three Orchards, 
thirty acres land, forty acres Meadow, sixty acres Pasture^ 
seven acres Wood and Common of Pasture, with appurte- 
nances, in Haresfield and Standish." 

We have full particulars of this estate in other deeds : — 
All that Capital Messuage, Farm, or Mansion House, and 
all houses, buildings, orchards, &c, thereto belonging : several 
pieces of Arable land "laid down formerly and used as 
pasture ground." 

One Meadow or Pasture Ground, " Church Croft," 15 
acres. 

One Parcel Meadow or Pasture Ground, called 
" Tyning," with the little " Plott" adjoining, 
which pasture was then made into an Orchard 
lying before the Garden, containing ... ... 8 acres.. 

Piece Meadow or Pasture Ground, called 

"Yurphey," 4 „ 

Parcel Arable, " Eey field," 16 ,, 

do. do. " Windmill field," 16 ,, 

do. do. "Wadleys," 16 ,, 

with Common of Pasture, for one Yardland and half-quarter, 
in and upon all Commonable places belonging to the said 
premises, &c. 

Messuage called " Bishops," with all houses, &c, &c, 

viz., Close Pasture, " Home Close" 5 acres. 

Leasowe or Close of Pasture, " Windmill 

Leaze " i\ , r 

Close Pasture, " Budge Brooke " % ,, 

do. do. " Twenty lands " if ,, 

do. do. " Great Butter wells " 1 ,, 

Certain pieces or parcels Arable land lying in 

several Fields 16 

Parcel Meadow, " Ham " 9 „ 

Close Pasture or Enclosed Ground out of 

Windmill Field, called "Windmill Leaze," \\ ,, 



324 Transactions for the Year 1894-95. 

From the Trye family, the Manor passed to Sir Philip 
Yorke of the Middle Temple, knight, His Majesty's Attorney- 
General, in the manner following : 

Deed of Conveyance dated June 18 1726 (12 Geo I.) 
Thos Trye Esq, eldest son and heir of Wm Trye of Hardwick 
deceased, Francis Phillips Gent., Rich. Williamson Book- 
seller, of the first part : Sir Philip Yorke of the second part : 

Recites Act ot Parliament (passed 12 Geo 1.) "for vesting 
in Trustees the Manors of Hardwick and Haresfield, and 
other lands in the Co. of Gloucester, the Estate of Thos Trye 
Esq, to be sold for the payment of his debts and for certain 
other purposes. Manors &c charged to Phillips in ^13,732 : 
said Wm. Trye seised in lifetime of Tythes, of Corn Sheaf 
and hay in the Manor of Hardwick, Colthrop, Manor of 
Rudge, and scite of Manor, by Lease of Edward, bishop of 
Gloucester. 

Purchase money paid by Sir Philip Yorke ^25,338 8s. : 
includes capital Messuage in Hardwick, and now called 
the New Deer Park, 1 1 containing by estimation 70 acres 
before the same was converted into a Park : " Grove or 
Woodland Ground, 30 acres, lying upon or near Eastbury 
Hill, and adjoining to a certain Parke formerly of Sir Ralph 
Dutton Bart, on the south-east. Also that other Grove of 40 
acres on the North side of the said hill, Also lands purchased 
by the grandfather of the said Thos Trye of one Mynett, 
Also the old Deer Park, 30 acres, &c, &c. Also, the Advowson, 
Donation, &c, of, in and to the Parish Church of Haresfield. 1 

1 Philip Yorke, Earl of Hardwicke, was the only son of a Solicitor at 
Dover; born 1690; of the Middle Temple, barrister at law. He attained 
the highest eminence in the legal profession : he became Solicitor-General 
and was knighted in 1719, at the early age of 29; Attorney-General four 
years later, and this office he held till 1733, when he was elevated to 
the bench and peerage as Lord Chief Justice of the King's Bench, and 
created Baron Hardwicke of Hardwicke, Co. Gloucester, November 23. 

In 1736-7, he became Lord Chancellor, and in 1754 rose to a Viscountcy 
and Earldom by the title of Viscount Royston and Earl of Hardwicke. 
He was Lord High Steward of England in 1746 at the trials of the Earls 
Kilmarnock and Cromartie, and Lords Balmerino and Lovat. 

It is upon his judgments as Chancellor that his reputation is chiefly 
founded. He held the Great Seal during nearly twenty years, dispensing 



Haresfield : Manors and Church. 



325 



An Act of Parliament was passed, 15 George II., " for 
the more and effectually carrying into execution certain 
articles of agreement made before and in consideration 
of the marriage of the Hon ble Philip Yorke Esq with the 
most Hon We Jemima now Marchioness Grey 1 and for other 
purposes &c therein mentioned." 

It recites an agreement, 19 May, 1740, between Henry 
Duke of Kent, John Lord Glenorchy and the Hon ble Jemima 
Campbell only child of Lord Glenorchy by Amabel, deceased, 
eldest daughter of the Duke of Kent ; Philip Lord Hardwicke 
■and " the Hon. Philip Yorke Esq " his eldest son and heir 
apparent, and states that a marriage being intended between 
Philip Yorke and Jemima Marchioness Grey, Lord Hardwicke 
covenanted, &c, to settle all his Manors, Messuages, Tythes, 
&c, in the Counties of Cambridge, Hertford, and Gloucester 
— of the yearly value of ^"4,600, to the use of Trustees upon 
trusts therein declared, and to the use of the first and all other 
sons of the said Philip and Jemima, in tail male : Also, upon 
trust to pay a yearly rent charge of £"1,000 to Mary Lady 
Hardwicke in bar of Dowpr, &c, and ^"1,600 p. a. to the 
Marchioness Grey in bar of Dower. The said marriage was 
solemnized May 22nd, 1740, and the articles of that date are 
declared to be duly ratified, except so far as varied by the 
said Act : Inter alia, the Manor and Lordship of Harsfield als 
Haresfield, Co. Glouc, and also the Advowson, Donation 
&c. and free disposition of and in the Parish Church of 

justice with the most consummate skill at a time when the principles of 
equity jurisdiction were by no means in a settled state. 

" He has transmitted to posterity an unblemished name as a lawyer, a 
judge, and a statesman. In private life he was benevolent and pious, and 
his gentle and engaging manners gained him the affection, as his public 
virtues secured him the esteem, of all who knew him. As an orator he was 
clear, graceful and impressive." A paper in the Spectator, No. 364, with 
the signature " Philip Homebred " is attributed to him. He married Mrs. 
Margaret Lygon, daughter of Chas. Cocks, Esq., M.P. for the City of 
Worcester, and niece of Lord Somers and Sir Joseph Jekyll, then Master 
-of the Rolls, by whom he had five sons and two daughters. 

He died in 1764, March 6, at the age of 73. 

1 She became Baroness Lucas of Crudwell, and Marchioness Grey, on 
the death of her grandfather, the Duke of Kent. 



326 Transactions for the Year 1894-95. 



Harsfield &c. Also all Manors Lordships Messuages &c. 
within the several towns or parishes of Haresfield and Hard- 
wicke purchased of Thos. Trye, and Francis Phillips and 
Rich. Williamson, his trustees, and conveyed to Philip Earl 
of Hardwicke by Indenture of Lease and Release and Bar- 
gain and Sale enrolled respectively 17-18 June, 1726. Also,, 
all that Capital Messuage Farm or Manor House and all 
other in the said parish purchased of Mark Thurston Esq. 
and Benjamin Robertshaw Clerk, and conveyed to Lord 
Hardwicke and his heirs by Indenture of Lease and Release 
22-3 April 1736: and all other Lands Manors &c. in the 
Counties of Cambridge, Hertford, and Gloucester in wh. said 
Philip Lord Hardwicke was seised, should after May 1, 1742 be 
vested in and settled upon Thomas Holies Duke of Newcastle, 
John Earl of Breadalbane and their heirs upon the trusts 
declared and expressed, To the use of the said Lord Glenorchy, 
the Hon ble John Idle Esq. Lord Chief Baron of the 
Exchequer in Scotland, and Grey Longueville Esq., &c, for 
the term of 1000 years, to the use of Philip Yorke his eldest 
son and heir, &.c. 

Also certain Tythes within the Manor of Hardwicke, 
demised by Right Rev. Joseph Lord Bishop of Gloucester, 
27 March 1727 to the said Philip Lord Hardwicke (then Sir. 
Phil. Yorke, Knt.) and his heirs, for lives of self, Philip 
his heir, and Carleton Hayward Gent, and the life of the 
longest liver of them all, should be vested and settled in the 
said Longueville and Hutton Perkins upon trust, &c, from 
May 1, 1742 : Also, that Rectory Impropriate of Haresfield^ 
Tythes Hereditaments &c. purchased in fee simple and 
inheritance of Wm. Long and Wm. Holbrow, for the sum of 
^1,050, April 7-8, 1762. 

By his last will, dated Nov. 22, 1761, Philip Earl of 
Hardwicke bequeaths all his Manors, &c, in Co. Gloucester, 
subject to terms, limitations and trusts of the aforesaid Act, 
to his second son, Charles Yorke, H.M. Solicitor-General; 
and declaring that on the marriage of his eldest son, he was 
to exonerate his settled estates from the portions of his 



= Haresfield : Manors and Church. 327 

younger children, gives all residue of his personal estate to 
trustees to pay such portions by rents, mortgages or sales : 
Philip Viscount Royston, sole executor. By codicil, May 7, 
1762, he gives and demises the Impropriate Rectory of 
Haresfield lately purchased, to his trustees on trusts already 
declared as to the residue of his estate. 

On the marriage of Philip Yorke with Lady Elizabeth 
Lindsay, youngest daughter of James Earl of Balcarras, in 
1782, settlements were made on Hamels and Tittenhanger, 
Co. Herts, in which it was agreed that if by the death of 
Philip Earl of Hardwicke, s.p., Philip Yorke should come into 
possession of the manors and lands so limited, these rent 
charges should be transferred thereto : this event happening 
previous to April, 1790, Philip Earl of Hardwicke (described 
as heretofore Philip Yorke, Esq., eldest son and heir apparent 
of the Right Hon. Chas. Yorke, deceased, formerly H.M.'s 
Solicitor-General, and grandson and heir of Philip Earl of 
Hardwicke, Lord Chancellor) by Indenture exonerates 
Hamels and Tittenhanger, and grants to Elizabeth Countess 
of Hardwicke a rent charge of ^"1,200 issuing and payable 
out of all manors messuages &c, by the will of his grand- 
father devised to him, and as regarded provision for younger 
children grants all such manors to trustees to pay these 
portions : — 

Among the lands, &c, in Haresfield so charged are enumer- 
ated a messuage or tenement formerly copyhold in the tenure 
of Thos. Birte and Richard Chewe, all manors messuages &c. 
purchased by Wm. Trye of George Mynett and others: 
Green Park, Little Park, purchased of Wm. Trye Esq. : 
u Richards," " Bishops," " Yelfes," &c, Meadow and Arable 
lands, viz., Broadfield, Pardonfield, Whitstonfield, Messuage, 
Farm, or Mansion House with lands, Church Croft, Wadley, 
&c, together with the Rectory and Parish Church, and all 
other Manors, &c, by the last will of the first Earl, limited 
and devised in trust for Philip Earl of Hardwicke. 

On the sale of the Earl of Hardwicke's Estates in 1808, 
the Haresfield portion was purchased by Mr. Daniel John 



328 Transactions for the Year 1894-95. 

Niblett, and the Hardwicke by Mr. Parker, a London mer- 
chant, from whom, in the course of a few years, it was pur- 
chased by Mr. Thomas John Lloyd Baker, F.S.A., and it is 
now held by G. E. Lloyd Baker, Esq., who resides at 
Hardwicke Court. 

The Haresfield Estate has now passed into the possession 
of Robert Ingham Tidswell, Esq., who has also lately 
acquired the Advowson and is now the Patron of the Vicarage. 
He has greatly added to the improvements made by the former 
owner, Arthur E. Niblett, Esq., by the erection of a new 
wing to "Haresfield Court," formerly known as "The Moat 
Place." 

THE BENEFICE. 

As we have seen, "the Church of Haresfield" was granted 
to the Priory of Lanthony in Gloucester in 1161 by Henry of 
Hereford. A Vicarage was subsequently ordained, but no 
record remains, as it would be anterior to the year 1268, 
when the Episcopal Registers of the diocese of Worcester 
commence. The Rectory remained in the possession of the 
Prior and Convent till the dissolution of Religious Houses. 
When W T olsey had sketched his plan for the reform of the 
Church, and the confiscation of the property of the lesser 
monasteries became probable, it appears to have been com- 
mon to let the Rectories on Lease : the lessee frequently the 
bailiff of the Convent. In the year 1536 (27 Henry VIII.) 
this Rectory was thus leased "to Thomas Rolles, Elianor 
his wife, and Bartholomew, George* Walter, and William 
their sons, for the term of sixty years, if they should so long 
live or any one of them, paying £9 18s. 8d. for the farm, of 
all Tythes of Corn and Hay, Flax and Hemp, Tythes of the 
Herbage lying and being within the Parish of Haresfield, and 
to the aforesaid Rectory belonging, excepting and reserving 
all Tythes whatsoever arising from and in the Park of Hares- 
field." These leases, as it was suspected, being sometimes 
fraudulent, they were subject to examination by the Com- 
missioners, but if approved duly enrolled. This seems to have 



Haresfield : Manors and Church. 329. 

been the case here, the Rolles family remained " lord farmers " 
till the expiration of the period in the early years to James I., 
when by Letters Patent under the Great Seal, dated July 17 K 
3 Jac. I. (1606), at the humble petition of Sir Thomas Sherley 
Knight, 1 the King granted all that Rectory and Church of 
Haresfield lately appertaining to the Monastery or Priory of 
Lanthony, and all messuages, lands, tythes, &c, to Lawrence 
Baskerville, Gent., and William Blake, Scrivener. 

" To be holden of the King's Majesty as of the Manor of 
East Greenwiche, Co. Kent, in free and common socage for 
and under the yearly rent or farm of £g 18s. 8d. to be paid 
to our said Soverign lord the King's Majesty his heirs &c. at 
the ffeaste of St. Michael the Archangel, and th' annunciation 
of the Blessed Virgin Mary, by even and equal portions." 

In the following year Lawrence Baskerville and Will. 
Blake "for a certain sum of money" grant the same to John 
Snowdon of Staples Inn Gent, and Edw. Abdye Citizen 
and Goldsmith. After which Sir Thomas Sherley of Wiston 
Co. Sussex Knt., Humphrey Abdye of London Gent., 
John Snowdon of Staples Inn Gent., and Edward Abdye of 
London Citizen and Goldsmith, convey to John Lloyde of 
Great Witcombe in the County of the City of Gloucester,. 
Clerk, and John Wayte of Whaddon Gent., for the con- 
sideration of ^320, All that Rectory and Parish Church of 
Haresfield, with all rights, members, and appurtenances,, 
tythes, meadows, demesne lands, &c, &c. 

In 12 Jac. I. (1614) Sept. 29, John Lloyde of Great Wit- 
combe, Clerk, grants the Rectory, Tythes, lands, &c, to John 
Hamons of Lynton in the County of Gloucester, Clothier, 
for the sum of ^"820. The yearly rent or farm, £g 18s. 8d., 
still payable to the Crown. 

No further dealing takes place till Aug. 25, 31 Car. II. 
(1679), when John Hamonds of Lynton in the Parish of 
Churcham conveys the same to Trustees (Nich. Webb of; 

1 State Papers, James I., p. 125. " Grant to Sir Thomas Sherley in Fee 
farm of Parsonages Impropriate and Tythes to the value of /iooo per 
annum" (Docquet). 



33o Transactions for the Year 1894-95. 

Gloucester Gent, the elder, and John Browne of Church- 
downe Gent.) for the benefit of his daughter Katharine, 
about to marry Thomas Webb of the City of Gloucester 
Gent., son of the said Nicholas Webb. 

By Indenture, dated 21 Geo. II. (1747), Feb. 11, Thomas 
Webb, of Slimbridge, Gent., son and heir of Thomas Webb 
of the City of Gloucester and Katharine his wife deceased, 
conveys the Rectory, &c, to William Jones and John Taylor 
of the City of Bristol, Gent, (reciting a mortgage of ^500 in 
1739 to Lodge, Durbin and others, principal not paid), con- 
firming to Jones and Taylor the Rectory and Parish Church 
with all lands and appurtenances, &c, " within the Town- 
fields " lately belonging to the dissolved Priory of Lanthony, 
near Gloucester. 

A few years later (1762, April 8), Philip Earl of Hard- 
wicke contracts and agrees with Wm. Long of Dursley, 
Mercer, and Wm. Holbrow of the same, Gent. — with the 
consent of Wm. Worlock and Catharine his wife, Wm. 
Williams and Elizabeth his wife (Catherine and Elizabeth, 
co-heiresses of Thomas Webb late of Slimbridge, deceased) 
for the absolute purchase of the Rectory and Parish Church 
together with all tythes lands &c. &c. for the sum of 
^1,050. 

There is also an assignment of the same to the "Honble. 
John Yorke Esquire," in trust for the Right Honble. the Earl 
of Hardwicke. 

The Register of the Priory of Lanthony 1 has preserved to 
us an interesting record of the settlement of a question con- 
cerning Tithes payable to the Vicar at the beginning of the 
fourteenth century : — 

" Be it remembered that in the year of the Lord 1319, the 
fourth Kalends of August, a dispute having arisen between 
Sir Thomas perpetual vicar of Haresfield, and the parishioners 
of the whole Church concerning the form of demand and the 
payment of the lesser tithes of the Church, and in order that 
the intricacies of the matters in dispute on both sides should 
1 Thirlestaine House Library. 



Haresfield : Manors and Church. 331 



be settled, it pleased the said Vicar for himself and his 
successors, and the lords of the ville of Haresfield, viz., the 
lord John de Bohun, the lord Herbert Fitzjohn, Knight, and 
the prior of Lanthony near Gloucester, personally appearing 
with all the parishioners of the said Church — That hereafter 
instead of Tithe of Milk for cow and calf, if they retained the 
calf three halfpence should be payable, and if the calf were 
sold, the tenth penny should be paid without delay ; and if 
the ewes should bring forth young, for every five sheep in the 
name of tithe of milk, one penny should be paid ; and if cheese 
be made, in the place of tithe they should offer the tenth 
cheese, as is the lawful custom. 

u Item, concerning Gardens, that they should pay the 
tenth bushel of Apples and Pears : — or if they make cyder, the 
tenth ' lagena ' in the place of tithe. . . . Item, that if any 
portions of the fields or cultivated lands of whatsoever desig- 
nation should cease to be cultivated, from which the Prior of 
Lanthony as rector of the said Church has been accustomed 
to receive the tenth : notwithstanding that they have been 
transferred into Orchards and Gardens ... let the tenth 
be paid to the said prior from the whole land, together with 
that from the portions of Meadow, from which hitherto the 
tenth has appertained to the said prior. And if any part 
of the Orchards and Gardens up to the present time have been 
transferred into fields, or hereafter shall be so transferred, 
from which the vicar was accustomed to receive tithe, with- 
out any reclamation whatsoever, by whomsoever disturbed 
or transferred, let the said vicar receive and have the tenth 
for ever. And the vicar for himself and his successors, and the 
lords of the said ville, with the assent of all the parishioners 
of the whole parish aforesaid, in consenting to this ordinance 
and agreement have determined that it be made in two parts, 
of which one part sealed with the seal of the said lords shall 
remain in the hands of the vicar, and the other part shall be 
in the custody of the Prior of Lanthony at Lanthony, to which 
in consent they have appended their seals and at their in- 
stance and request the seal of the deanery of Gloucester is 

Vol. XIX. 



332 Transactions for the Year 1894-95. 



also affixed in perpetual memory of this transaction. Given 
at Haresfeld on the aforesaid day and year." 

The " Taxation of Pope Nicholas " (1291) contains little or 
no information as to the Vicar's portion in the Church of 
Haresfield. The Rectors (Prior and Convent of Lanthony) 
are assessed at ^"4 6s. 8d. ; portion of the same in the Church 
of Harescumbe and Pychenecambe, 5s. in money : Vicar's 
portion in the same, is. : portion of the Abbot of Tewkes- 
bury, 10s. 

In the Valor Eccles. (1535) we have " the clear value of the 
vicarage in rents and farms together with Tythes and other 
Oblations there, beyond 6s. 8d. paid to the Archdeacon for 
Procurations, 2s. lor Synodals, and thirteen pence to the lord 
the Bishop at his visitation according to the rate of each 
third year 3s. 4d., 'minus in toto' id." — ^"13 3s. 5-Jd. Tenths, 
£1 6s. 4^d. 

The "Parliamentary Survey" during the time of the 
Commonwealth (1650) contains the following report : — " That 
in Harsfeild is a Vicaridge worth about fiftie pounds per 
ann. That Mr. Anthony Andrewes a constant Preacher is 
the present Minister and takes the Profitts thereof. It hath 
in it about 130 families and wee consider that Cowlthrop a 
hamlet of the parish of Standish, it is fit t to be united to 
Harsfeild. . . . Lodge House and Oakey Farm are fitt 
to be united to the Parish of Moreton Valence." 

The Terriers, given in the Appendix (1678 and 1705), 
supply particulars as to the glebe, 22 acres 3 roods 10 perches, 
belonging to the Vicarage, and the tythes then payable ; these 
latter were commuted in 1816, when by the Enclosure Award, 
132 acres 2 roods 9 perches were allotted in lieu of all Vicarial 
Tythes : and for the Rectorial (in the hands of the Impro- 
priators) 262 acres 3 roods 20 perches, — so that the lands of 
the parish are now free of all manner of tythe. 

As to the Vicarage House, we gather from the Terrier of 
1705 that it had fallen into decay and had been for the 
most part demolished before the year 1678. We have no 
information as to the rebuilding, but Rudder in 1779 writes: 



Haresfield : Manors and Church. 



333 



" The Vicarage House is a very good one, with handsome 
gardens and a fishpond." This, it appears, was destroyed 
by fire previously to the year 1792, soon after which date the 
Vicar, with the consent of the Bishop, and patron, Lord 
Hardwicke, mortgaged the glebe for the purpose of raising 
money for building; this must have been delayed, for it 
would seem that the new house was not erected before 1807; 
to be succeeded in its turn, about 1846, by the present large 
and imposing house, built at the cost of the patron, Daniel 
John Niblett, Esq. 



VICARS OF HARESFIELD. 



Instituted 
1236-66 ... 
1279 

1319 
1371 

1375 Dec. il 



r 4 i 7 

*449 

1450 March 16 



1464 July 20 



i486 July 19 



M93 



Master Gilbert (*) 

Confirmation of above 

Sir Robert, Chaplain 

Sir Thomas, Perpetual Vicar ... 
***** 

Sir John Cade 

Sir Nicolas atte Hooke de Aure, 
on exchange of benefices 
with Sir John Cade ( 2 ) 

Sir Richard Hinbere, Pres- 
byter, vacant by death of 
Sir Nicolas Hooke, last 
Vicar (3) 

Sir John Clot 

Sir John Wathe 

Sir John Gregory, Chaplain, 
vacant by death of Sir John 
Wathe (*) 

Sir Philip Horan, Chaplain, 
vacant by of Sir John 

Gregory ( 5 ) 

Sir William Harp 

Sir Thomas Smith, Chaplain, 
vacant by resignation, on 
pension, of Sir Wm. Harp( 6 ) 

Sir Godfrey Johnes, vacant by 
death of Sir Thomas Smith( 7 ) 



Patrons. 

Prior and Convent 
of Lanthony 

Do. 

Prior and Convent 
of Lanthony 
Do. 
Do. 



Do. 



Do. 
Do. 
Do. 



Do. 



Do. 
Do. 



Do. 



334 



Transactions for the Year 1894-95. 
VICARS OF HARESFIELD (continued). 



Instituted. 

1517 Aug. 17 

1546 Sept. 12 

1554 J ul y 2 4 

1556 May 30 

1571 May 20 

1577 March 1 



1624 
1627 
1629 
1630 



1679 
1712 
1737 
1738 
1779 
1780 
1825 
1826 



Feb. 11 
May 31 
April 17 
June 17 
July 29 
Sept. 16 
Nov. 11 
April 26 
Oct, 21 



1836 Sept. 10 



Sir Richard Botlow, vacant by 
death of Sir Godfrey Jones( 7 ) 

Sir William Houghton 

Sir Henry Kyrke, vacant by 
death of Sir Wm. Houghton 

Sir Richard Hudson, Chaplain, 
vacant by deprivation of Sir 
Henry Kyrke, for matrimony 

Sir John Jennyns, vacant ■ De 
Jure.' 

Thomas Lewis, vacant by death 

of Sir John Jennyns 

Thomas Price 

Thomas Woodcock, ( 9 ) vacant 

by resignation of Thomas 

Price 



Thomas Woodcock, Junior 

Robert Alford ( 10 ) 

Thomas Woodcock 

Robert Bright ("■) 

Anthony Andrewes, M.A. ( 12 )... 
Richard Capel, M.A., vacant 

by death of Anth. Andrewes 
Henry Abbot, M.A., vacant by 

death of Richard Capel 
James Commeline, B.A., vacant 

by death of Henry Abbot 
James Commelyne, M.A. , vacant 

by cession of Jas. Commeline 
William Steele, LL.B., vacant 

by death of Jas. Commeline 
Thomas Rudge, B.D., void by 

promotion of William Steele 
Samuel Commeline 

Charles Loder Stephens, B.A., 
vacant by death of Samuel 
Commeline 

Edward Henry Niblett, M.A..., 



Patrons. 

Prior and Convent 
of Lanthony 
Do. 

Sir Anthony Kings- 
ton, Knight 
John Andrewes, Esq., 
by grant of Sir 
Anthony Kings- 
ton, Knight 

Sir Thomas Dye, 
Knight 

Sir Henry Jerning- 
ham, Knight 

John Stubbs, Esq., 
by assignment of 
grant of Lady 
Frances Jerning- 
ham, June 3, 1576 

John Stubbs, Esq. 



William Trye, of 

Painswick, Esq. 
Thomas Webb, Esq. 

''pro hac vice." 
Lord Hardwicke 

Philip, Earl of Hard- 
wicke 

Philip, Earl of Hard- 
wicke 

Earl of Hardwicke 

Daniel John Niblett, 
Esq. 
Do. 



Do. 



Haresfield : Manors and Church. 
VICARS OF HARESFIELD (continued). 



335 



Instituted. 
1853 Feb. 21 

1890 Dec. 6... 
1894 Dec. 6... 

1896 Sept. 24 



William Hirzel Le Marchant, 

D.D., vacant by resignation 

of E. H. Niblett 
Cecil Henry Salt, vacant by 

resignation of Dr.Le Marchant 
Geoffrey Barrington Simeon, 

M.A., vacant by resignation 

of C. H. Salt , 
Arthur James Maclean, M.A., 

vacant by resignation of G. 

B. Simeon 



Patrons. 

Daniel J ohn Niblett , 
Esq. 

Arthur Edward 
Niblett, Esq. 

Henry Sandford, 
Esq. 

Robert Ingham 
Tidswell, Esq. 



1 Reg. Giffard, fol. 43. 

2 Reg. Lymme, fol. 17. 

3 Reg. Wakefield, fol. 2. 

7 Reg. Sylv. Giglis, fol. 121. 
0 Reg. Transcripts, Glouc. 



4 Reg. Carpenter, fol. 158. 

5 Reg. Carpenter, fol. 186. 

6 Reg. Alcock, fol. 159. 

9 Rector of St. Mary de Crypt, 
Gloucester, 1576. 



11 "Ego Robertus Bright huius Parochiae Vicar, recepi possession^ 
ecclesiae V° die Junii, a.d. 1630." — Haresfield Register. 

12 Trin. Coll., Oxon. Matric. 16 Oct., 1621. JEt. 17. B.A. 5 July, 
1625. M.A. 11 June, 1629. 

We have little information as to the earlier incumbents, 
but Master Gilbert, Clerk of St. Owen's and Vicar of Hares- 
field, appears to have been a man of some note, a Canon of 
Lanthony, and also "Dean of Gloucester." 

Having lost casu fortuito vel alias his letters of admission or 
institution to this Vicarage by Walter, formerly Bishop, he 
was confirmed in the possession of his benefice by Bishop 
Godfrey Giffard by letters given at Wotton, Jan. 30, 1279. 

The Lanthony Register records the settlement of a dispute 
which had arisen between the Abbey of St. Peter's and that 
Priory concerning " the burial of the body of Master Gilbert, 
Clerk of St. Owens, and one of our brethren, then Vicar of 
Haresfield and Dean of Gloucester." 1 

Anthony Andrewes, " a constant preacher," was Vicar 

1 Thirlestame House Library, vol. — , No. 144. 



336 Transactions for the Year 1894-95. 

throughout the Great Rebellion, and after the Restoration 
became also Vicar of Standish and Prebendary of Glou- 
cester, in the sixth Stall, 1665. Archdeacon Rudge was a 
pluralist indeed, holding together the rectory of St. Michael's, 
Gloucester, the Mastership of the Crypt School till 1802, 
the Chancellorship of Hereford, the Archdeaconry of Glou- 
cester, we presume with the accompanying Rectory of 
Dursley ! He was the editor of a most useful epitome of 
Atkyns' Gloucestershire. He was interred in the nave of this 
church, where a brass plate 'has been lately inserted in a 
decaying slab, by the kindness of Mrs. King, of Standish 
House. 1 

THE CHURCH. 

The church consists of nave without aisles, " two Chan- 
cels, one beyond the other," north and south porches, and a 
handsome tower, with an octagonal spire ribbed at the angles, 
and with elegant spire lights, at the west end. The tower is 
of three stages and embattled, with projecting gurgoyles ; the 
lower stage has a Decorated western window, deeply splayed, 
of two lights, with trefoils and quatrefoil heading. In the 
next stage are two plain openings, one above the other, on 
the west and north and south (one on the south being appar- 
ently concealed by the clock). In the belfry story are four 
two-light windows. The entrance to the belfry staircase is 
now on the outside, but originally it was from within the 
church. The staircase is not wholly included in the tower, 
but is an addition to the fabric on the north side, yet evidently 
made when the tower was built, since the position of the 
lights on the second story has been altered to harmonize 
therewith. The suggested date is circa 1360. 

Bigland states (1784) that "the last repairs on the inside 
are said to have interfered with many vestiges of antiquity, 
which are either concealed or destroyed ; " and unhappily 
subsequent repairs and partial rebuilding have had a further 
tendency in the same direction. In 1841 the church was 
1 For epitaph, see Glouc. Notes and Queries, vol. ii., p. 372. 



Haresfield : 



Manors 



and Church. 



337 



declared to be " the most unsightly building of those around," 
''lacking accommodation for the parishioners, unwholesome, 
uncomfortable, and squalid in appearance." 1 A few years 
later, necessary repairs were made, some portions of the 
fabric apparently being entirely rebuilt, at a cost of ^640, of 
which £110 was required for the chancels. A remarkable 
feature is the existence of two chancels. We have the same 
arrangement in Painswick Church, both churches appertain- 
ing to the Prior and Convent of Lanthony, and having, we 
believe, the same dedication. 2 Perhaps the easternmost in 
each instance was intended for the Lady Chapel. Another 
explanation has, however, been suggested, viz., that in these 
two chancels, in one or both cases, we see the size of the 
ancient Church or Chapel of the Manor: 3 the nave with tower 
and spire being an addition, as wealth and population 
increased. Of these two chancels, that adjoining the nave 
belongs to the Impropriator, and the further one to the Vicar, 
and it is in the former that much archaeological interest 
centres, since " some remains of a more ancient church," says 
Archdeacon Rudge (a « former Vicar), "are still seen in the 
north wall of the Impropriator's Chancel," but this has been 
so renewed as to present but an imitation of the original 
Norman window — exceedingly narrow and short, with chevron 
mouldings and shafts. The arch dividing these two chancels 
has probably been removed. 

1 " A Sermon preached in the Parish Church of Haresfield on Sunday, 
Aug, 8, 1841, by the Rev. E. H. Niblett, B.A., Vicar, Printed by particular 
request. Gloucester, Printed for Private Circulation only, Thos. Jew 
Westgate St. 1841." 

2 Inscription over porch : " Conventus Lantone de Seta Maria." 

3 This was evidently the case at Stroud. "Rudder, who saw and 
described the church about 1777, says, ' It has two chancels, and the 
original [nave of the] chapel is now the inner chancel, with a small kind of 
spire in whose base hang two little bells, just above the roof of the chapel.' 
This was the chapel mentioned in the ancient Composition with the 
Rectors of Bisley in 1304. It was 33 feet long by 16 feet wide. The first 
addition made to it was the steeple and so much of the nave as served to 
unite it with the low arched entrance to the chapel." — Cf. Notes and Recol- 
lections of Stroud, by P. H. Fisher, ch. 50. 



338 Transactions for the Year 1894-95. 



During the course of the repairs, it is said that the east 
window was removed to the adjoining Church of Hardwick, 
and a new one substituted in its place. The font is of lead. 

The only antiquities worth notice (according to Bigland) 
were three recumbent effigies under arcades, a " Croisader," 
and two females. Of these the former, a wooden effigy of a 
knight, has utterly disappeared — apparently destroyed. 1 The 
latter are probably memorials of ladies of that branch of the 
De Bohun family which was resident at Haresfield, or of the 
Fitz-Herberts : the more perfect is that of a widow with 
wimple, &c. ; the other, representing an unmarried lady, has 
been considerably renovated. 

A stone coffin, which we may conclude from the leaden or 
latten paten — diameter \\ inches — found in it (and now pre- 
served in the vestry) contained the remains of one of the 
former vicars of the church, was discovered in the western 
chancel during the alterations. This may now be seen at the 
north-west corner of the churchyard, near the moat. At the 
same time the skeleton of a female (which crumbled into 
dust on exposure to the air) was discovered near the founda- 
tions of the north wall of the nave, in the neighbourhood of 
the smaller effigy (mentioned above), now repaired and placed 
in the chancel. The date of this is said to be about the 
middle of the 14th century. A tooth, in excellent preserva- 
tion, was found with the skeleton. The Impropriator's 
chancel has a priest's door and a Decorated three-light window 
on the south, and the Vicar's a trefoil-headed single light on 
the north and south. On a coign immediately above the 
nave buttress on the north side is a piece of rude sculpture, 
perhaps representing David and his sling. 

Sir Stephen Glynne visited Haresfield in 1850 — unfortu- 
nately subsequently to the restoration of the Church ; other- 
wise his Notes would have afforded most valuable information 
(now almost altogether missing) as to the fabric before that 
event. 

He writes : " This church has been lately in great measure 
1 MSS. Notes of late J. D. T. Niblett, Esq., F.S.A. 




EARLY RUDE SCULPTURE 
HARESFIELD CHURCH. 



LAVAR8 AND Co., BRISTOL 



•TOiSlUO ••OO ON* 



'HDUflHD Q7EMS3XVH 



- -. - — - . , 




Haresfield : Manors and Church. 



339 



rebuilt, but retaining the original character, and on the old 
foundations. It comprises a nave without aisles, and, what 
is curious and unusual, a double chancel, i.e., in two com- 
partments, one being a sort of ante-choir or presbytery. 
There is a western tower with stone spire. Some of the 
chancel is original and of Norman character. The western 
portion has a Norman window on the north side, very narrow 
and deeply-splayed— presenting to the interior, chevron, 
mouldings and shafts. The arch between the nave and the 
western chancel is pointed, on octagonal corbels- ending in 
points ; that between the two chancels springs from short 
shafts with octagonal capitals, terminating in points with 
foliage. The east window is Third- Pointed of three lights^ 
and north and south of the Sacrarium is a trefoil-headed 
lancet, filled with modern stained glass. In the Sacrarium 
is a Credence. In the north wall of the west chancel is an 
ogee sepulchral arch with double feathering, and flanked by 
crocketed pinnacles ; under it are the effigies of two ladies, 
one in a wimple, one with braided hair ; on the slab is a 
cornice of shields and heagls of animals. There is a rood 
screen in the first chancel arch, and the chancel is filled with 
stalls. The windows of the nave, and on the south of the 
first chancel are Middle-Pointed, of two lights. The roof of 
the chancel is boarded and high-pitched ; the seats are open, 
and much pains have been taken in the restoration and em- 
bellishment of the church. There is a western gallery, and 
a finger-organ. The Tower Arch is discontinuous — dying 
into the walls. There are north and south porches, covered 
with flags, and nearly similar ; the outer doors have con- 
tinous orders : the inner one on the south is segmental ; that 
on the north is Norman, having the tympanum filled with 
lozengy work. The tower is three stages in height — has no 
west door, but a nice Middle-Pointed window of two lights. 
The Belfry windows are of two lights ; the parapet em- 
battled ; the Spire octagonal and ribbed, with one row of 
spire-lights in the same tier. There is an oblong turret on 
the north-east, reaching up to the Belfry — with outer door, 



340 Transactions for the Year 1894-95. 



and buttresses up to the second stage — the lower part pedi- 
mented. There are pretty gable crosses to the nave and 
chancel. The Font is of lead, circular, having a range of 
trefoiled arches upon shafts, on a cylindrical stem. The 
nave and the two chancels diminish in width, in a telescopic 
manner. April 26, 1850." 

In 6 Edward VI. " The Churchwardens of ' Harsevyld' 
present that the Rooffe of the ChaunCell there lacketh 
reparacon ... of the late Priorie of Lanthone now beyinge 
in the Kyrige's hand." 1 

The Certificate of the Commissioners appointed, 2 Edward 
VI., to "take the Survey of all Colleges, Chaunteries, Free 
Chapels and other like, within the Countie and Cities " of 
Gloucester, gives but a meagre account in this instance. We 
might have expected to find here records of Chantries endowed, 
of ornaments, plates, and jewels for the same, of lands given 
for anniversaries to be observed, to maintain lamps and 
lights, to feed the poor, bequests of stocks of sheep, or cows, 
or bees, or money yielding an annual return for various 
charitable works, as in many other parishes ; 2 but we only 
meet with a gift for the observance of one such anniversary : 
Gloucester Deanery. 
133. Harsefilde 

Lande gevyn to finde an obitte there 
The yerelie value therof vij di 

The Vestry Books furnish some particulars as to the con- 
dition of the fabric, and repairs required from time to time. 

1 " Liber Gen. Omcialis." 

2 Such as e.g. in 

Colde Aston : A stocke of ij Kyne geven to have dirige & masse seyd there 

twise eny yere, for the hyre of the same Kyne w ch was yerelie iij s - iv d -. 

And they are priced to be woorthe xix s - Distributed to the poore oute 

of the hyre yerelie, viij d -. 
Hampnett : A stocke of ix Shepe given to finde & mainteigne certeyn Tapers 

on the Roode lofte there — which are priced att x s> vj d -. 
Hardwicke : Certein lande geven to finde a lampe there, To the yerelie 

value of xj d - the whole. Distributed to the poor as above vj d -. 
Ashelwoorthe: Oon Cowe & a heyfer gevyn to maynteine certeyn lights there 

the same priced att xiij s - To the poor nil. 



Haresfield : Manors and Church. 341 

In 1 75 1 it was agreed to strip the church of lead and old tile, 
and to cover with new. In 1779 Mr. Bryan to survey tower 
and give estimate of repair; Nov. 11, Church rate of 9 d - in 
the £ allowed. In 1785 there is mention of a new reading 
desk and a pulpit, which is to be placed in the Great Chancel 
if Lord Hardwicke (Impropriator) permits. In 1795 the east 
end of the church is said to be in a dangerous condition, and 
a survey ordered. In 1821 new drains, since water runs into 
the church and injures the foundations. In 1841 report of 
the Rural Dean on tfie condition of the fabric considered. In 
1842 sundry repairs ; Church rate of I s - 3 d - in the £ granted 
to meet same. 

On the north wall of the Vicar's Chancel is a large 
monument, with a quaint inscription of the period : 

The Arms : 1, A Lion rampant ; 2, Upon a Chevron three 

Escallops between three Cinquefoils, and in chief a 

Garb. 1 

Crest : A dexter Arm vambraced holding a sword. 

" Lo, here the end of Fleshe and Bloode Blanche Oviatt dothe descrie, 
With Peterc eke her youngest Sonne, bothe whiche in toume here lie, 
The Aieght of May departed he, the Lord did so Provid, 
The Thre and Twentithe of Aprill, herself then likewise Died." 2 

Matris Decessus 1592. 
Filii Decessus 1588. 

Sir Peter Ovyat was returned as Curate of Whetenhurst, 
1562 : Vicarage void. We are not aware of the date of his 
institution to the Vicarage of Frampton-on-Severn. 

There are also several handsome monuments to the 

family of Rogers, greatly distinguished for their benevolence 

and good works. One of these, to an only son, deserves 

special remark as it is the work of the poet Dryden, and is 

published in the first volume of his Miscellanies. 

1 Cf. B. &>Glouc. Arch. Trans, vol ii., 239. 

2 "Buried Peter Oviatt, May 8th, 1588." Blanche Gardner the wife 
Will: Gardner, "quondam uxor M'ri Oveat Vic' de fframpton sepulta 
decimo tertio die Aprilis, A.D. 1592." The discrepancy in the dates will 
be observed. Par. Reg : 



342 Transactions for the Year 1894-95. 

The Arms: Argent, a Mullet Sable on a chief Gules a 
Fleur-de-Lis Or, for Rogers : impaling Gules, three 
Lions rampant Argent, for Pauncefoot. 

P. M. S. 

TO THE MEMORY OF 

JOHN ROGERS, 

ELDEST SON OF JOHN ROGERS GENT., AND MARY HIS WIFE 
DAUGHTER OF POOLE PAUNCEFOOTE, OF NEWENT, ESQ. \ 
WHO WAS BORN THE QTH OF AUGUST, 1672, 
AND 

DIED AUGUST THE TQTH, 1683. 

A Lad of rare Piety, Beauty, Docibility, Wit, and Good Nature. 

" Of gentle Blood his Parents' only Treasure 
Theyr lasting Sorrow and their vanished Pleasure, 
Adorn'd with Features, Vertues, Wit, and Grace, 
A large Provision for so short a Race ; 
More mod'rate Gifts might have prolong'd his Date, 
Too early fitted for a better State. 
But knowing Heav'n his Home, to shun delay 
He leap'd o'er Age, and took the Shortest Way." 

The Church Clock was the gift of Mr. John Rogers in 
1692. The face is on a square tablet suspended from one 
corner and so hanging lozengewise.. In the upper corner, a 
fleur-de-lis (his crest) ; on the dexter corner, initials I. R. ; 
sinister corner, date 1692 ; lower corner, his armorial bear- 
ings : 

Arg. A Mullet Sable on a chief Gules, a Fleur-de-lis Or. 

A Sundial on the south buttress of the Tower, also his 

gift, has the inscription : 

"You must account at last, 
For all your moments past." 

At the "Court" (in his time "The Moat Place") is a 
Sundial with the date 1685 divided on either side of the 
complicated cypher which represents his names : below, on 
a shield, his arms (as above), out of which springs the 
gnomon of the dial. Inscription : 

" 1 Cron. 29. 15. Dies: nostri : (cypher) quasi: umbra: I.R. 1685." 



Haresfield : Manors and Church. 



343 



Some interesting memorials of the dead are found in the 
Churchyard — of great rarity. A coped stone 5ft. 6in. long, 
2ft. 5in. broad at foot, cross ridge 2 inches : it has six floral 
devices in circles with pellets on each side, those on the south 
of eight leaves, on the north of four ; the diameter of the 
circles is 11 inches. The headstone contains two crosses 
of elegant design. 

Near the north porch are two sepulchral slabs. The 
larger is 6ft. iin. in length, ift. gin. in breadth, ift. 3m. in 
depth at the head ; it bears a large Calvary Cross (now 
somewhat indistinct) also a small cross at the end or head. 
These are probably of the XlVth century (see Illustration 
Plate III.) 

In his last will dated on the Feast of St. Katharine the 
Virgin, 1417, John Hare[s]feld desires to be buried in the 
nave of the Church of Haresfeld by the body of Agnes his 
late wife: he gives to the fabric of the Mother Church of 
Worcester xl d : to his parish church xx s : "to the vicar of 
my church and my curate" xx s , f01 ob i atlons Wo each order of 

J J forgotten tythes J 

Mendicant Friars of Gloucester vj s viij d : to each bed of the 
sick in the hospital of St. Bartholomew there, j d : to Johan 
his wife furniture and all the apparel she has for the 
adorning of her body, and to her and son Thomas, grain &c 
in his grange at Bisley : to daughter Agnes furniture : son 
Thomas to have all parts of his armour : to Thomas 
Drusbardera six oxen and a plough with all appurtenances, 
and one cowe of the best, and one of the second: daughter 
Agnes 1 to have xl 11 in money toward her marriage, and if 
she be not married . . . part of the money to be for the 
Friars Minor for the fabric of their church and part for the 
use and utility of the Church of Haresfeld, and for repairing 
the ways in the same ville : to his sister Johan two cows and 
one marc of silver : all the rest of his horned cattle to his 
wife : to John son of his son John C s : to his bailiff of 

1 Agnes, the daughter and heir, became the wife of " John Berewe of 
Bevre in Com. Glouc." 



344 Transactions for the Year 1894-95. 

Blakeneye vj s viij d : to Thomas Heynis vj s viij d and money 
to each of his servants.^ 

Residue of goods to his executors to be disposed of for 
the health of his soul ; his wife Johan, Sir John Clot, vicar 
of Haresfeld, and William Stoke, vicar of Standisshe, to 
be executors : 

Thomas Mulle of Harescombe overseer. Given at 
Haresfeld &c 

Proved before Master John Estcourt March 31 1417. 2 

Arms of John Harsfeld of Harsefeld : — Azure a fess 
between six lions' heads erased Or. Harl. M.S.S. 615. 3 

In 8 Richard II. (1385) a certain Eleanor of Haresfeld 
held one messuage at Blakeneye and a carucate of land there 
and the Castle of St. Briavels in Dene Forest. 4 

Richard Julian, will dated 1513, (no month named) wishes 
to be buried in the Cemetery of the Church of the blessed 
Mary of Harrysfilde: to Mother Church of Worcester iiij d : 
"item luminibus ecctie beate Marie de Harrysfilde p' diet' 
lego iiij d " : Cattle and two silver spoons to son Thomas : 
Cattle &c to daughter Johan ; Obit to be kept in the Church 
of Harrysfilde " per annum integrum in colibz (quolibet) 
mense" : residue of goods to Johan, and Julian his wife ; wife 
and John Hathall executors : witnesses, John Curtes, Thomas 
Bonde, Walter Harrys. 

Will proved before John Meyrick, bachelor in decrees, 
Commissary of the Bishop of Worcester in the parish Church 
of St Nicholas of Gloucester 23 Feb. 1 53-2. 

According to the County Histories, the Church is dedi- 
cated to St. Peter, but that this is erroneous appears plain 
from this will of Richard Julian, the true dedication being 
(as there stated) to "the Blessed Mary""; further evidence 
(if such were required) might be found in the fact that the 

1 Died in 1509, and by will bequeathed "to the light of the Holy 
Cross at Haresfeld, xvj d " 

2 Probate Court Registry, Somerset House: Register " Marche." 

3 Visitation of Gloucestershire, p. 19. 
4 B. & G. Arch. Trans., iii., p. 345. 



Haresfield : Manors and Church. 345 



Village Feast 1 is kept on the first Sunday after the 19th Sept. 
(also at Painswick, which is known to be dedicated to St. 
Mary the Virgin) — this date corresponds with Sept. 8 (old 
style) and is marked in the Kalendar as the Festival of the 
Nativity of the Blessed Mary the Virgin. 

Wviothesleys Chronicle, under the year 1543, says : " Procla- 
mation was made in London for open warre between the 
Emperor and the King against the French Kings, as mortal 
enemie to them and all Christen Princes, he having ayde of 
the Great Turke." Accordingly Henry requested a general 
contribution from all parishes against the Turk. The return 
of the sums collected in answer to the appeal is to be found 
in the Public Record Office: the money is said to be gathered 
of the devotion of the people for aid and defence of Christian 
Princes against the Turk, and the returns are authenticated 
by the names of the several Churchwardens : — 
1544. The pishe of Harsfylde, iij s viij cT ob. 

Henry Merye 
Hughe Barne, 

Churchwardens. 2 

In " An Account of the Diocese of Gloucester sent to the 
Queene's Majestie (1562) by the Reverend Father Richard 
by God's Permission bishop of Gloucester and Com- 
mendatory of Bristowe " — we have — " Haresfilde— Sir John 
Jennyns Vicar Resident there, and the nomber of Howsholds 
in that p'ishe is Forty seven." 

1 Owing to various abuses in connection with Village Feasts — the 
debauchery and drunkenness resulting from an unrestrained sale of intoxi- 
cating liquors, &c. — efforts were made to check these excesses, sometimes 
indeed to discontinue these revels altogether. A letter dated Gloucester, 
September 4, 1788, and published in the Worcester Journal, says: "The 
suppression of feasts held in the villages at this time of the year has been 
attended with so many good effects that the justices in the different parts 
of the County are bent on persevering in the use of means for the mainten- 
ance of good order. With this view they have adopted the resolution of 
prosecuting, with the utmost rigour, every person in the parish of Hares- 
field who shall presume to sell any exciseable liquor in that parish at the 
approaching feast without a license." 

2 B. &> G. Arch. Traits., i. 109. c; 



346 



Transactions for the Year 1894-95. 



THE BELLS. 

The Tower contains a ring of six bells. The first mention 
which we have met with, is in the year 1686, when it is re- 
corded that "four bells being broke and untunable, it has 
been agreed to cast them into five, with the addition of viij 11 
worth of Metal, by Mr. John Rogers." 

In 1779 another misfortune had happened, and " the 
second bell being broke was to be re-cast, and a new frame 
placed in the tower." 

According to the late Mr. J. D. T. Niblett the present bells 
have inscriptions, &c, as follows : 

1. "The gift of Mr. Samuel Niblett, 1779. T.R." 

Treble; (all the Canons broken off and cracked). 
Recast a.d. 1886. 2.6. Diam. 

2. Sam. Pulton, Gent., Churchwarden, 1725. 2.6. Diam. 

3. " Glory be to God on high." Recast 1845. 

E. H. Niblett, Vicar. J. Chandler* , 

_ . , ICnurchwardens. 
R. Smith J 

2.9. Diam. 

4. " God prosper all our Benefactors." A.R. 1702. 

2.9. Diam. 

5. John Wilts, Churchwarden. " God save the Queen." 

A.R. 1702. 

6. " I to the Church the Living call, 

And to the Grave do summon all." 

E. H. Niblett, B.A., Vicar. 

S. Martin \^] lurc ] lwar ^ ens< 
R. Davis I 

God save the Queen and the Prince of Wales. 1842. 

3.5. Diam. 

Tenor Bell, Key of G Sharp. 
In accordance with the will of Mr. John Rogers printed 
below, a curfew bell is rung at 9 p.m., and also one at 5 
a.m., from the Feast of All Hallows to that of the Purifi- 
cation : on Sundays the old 8 a.m. bell "for Matyns of the 
day, the masse after," has been continued, and also, one after 



Haresfield : Manors and Church. 



347 



the conclusion of morning service — relics of ancient 
customs. 1 

BENEFACTIONS. 

Thomas Teekle, Gent., by will dated Dec. t, 1675, gives 
the yearly sum of Five Pounds charged on certain lands "for 
the relief and setting to work of the Poor." 

There are also other charitable gifts as follows : — 

For Relief of the Poor : — 2 j For Instruction of Poor Children : — 

Ann Pulton widow ... ^40 j Mrs. Mary Capel ... £10 

Samuel Pulton Gent ... ^40 j Daniel Niblett Gent .. ^100 

Elizabeth Pulton widow £10 For Apprenticing Poor Children :— 

Elizabeth Niblett widow £10 I Rev. John Longford... ^"50 

There is a benefaction of great interest made by John 
Rogers Gent, of The Moat Place, by will dated Jan. 22 
1695. He gives to certain Trustees and their heirs for ever 
* l all that his house and garden called Starsmead House . . . 
upon this trust and confidence that they shall place therein 
to dwell the Parish Clerk if he shall be sufficient, or other 
person able to ring the biggest bell in the Church at Nine of 
the Clock at Night, and five of the Clock in the morning, 
every day, for halfe an houre att all times, between the Feast 
of All Saints and the Purificacon of the Blessed Virgin Saint 
Mary, for ever . . . the person so putt in the house giving 
security to the Trustees to perform the said Service, and to 
pay five shillings per ann. to the said Trustees for the building 
and repaireing of the said house, and to make and doe all 
other reparacons at his owne charges." 

1 " Whether they ring or knoll the bells at the tyme of the Communion, 
•or between the Morning Prayer which is commonly called Matyns and the 
Communion, as they were wont to ring out ot Matyns to Mass ? " — Bishop 
Hooper, Visitation Enquiries. 

2 These sums were invested in ^346 13s. 4d. Consols, about 1783, and 
the dividends amounting to £10 8s. od. were devoted partly to the School 
{£4 4s. 6d.) and partly to the Poor, whose names are entered in the 
Vestry Book according to a list settled at a Special Meeting of the Vestry 
for that purpose. Cf. Charity Commissioners'' Report. 

24 

Vol. XIX. 



34§ 



Transactions for the Year 1894-95. 



The Parish Registers 1 date from 1558, Baptisms; 1559, 
Burials ; 1565, Marriages. 

No. 1 (1558 — 1653) is a copy of older ones from the year 
1558 to 1599, after which it is the original record. The 
outside of the cover has an elaborately designed border, 
within which is this inscription : " This Book was written in 
the year 1599, by Thomas Woodcocke, Vicar. William 
Curtis, Richard Adams, John Gardner, Churchwardens. 
Thomas Woodcocke Vicar, Cler'." It contains 74 pages 
(37 leaves), of which some are mutilated (39 — 44) during the 
years 1642 — 53. 

No. 2 (1654 — 79) contains 19 leaves — parchment and in 
parchment cover: the original register for the years named: 
gives particulars of Briefs, and Collections in aid of various 
charitable works. 

No. 3 (1669 — 1755) is on parchment ; cover much cut and 
mutilated : entries generally clear and distinct, but the pages 
are much discoloured, presumably from damp. It contains 
records of Baptisms and Burials, but no Marriages. A list 
of Churchwardens for the years 1669—84 is given. 

No. 4. Marriages only (1684— 1734) ; parchment cover. 

No. 5 (1735— 1812) contains Baptisms, 1736 to 1812; 
Burials, 1736 — 1812 ; Marriages, 1735 — 1754. Entries care- 
fully made and in good condition. It has the following 
memorandum : " This Book was bought by Daniell Niblett 
for the use of the Parish." 

No. 6 (1754 — 1783). Banns and Marriages only: square;, 
parchment ; 60 pages. One entry for the year 1787, and on 
the first fly-leaf is a memo., that " The Rev. Mr. James Com- 
meline was buried Aug. 4, 1779." 

No. 7 (1754 — 1812) has the following inscription : 
" Marriage Register belonging to the Parish of Haresfield 
in the County and Diocese of Gloucester, Thomas Rudge 

1 These Registers have been carefully transcribed and indexed by the 
Rev. C. H. Salt, lately Vicar of the parish : their publication is much to be 
desired, as an addition to the existing list of Printed Registers, which the 
Congress of Archaeological Societies in union with the Society of Anti- 
quaries is taking steps to increase. 



Haresfield : Manors and Church. 349 

Vicar, Nathanael Hawkins, Eleazer Flower, Churchwardens : 
Anno Salutis Humanae 1784." 

" Felices ter et amplius - 
Quos irrupta tenet copula." 

No. 8 (181-3 — 36). Marriages according to 52 Geo. III., 
c. 146. 

No. 9 (1813 — 64). Baptisms. 

No. 10 (1813). Burials. 

BRIEFS. CIRCA 1670. 

s. d. 

Collected for Randen Shelton 3 3 J 

Given to the Refiners of Sugar Fund ... 4 o 

(" fower shillings ") 
Collected in the Parish Church of ' ' Grate 
Harsfield " for y e fire at St. Catharine's 

London ... ... 2 8 

Given by the Parish of "Grate Hars- 
field" to the repair of Oswestry 

Church ... ... ..» ... 2 1 i-J- 

(Jeffrey Hobson Collector) 

Given to Grindle .... 1 11 

Collected for Eaton ... 2 11 

Given to Loughbro' Co. Leic. ... ... 3 5 

Given to the Inhabitants of Bisseter Co. 

Oxon. ... ... ... 1 4 

Given to Bradninch Co. Devon ... ... 2 o 

Given toward the repair of Grate 
Grimsby Haven in y e County of Lin- 
coln ... ... 2 o 

Collected for Twerton in Salop 3 s - wanting 

three farthings. 
Given for y e setting up of the Church of 

Canon in y e County of Hereford 2 o 

Given to Tiverton, Co. Devon 2 o 

24 * 



350 Transactions for the Year 1894-5. 



Given to the Inhabitants of Witheham 

towards their Church 2 o 

Anth. Andrewes, Vicar 
Thos. Birt. C.W. 
Given to the Inhabitants of Broughen 

for their loss by fire 2 o 

Collected for a fire at Stillingfleet ... 3 o 
and received by me at the appointment 
of the Lord Bishop. 

James Evans (his mark). 

But few entries refer to the " Burial in Woollen " required 
by the Statute : we append one, in 1679 : 

"Richard Capel Vicar receives Certificate under the 
hand of Thos. Smyth Esq., one of his Ma tie ' s Justices of the 
Peace that William Rogers of this parish, lately deceased 
was not wrapped up or buried in any shirt shift sheet or 
shroud, other than what was made of sheep's wool only, nor 
in any coffin lined or faced but with sheep's wool only." 

1675. "This year reigned a mortal fever in most parts of 
England, as also there happened in these lower 
parts of Gloucestershire." " A great Earthquake in 
y c Xmas." 

1678. "There was numbered this year in the parish people 
of all ages and sexes 592." 

1684. " This year an extraordinary Ague and a burning Fever 
afflicted the Parish and other parts of England." 

1698. "John Rogers Gent, who gave the Parish Clock died 
Dec. 3, about 7 o'clock at night, — buried Dec. 8." 

1739. " Ordered that all persons not having a legal settlement 
have notice to remove out of the parish by Lady day 
next, and others in the parish to be removed to their 
proper divisions. The overseers to see to the execu- 
tion of this order. 

James Commeline, Vicar, Jno. Rowles, 
Daniel Niblett, Thos. Townsend." 



Haresfield : Manors and Church. 351 



1749. " No persons (except Covenant servants) to be admitted 
into the Parish without Certificate. If so, overseer 
of the Division to give notice at next Vestry meeting, 
to have removed." 

1778. "The Officer (Constable) to take up daughter of Ann 
Mill and have her punished, according to the law, 
for intruding in this parish, after being lawfully 
removed by Order." 

"Churchwarden to pay i2 d - for every dead fox 
brought to him by the person who killed it, pro- 
ducing his name, and time and place." 

1781. " Ordered that the Seat called the old Singing Seat be 
divided into two equal parts ; — one part of which, 
viz. that which lies toward the Chancel be appro- 
priated for the future use of the Vicar, the other to 
the use of Oakeys Farm, in this parish." 

1783. " Surveyors to collect i d - per load for all stone dug and 
carried for other parishes from Haresfield Hill." 

1796. " Mr. Umpage, Surgeon of Stroud to be allowed 20 s - to 
inoculate Parsons a*nd three children. Subscription 
to Infirmary Two Guineas per ann." 

1820. "Agreed that Occupiers of Arable land will pay one 

farthing per head for Sparrows and Finches, and 
Yellow-hammers." 

1821. "Agreed that £1 per quarter be allowed to the Choir 

of Singers, so long as they conform to these rules : 

Not to sing any hymn but the Morning Hymn 
'Awake my soul,' &c, before morning service begins, 
and the Evening Hymn, Glory to Thee, &c, after 
evening service in the evening : also Christmas and 
Easter hymns at the proper seasons, and an Anthem 
occasionally : and no other Psalms but what are 
from the Old Version of Sternhold and Hopkins, and 
the New Version of Tate & Brady ; That as soon as 
they cease to follow these rules, this allowance be 
withdrawn. And as this money for the use of the 
Singers must be raised by the Churchwardens' Rate, 



352 



Transactions for the Year 1894-95. 



to which the Glebe is not chargeable, I, Thomas 
Rudge Vicar agree to pay the same toward the sum 
to be raised, as if my land was assessed to the 
Church Rate." 



EXTRACTS FROM PARISH ACCOUNTS. 



1793-4 Paid Mr. Deane for erecting a New 










Gallery, a desk, and other repairs ... 


33 


19 


9 




do. for hailing the Gallery from 










Gloucester ... ... ... ... ... ... 




10 


0 


1795 


A Man for the Navy ... ... 


5 


5 


0 




Expenses for myself attending ... ... 




3 


0 




Fast Prayer Books ... ... ... ... 




4 


0 




Ringers 5 Nov ... ... 




5 


0 




Sett of Bell Ropes 


2 


2 


0 




Painting the Gallery ... 


4 


1 


0 


1797 


Towards the Navy Man 


12 


17 


4 




24 Horseloads Coal ... ... ... ... 


2 


10 


0 




Thos Bright drawn for the Militia ... 


2 


2 


0 




Will. Jenkins do. 


2 


2 


0 




Jno Merrett do. 


2 


2 


0 


- 


Clothing, James Eavins 


1 


10 


0 




Doctor's Bills 


3 


14 


8 




Mary Beale, Clothing & other Expenses 


1 


3 


0 


i79l 


Digging and Hailing 40 Ton Stone ... 


3 


16 


10 




Paid for a New Surplus & Making ... 


3 


4 


5i 




,, ,, Winding up Clock & Oil ... 


2 


1 


O 


1802 


Paid John Hill towards a Substitute 
for a Militia Man, by order of the 










Deputy Lieutenant 


4 


4 


O 




Paid to three persons drawn for the 










Militia 


15 


0 


O 


1 81 1 


Towards a Substitute for the Militia... 
Cloathes for Samuel Judge, & Son, 


10 


0 


O 




putting him' apprentice 


5 


15 


O 




Wooden Leg for Sam. Judge ... ... 


1 


7 


O 



Haresfield : Manors and Church. 



353 



Paid-the Clark of Diging Three Graves 

& Ringing the Bell 9 o 

Paid Wm. Collier for two Coffins ... 140 
For taking account of the Population 

of the People in the Parish 1 15 o 

The " Haresfield Enclosure Act '' received the royal 
assent in 181 2. The Preamble states that " There are certain 
large Commons or Waste Grounds over which the occupiers 
of Lands within the said Parish enjoy rights of Common as 
appurtenant to their respective estates — and there are also 
several Open Fields & Meadows, & Commonable and Inter- 
mixed lands within the said parish," in their present situation 
incapable of any improvement, and that it would be greatly 
advantageous to the several persons interested if the same 
were divided, and specified shares allotted. Among those 
mentioned are Daniel John Niblett Esquire lord of the 
manor, who is also seised of the Impropriate Rectory and as 
such entitled to the Great Tythes arising within the said 
parish except within the Hamlet of Harescomb (in which 
Hamlet Charles Neale Gent, and Samuel Smith Gent, are 
seised of the Great Tithes) : he is also Patron of the Vicarage 
of Haresfield, and the Rev. Thomas Rudge, Bachelor in 
Divinity, is Vicar of the said parish, and entitled to the Small 
Tythes arising therein and to certain Glebe Lands : other 
proprietors include Sir Thomas Crawley Boevey Bart., Mrs. 
Mary Pitt, Sam. Peach Esq., Sam. Lysons Esq. and Rich. 
Martin junior. Certain lands within the Parish are stated 
to be Tithe-free. 1 

Allotment to lord of the manor to be equal in value to 
one-fifteenth of the waste lands therein. In cases where 
both Great and Small Tythes are payable, compensation 
to be equal to one-fifth of the Arable land and to one- 
ninth of the Meadow, Pasture grounds, Gardens Orchards 
Woods &c. 

1 " Park End Ty thing : several estates in this district are exempt from 
Tythes having belonged to the Priory of Lanthony." — Bigland. . 



354 



Transactions for the Year 1894-95. 



The allotments for Tythes were as follows, viz. : 

ACRES R. P. 

Impropriator (D. J. Niblett)... 213 3 35 

(C. Neale) ... 27 1 29 

(S. Smith) ... 21 o 35 

Vicar 132 2 9 



Total 395 1 29 

An old custom, in connexion with the Rogation Days of 
the Church and the perambulation of Parishes, is met with 
in a Release of " Pinchin's Leaze " Henry Redven (fern) 
and others to Thomas Teakle, in 1635 (11 Car. I.): "One 
acre of arrable Land situate & being in Broadefeild Lyinge 
East and West neare unto a certaine Bushe there comonlie called 
the Gospell Bushe, 1 adjoyning to land then of the Widow Dorney 
on the south side, & to land then of Win. Warner on the 
south, and land of Gyles Harris on the north: and also a 
little plott of Pasture or laye ground in Broadefeild aforesaid, 
lying Triangle wise near unto the Brooke at a place called 
Stockbridge at the end of a leasowe of Geo. Stratford, — all 
now in the occupation of the said Thomas Teakle." 2 

A Village Cross once stood at a spot which still goes by 
that name. It was destroyed early in this century. The 
remains consisted of a small portion of the shaft mortised 
into a square socket raised on three steps — all of the usual 
simple type, and apparently of 15th century work. 3 

The existence of another seems to be intimated by the 
name of a road communicating with the present Bath Road ; 

1 " In Villages the Husbandmen about their corne dee ride 

With many crosses, banners, and Sir John their priest beside : 
Who in a bag about his necke dothe beare the Blessed Breade, 
And oftentymes he downe alightes and Gospel lowde dothe reade." 

Cf. "Naogeorgus" (Barnabe Googe). 

2 Recital from a Deed of 1624. 

3 Pooley's Old Crosses of Gloucestershire, page 22. We believe, however, 
that the story there told, concerning Archdeacon Rudge, is more than 
doubtful. 



Haresfield : Manors and Church. 



355 



viz., " Black Cross Lane." In the parochial register for 
1587 we read: "John Stevines of the Blacke Crosse was 
buried April 8." A Conveyance dated 1727 mentions a " close 
of pasture, comonly called Black Cross Close, two acres, then 
in the possession of Hen. Jennings, having the Lower 
Wadleys close of Mr. Brabant's on the east, Mr. Hodges' 
land then in John Rolls' (Rowles) possession on the west, and 
one corner of the said close shooting upon the road leading 
from Gloucester to Bath." 

On the North of this lane stands a row of oaks of great 
age, probably the remains of an old land boundary. 

A Grant being made to the King Edw. III. (1340-1) of 
" a Subsidy of the ninth and the fifteenth " — the ninth lamb, 
the ninth fleece, and the ninth sheaf to be taken for two 
years to come: 1 — Haresfield with the Chapels of " Harse- 
cumbe et Pychenecombe " was assessed at 102 3 8 d . The 
originall roll (which we have examined at the Public Record 
Office) supplies us with the names of the Jurors assessing the 
tax; viz., Wm. Davy, Robt. le Tailleur, Walt, de Salecombe, 
Wm. de Caldicote, Robt. le Webbe, Walt. Willes, John le 
Tailleur, John Organ, Robt. atte Bourne, Thomas le Cook, 
Robt. le Mulewelle, Hen. de Tydeshulle. 

About 1338, we hear of a certain brother William de 
Harsefeld of the Order of Friars Preachers in Gloucester 
who was unruly, broke his 11 obedience," and like many others 
about this period, wandered up and down the country in a 
vagabond manner, to the great scandal of religion, also 
stripping off his habit. He was arrested by the Constable of 
Gloucester Castle and delivered to the Prior to be punished 
according to his offence, but his abettors and friends gathered 
a great mob to procure his liberation, and day by day offered 
threats of great violence against the prior and the religious. 
An appeal was made to the King for help, and a mandate was 
issued to the Sheriff of the County and the Bailiffs of the 

1 The poor Boraile people or other that live of their own bodily 
travail ... to be discharged by advice of the Taxers, and the 
great men which shall be deputed Surveyors. 



35 6 Transactions for the Year 1894-95. 

City to make proclamation against any molestation of the 
friars and disturbance of the peace and to arrest any who 
acted contrariwise. 1 

Later on, we learn that King Henry IV. gave instructions 
to the Warden of the royal park of Harsfeld, or his lieutenant, 
Aug. 5, 1404, to deliver to the Friars Preachers of Gloucester, 
" Sept Keisnes appellez Rowers p foaill " to be taken where it 
could be done with the least waste and destruction : a similar 
gift of Oaks was also made by the King, June 3, 1412. 2 

In the " Placita Regis/' 1378 {Coram Rege Rot. 2 Ric. 2, 
Mich. Rot. 5) the Jurors of the Hundreds have made present- 
ment that the bridge called " Welgaresbrugge" at Hardewyk 
is "dirutus et confractus " to the great injury of all people 
crossing there, by reason of the defect (fault) of Almaric le 
Boteler and the men of the townships of Hardewyk and 
Harsfeld, which bridge indeed the said Almaric and the men 
of the said townships are bound to repair. 

Almaric denies that he is liable, or that his ancestors did 
ever repair the said Bridge : afterwards, in addition to these 
vills, the townships of Quedesleye, Potteley and Standysshe 
-are included : they appear by their attorney, a certain John 
de Hultone, deny their liability, because they have no lands 
near the bridge, held on condition to repair. 

On the Monday next after the morrow of St. Martin, the 
Jurors say that the men of the said townships are not bound 
to repair the bridge or any part thereof, or ever were so 
bound; but that Almaric alone is liable, " pro terris suis 
•cuilibet cornerio ejusdem pontis contigue adjacentibus, 
reparare '-' : — therefore, " eant inde sine die," &c, the men of 
the aforesaid townships of Hardewyk, Harsfeld, Quedesleye, 
Potteley and Standysshe. 3 

CHURCH PLATE. 
The Silver Chalice has apparently the small Italic date 
letter [?J for 1633-4, — with the maker's mark (TM) : the 
1 Arch. Journal, vol. 39, " Friars Preachers of Gloucester." 
2 Reg. Grants of Duchy of Lancaster. 
3 Hist, et Cart. Monast. S. P. Glouc, voL iii., p. 243. 



Haresfield : Manors and Church. 



357 



Paten likewise. Mrs. Anne Pulton, sen., gave a Silver Plate 
for the Communion, which bears the inscription, " The Gift 
of Anne Pulton, 1724"; another member of this family, 
Mrs. Elizabeth Pulton, relict of Mr. Sam. Pulton, gave in 
her lifetime a Silver Flagon — this has the maker's mark 
J.W., and the date letter for the year 1750. 

POPULATION. 

The returns of population are somewhat defective, but 
in common with many agricultural parishes a considerable 
decrease is evident, through migration to towns and engaging 
in other industries. In 1783, in an account of the inhabitants 
taken on the occasion of the Bishop's Visitation, 62 families 
were living in the Middle (Haresfield) Division, 11 in the 
Lower (Park End), and 37 in the Upper Division (Hares- 
combe Tything). In 1821, 116 Inhabited Houses were 
returned, and the number of Families, 126. 



Years. 


Males. 


Females. 


Total. 


1678 






592 


1783 






550 


1801 






553 


1821 


339 


323 


662 


1 83 J 


312 


299 


611 


1871 






640 


1881 








1891 


182 


200 


382 



£ s. d. 

1692 — Royal Aid 137 15 04 

1694 — Land Tax , 238 14 o 

1694 — Poll Tax ... 27 01 10 

In concluding this notice, we would tender our grateful 
thanks for kindnesses received and facilities afforded for the 
examination of ancient records and deeds : especially to 
Arthur Edward Niblett, Esq. ; R. I. Tidswell, Esq. ; G. E. 
Eloyd Baker, Esq. ; the Rev. J. E. Fenwick, and Fitzroy 



358 



Transactions for the Year 1894-5. 



Fenwick, Esq., of Thirlestaine House, Cheltenham (where 
the Library includes among its treasures portions of the 
ancient Register of the Priory of Lanthony, to which the 
Rectory of H aresfield appertained), — also to Miss Le Marchant, 
for the illustrations ; and to the Diocesan Registrars of 
Gloucester and Worcester — Mr. B. Bonnor and Mr. J. H. 
Hooper. 



APPENDIX I. 

Lordship of Haresfield, 1539 — 40. 

Exch. Min. Accts. 

30 — 1 Hen. viii. Roll 99. Glouc. 
Domin de Harsfeld. 

Compotus of Thomas Rolles bailiff of the farm of 
the King there during the time aforesaid. 
Arrears none, because from the last account he has with- 
drawn quit. 

Sum Nil. 

Rent of Customary Tenants. 

But he answers for 14 s - 8 d - of the customary Rent for 
a Messuage and six acres land, and of a Close called 
Pynchyn's, Also of one acre of meadow in Rodmore, with 
thirteen acres arable in Harsfeld in the tenure of Nicholas 
Birte by Copy of Court by year, payable at the usual 
terms : 

And for 9 s -' rent of pasture called Warren's Leaze,. 
with divers parcels of land meadow and pasture in the 
tenure of Alice Bonde widow, by Copy of Court yearly 
payable at the same terms : 

And for 8 s - of the rent of six acres Meadow lying in 
Rodmore aforesaid .with appurtenances in the tenure of 
John Kendowe and of Richard Kendowe yearly payable 
at the said terms : 



Haresfield : Manors and Church. 



359 



And for 8 s - 6£ d * of rent of a Messuage with appur- 
tenances in the tenure of Hugh Newenton by Copy of 
Court, payable yearly at the said terms : 

And of 13 s - i d - of the rent of a Messuage and half a 
virgate with divers parcels of land meadow and pasture: 
Also of a certain Custom there called Herrynge Silver in 
the tenure of Margaret Hungerford widow by Copy of 
Court payable yearly at the said terms : 

And of 13 s - i d - of the rent of a Messuage and half a 
virgate land with one penny for a Custom there called 
Herrynge Silver, in the tenure of John Downe, and of 
26 s 2 d - of Customary rent of two Messuages and a virgate 
with appurtenances, and of a Custom called Herrynge 
Silver with appurtenances, of William Adams payable 
yearly at the said terms. 

Sum £\ 12 s - 6£ d - 

Moveable Rents. 

And of 3f d - the price of 75 hens eggs arising from 
the moveable rents of the aforesaid tenants. 

, Sum 3f d - 

Farm of Manor. 

And of 71 s - o|- d - for the Farm of the Site of the Manor 
there, with all houses within the same site situate, and 
all Demesne lands, meadows and pastures, together with 
three acres meadow lying at Ripbrugge ; three acres 
meadow lying in Morton's Mede to the said Manor 
belonging, and with a Messuage, fourteen acres three 
roods of land lying in Harsfeld, late in the tenure of 
Richard Hilder, now by Indenture dated on the Feast of 
the Purification of the Blessed Mary, 27 Henry VIII., 
demised to Thomas Rolles Eleanora his wife, Bartholo- 
mew, George, Walter and William sons of the same, 
for the Term of sixty years, if he so long live or one 
of them so long live, payable at the Feasts of the 
Annunciation and St. Michael for the site of the said 
Manor lands and meadows to the same belonging, 6o s - 



360 Transactions for the Year 1894-95. 

And for the aforesaid Messuage and 14 acres 3 roods 
to the same belonging, with a Custom there called 
Herrynge Silver, u s - o| d -, and they will pay a heriot after 
the decease of either of them during this term : this year 
being the fourth year of the said term. 

Sum. 71 s - o£ d - 

Perquisites of Court. 

Of profits arising from perquisites of Court in this 
year held, he does not answer, because no Courts were 
held there within the time of this account by oath of the 
Accountant. 

Sum Nil. 

Farm of Re6iory with Tithes there. 

But he answers for £g 18 s - 8 d - for the farm of all 
tythes of Corn and Hay, Flax and Hemp, Tythes of the 
Herbage lying and being within the Parish of Harsfeld 
and to the aforesaid Rectory belonging, Excepting and 
Reserving all tythes whatsoever arising from and in 
the Parke of Harsfeld as by indenture dated on the 
Feast of the Purification of the Blessed Mary the 
Virgin 27 Henry VIII. demised to Thomas Rolles, 
Eleanor his wife, and Bartholomew, George, Walter and 
William, their sons, for the term of sixty years, if they 
shall so long live, or one of them shall so long live, 
payable at the terms of the year most usual equally. 

And of 6 s - 8 d - of Tythes of the herbage of the Parke 
of Harsfeld aforesaid, above reserved in the Indenture 
aforesaid in the tenure of John Partridge and John 
Sanford, by the year, payable at the same terms. 

Of any profit arising from Tythes of Woods there, 
outside the Parke aforesaid in this year sold, he does not 
answer because none were sold in this year. 

Sum £10 5 s - 4 d - 



Sum Total of the Receipt. £i& 9 s - 2f <L 



Haresfield : Manors and Church. 361 
From which, 

Fees The same renders account in fees of the said 

with 

Stipends, accountant-bailiff there, by reason of office to be 
exercised and occupied in this year, as is allowed in 
accounts preceding 9 s - 8 d - 

And in the fee of William Morgan, Auditor for all 
accounts of Bailiffs Farmers & other Officers, late to 
the Monastery of Lanthony belonging, by letters patent 
of the Prior and Convent of the said Monastery thereof 
to him made, of which the date is 4 Feb. 26 Hen. VIII. 
for the term of life of the said William Morgan with an 
annual rent or yearly pension of 100% to be received 
yearly at the Feasts of the Annunciation & St. Michael 
the Archangel, by equal portions, with a clause of dis- 
traint for non-payment of the yearly rent aforesaid, at 
the Feasts aforesaid, within the Manor of Harsfeld 
aforesaid, together with eating & drinking (esculent' et 
poculent') at the table of the gentlemen of the said late 
Priory within the said late Monastery, and also Hay & 
fodder ... for two horses in the stables of the said 
late Monastery during the life of the said William, as 
also, other late Auditors there were wont to have & 
receive, as in the said letters patent more fully is con- 
tained, viz. — in allowances as well as of such yearly rent 
for one whole year ending at the Feast of St. MichaeL 
the Archangel in the said 31st year of the King afore- 
said, as for eating and drinking, with hay & litter for two 
horses at 6o s - a year, from the Covenant made with him 
by the King's Commissioners, £& : And in Stipend of 
the Clerk of the Auditor writing this account, as to 
the Clerks of the Auditors of the King of his Duchy of 
Lancaster was wont to be allowed as in the preceding 
accounts, 2 s - 

Sum £8 ii s - 8 d - 

(Examined.) 

Payment of Money. 

And in money by the said accountant paid to Arthur 



362 Transactions for the Year 1894-95. 

Porter Esq. Receiver of the King of all possessions as 
well Spiritual as temporal belonging to the said late 
monastery of Lanthony, of issues of office this year, as 
appears by two several Bills thereof signed by the hands 
of the said Receiver upon this account delivered and 
remaining, 

£g io s - io| d - 

And in money charged in the account of the said 
Receiver as of Arrears of Sir William Kingston Knight, 
Controller of the Household of the King, for tythes of 
the herbage of the Park of Harsfeld from the acknow- 
ledgment of the same receiver before the Auditor, 6 s - 8 d - 

Sum £9 17 s - 6| d - 

Sum of the Allowances & Payments aforesaid 

£18 9 s - 2f d - 
(Ex tL & approved) 
which sum corresponds to the sum total of the receipts 
aforesaid, and it is equal. 



APPENDIX II. 

Inquisition p.m. and Will of Richard Andrewes. 

2 Ph. and M. No. 76 (1555). 

Inquisition taken at Wynchecombe in Co. Glouc. the 
last day of August on the death of Richard Andrewes. 

Jurors on their oath say that the said Richard 
Andrewes was seised of fee in one pasture or meadow 
with appur. in said County called Haresfeld Parke now 
in tenure of Anthony Kingston Knight for 60 years if 
said Anth. so long live. 

And the said Richard Andrewes then being seised on 
8th day of Oct. (1554) at Wodestoke in Co. Oxon made 
&c his last will (among others) containing as follows: — 
* " In the Name of God, Amen. 



Haresfield : Manors and Church. 



363 



The eighth day of October A 0 Dni 1554 I Richard 
Andrewes of Wodestoke in the County of Oxford 
Gent, being of whole mind and perfett remembrance 
doe ordaine and make this my last will and testament in 
manner and form following First I bequeath my soli to 
Almyghte God my Maker and Redeemer, and my body 
to be buried in the Church or Churchyard of Wodestoke 
aforesaid. 

Item,— I will that Ursula my said wyfe shall have 
and enjoy for the terme of her naturall lyfe all my 
Landes and Tenements paying to John my son and 
heyr yearly £20 during the tyme that she shall enjoy 
my Parke called Harsefylde Parke and also to my 
son Edmonde 10 marcs by yere during his life and 
after her decease my said Parke to remayne and come 
to my said son John and his heyres for ever. 

And after his decease my manor or lordship of 
Churchehill to remayne and come to Edmond my 
said son and his heirs for ever with all landes and 
tenements. I give and bequeathe unto my said sons 
severally as before is declaryd. 
Moreover the said Jurors say upon oath that the said 
Parke called " Haresfeld Parke " is held of the said 
Kyng and Queen by Knight service, viz. 20th part of a 
Knight's fee but of what Honour or Manor they know 
not. And the said Parke is worth per annum in all its 
issues after reprises £\oo. 

And the said Rich. Andrewes then seised died 20 
Janry of 1st and 2nd year of the said Kyng and Queen. 

And said Jurors say that John Andrewes is son and 
heir of said Richard — and of the age of 20 years and 
more. 

And further, Jurors say that the said R. A. on the 
day on which he died held no other Manors or Heredita- 
ments or Tenements in the said County of Gloucester. 
To which they have placed and affixed their seals on the 
day and year above written. 

25 

Vol. XIX. 



,3 6 4 



Transactions for the Year 1894-95. 



t APPENDIX III. ■■.:".< i.L 

Suits at Law. 7 

<_.. Litigation seems to have been frequent in connexion 

with lands, tythes and manorial rights. 
In the Chancery Proceedings (Elizabeth) — 

Linsey versus Humphrey Ashfield, Jno. Ashfleld and 

^ others: — plff. claims as heir, a messuage and half yard- 
land late estate of Will Linsey his father, parcel of the 

I possessions of Lanthony Priory dissolved. Again, 
Rich. Andrewes plff. versus Thomas Dobbs and wife 

r Ursula, def: Object, Deeds, writings &c of Haresfield 
Park and Annuities issuing therefrom: In 1585 (28 
Eliz.) 1 William Watkins disputes the right of Thomas 
Woodcock, Vicar, to certain Tythes payable out of 
Haresfield Parish and Park, particularly out of two closes 
called " Laund " and " Spinney " : deponents (exparte 
Quer.) Jno. Blent, of — Co. Wore' Gent., Jno. Woolfe 
yeoman, Thos. Bowley, husbandman, of parish of 
Standish, Thos. Harryes, yeoman, Thos. Hatholl, 
husbandman, of Haresfield, Ancellme Saunford, of 
Stonehouse Gent. — exparte Def, Elizabeth Birte, wife 
of John Birte, husbandman, John Rowles, husbandman, 
Thos. Tyckle, yeoman, and Thomas Downe of Hares- 
field, Robt. Packer of Standish, and Anth. Huntley, of 
Berkeley Gent. - 
In 1624, 22 Jac. L 2 we meet with depositions in the cause 

of Rich, and Ann Beard, versus Thomas Rowles and 
Bartholomew his father, owners of the Rectory :— Thomas 
Rowles, yeoman, aged 59 saith that John Hamons, dec, was 

owner of the Rectory or Parsonage &c, and that Rich. 
Beard is now farmer or reputed farmer of the same in right 

x)f his wife — has known the Vicarage for 44 years ; also 

1 Glouc. 28 Eliz., Exch. Hil. Term. 

2 Glou. 22 Jac. I, Exch. Hil. Term. 



Haresfield : Manors and Church. 365 

Thomas Lewis predecessor of Mr. Woodcock now Vicar : 
before him Bartholomew Rowles was farmer of the Rectory of 
Haresfield and Tythes belonging thereto, and saith that he 
and his said father, Barthl. Rowles farmed the Rectory for 
the space of fifty years, he knoweth manner of payment of 
Tythes between the Parsonage and the Vicar, and saith that 
the Parson or Farmer of the rectory has received and taken 
the fruit &c upon every parcel of ground where the said 
Parson or farmer had it or ought to have it, also Tythe 
Corn and Hay. 

In the same year, 1 another suit is recorded. Rich. Beard 
(owner of the Rectory in right of his wife) plff. and Edward 
Varley, Def. Subject matter, Rectory of Haresfield. Wrn. 
Hunte of Moccas Court Co. Hereford Gent, deposes that he 
hath known the complainant and his wife and the Rectory or 
Parsonage for thirty years past : knows the Farm Orchard, 
but not how planted (departed from Haresfield about 16 years 
past) ; but Rectory always received Tithe fruit growing 
there : knows this because he lived in the farm house of 
Haresfield and was there bred and born : hath heard one 
William Curtis deponent's grandfather who dwelt in the 
Farm House of Haresfield say that the said Orchard was 
taken forth of the field called Bibbingworth Field : how 
often Orchard hath been mowed, knows not : was Executor 
to said Wm. Curtis, and saith that the Parson or Farmer of 
Haresfield and not the Vicar did receive the Tithe fruit : 
knows also a Meadow called Great Meadow and another 
Little Meadow adjoining Bibbingworth — also that both were 
mowed, and that tythes were paid to the Parson or Farmer, 
and not to the Vicar. 

George Chewe, of Standish, yeoman, aged 74 years, has 
known the Parsonage &c for threescore years. John 
Hamonde dec. late husband of complainant Anne Beard was 
farmer and owner of the said Parsonage and believes that 
Rich. Beard is now owner in right of his wife, by his last 
will : knows the Vicarage of Haresfield, also Mr. Woodcock 
1 Exchequer Depos. 22 Jac. 1 (1624) Hil. Term, No. 2. 
25 * 



366 Transactions for the Year 1894-95. 



the now Vicar, and hath known him for 51 years, and before 
him Mr. Lewis was Vicar : Thos. Rowles, and before him, 
his father Bartholomew were Farmers of the Rectory of 
Haresfield : the said Bartholomew for many years, and after 
him the said Thomas was farmer until about 20 years ago, 
when he sold his interest thereof: knoweth the farme orchard 
of said Rich. Robins, and when it was first made Orchard, 
and one Francis Priddie alias Foxe did at the time of 
makeinge of the said Orchard sett all the Fruite trees in 
the said Orchard : 

Interrogatories for defendant : 

1. Hath the Vicar of Haresfield received Tythes 
from the Ground, Orchard &c near Bibbingworth ? 

2. Hath it been pasture Ground through time of 
memory ? 

3. Hath it been sown or mown ? 

4. Did not the Vicar of Haresfield seal and deliver 
as his deed with defendant Edward Varley Gent, an 
Indenture of Lease ? 

5. Hath not Richard Robins paid Tythe Herbage 
or Tythe Pigeons or any small Tythes to the Vicar of 
Haresfield, or to his farmer, or his undertenant, the said 
defendant Varley. 

Depositions 

John Andrewes of Haresfield Esquire, aged 49 years 
deposes that about three or four years past the defendant 
Varley did demise & let unto Anthony Andrewes Esq. 
deceased, brother to deponent— all the tythes belonging 
to the Vicar excepting the Tythe ... in Harscombe 
within the said Parish of Haresfield — that afterwards, 
the said Richard Robins did compound for Tythes great 
& small belonging unto the said Vicar of Haresfield, 
being out of the Farm House of the said Rich. Robins, 
out of two grounds called Bibbingworth, a ground called 
the Breathe, Oxleaze, & the old Orchard for the rent of 
five nobles per ann. : but the said Varley did except 
with this deponent out of the Tythe Apples yearly 



Haresfield : Manors and Church. 



367 



growing out of the Orchard adjoining unto the said Farm 
House. 

Thomas Woodcock of Haresfield, Clerke, & Vicar 
there — aged 80 years, saith he hath had & been used 
to have Tithe fruits out of the ground called the grove 
& likewise some out of the New Orchard but whether 
the whole he does not know, Also out of the Garden at 
the end of the orchard, & the said New Orchard & the 
Farm House wherein Rich. Robins dwells : & has had, 
while Vicar of Haresfield, tithe of apples pears herbage 
& the small tythes of Bibbingworth. 

Thomas Browning of Brookthropp in the County 
of the City of Gloucester yeoman, aged 60 years, deposes 
that Thomas Woodcock now Vicar of Haresfield did 
seal & deliver to the defendant Varley an Indenture of 
Lease of certain tythes. 

Edward Hill of the City of Gloucester aged 30 years 
deposes to a certain judgment of John Seaman doctor 
of Laws, late Chancellor of the diocese, dec. 

Other deponents : — John Adams of the Citty of 
Gloucester Gent., Wm. Varley of Barksbrook in the 
County of the Citty of Gloucester, Miller, aged 72 years, 
John Redfern of Haresfield, yeoman, aged 60 years. 
Depositions of " Wytnesses " taken at the house of 
Richard Coxe in the Citty of Gloucester before Richard 
Dorney and others, by virtue of a Commission forth of his 
highness Hon ble Court of Exchequer to them directed &c. 
in a cause then depending between Giles Mynett Gent. 
Plaintiff, and Margaret Robbyns, als Bocher, widow 30th 
September, 1642. 

John Browninge of Haresfield, yeoman, aged 70 years, 
deposes that James Rowles, having alienated a certain Copy- 
hold Messuage or Tenement, Plaintiff did claim the same as 
forfeited, being Lord of the Manor. Custom of said Manor: 
That if any Copyholder do grant or aliene his Copyhold 
Tenement that he hath in possession for longer than three 
years, he shall forfeit, unless he have lycense to aliene : also 



368 



Transactions for the Year 1894-95. 



Custom of Manor, that he may forfeit to the lord his Copy- 
hold in reversion before he is in possession. 

Thos. Harris of the City of Gloucester, three score years 
old, knoweth the Messuage wherein Morgan Bevan^now 
dwelleth and confirms said custom. Also said Morgan Bevan 
husbandman, aged 40 years. 

On the part of the deft., Geo. Shatford of Haresfield 
" Weaber," Go years of age deposes that ptfF. purchased 
Manor about six or eight years past, and doth well remember 
that after some conferences between seid Ptff. & Deft, before 
the purchase of the Manor, PlfT. did confirm that Rich. 
Robins had purchased and bought of James Rowles the said 
Copyhold, and that PlfT. did well understand and know of 
the said bargains before any surrender made unto him the 
said plff., even in the time of Henry Jernegan, who sold said 
Manor of Haresfield to said ptff, Also doth know that the 
said James Rolles did survive and overlive Joane, Benedict & 
Anne Rolles widowe, and believeth that James Rolles is yet 
living. 

John Brewster, one of the Aldermen of the Cittie of 
Gloucester, aged 64 years, deposes that he has seen Copy of 
Court Roll unto Benedict & James Rolles for the term of 
their natural lives, but whether Joane Rolles widowe was in, 
could not remember. 

Richard Robins of Cirencester, mercer, aged 33 years, 
deposed that James Rolles for the consideration of ^"63 by 
Rich. Robins paid, did bargain and sell all his estate interest & 
remainder in said Copyhold. Thomas Robins, yeoman aged 
28 years, deposed that Rich. Robins died about three years 
past, and that plfT. had said he would have the said Copyhold 
of Robins, if it cost him all his whole estate. 

Other deponents, Robert Bryan, blacksmith, 55, Margaret 
Harbert, widow, 40, of Haresfield, and Henry Robins of 
Hardwick, yeoman, aged 50 years. 

3 Excheq. Depos. Glouc, 18 Car. I., East. 



Haresfield : Manors and Church* 1 3°9" 



APPENDIX IV. . : 

TERRIERS, ETC. 

The Gloucester Diocesan Registry contains several 
Terriers of various dates, beginning with 1592. Present- 
ment of John Watkins, Robt. Curteis, Jno. Newton, Church- 
wardens, also signed by Thos. Fisher, Jno. Rowles, Jno. 
Adams : 161 2, Presentment of Roger Longe, Walter Ab . . . 
als Brian,. Church Wardens, Edw. Fowler, Jno. Gardner, 
Jno. Merrye, 1678, signed by Anthony Andrewes, Vicar, John 
Lyncombe, Thos. Browning, Church wardens: 1705, given 
below in full : 1807, signed by Thomas Rudge, Vicar, Rich. 
Chamberlayne, Thos. Chandler, overseers, Daniel & Thomas 
Buckingham. This mentions the sale of Four Butts in 
Lower Broadfield, for the redemption of the Land Tax. 

"The Terrier of the Glebe Lands Meadowes Pastures 
Orchards Houses Tithes and portions of Tithes, and how 
the Privy Tithes are now paid to our present Vicar in our 
parish of Haresfield, given in to the Reverend Dr. Parsons 
the Chancellor of the Diocese of Gloucester. Anno Dom. 
I.705- 



1. As for the Vicarage House & some other outhouses 
that did formerly belong to the Vicar they are and have been 
demolished many years and never habitable since our present 
Vicar have been concerned with it, & soe much delapidated 
when he first took Induction that he threatened to sue the 
relict and executrice of Mr. Andrewes his predecessor but 
being overprevailed withall by the best and most substantial 
people in our p'sh, setting forth the meane and low condition 
of the widow and orphans and the small summe left for the 
support and maintenance of them : out of compassion, with 
their persuasion he desisted in that designe. 

A Meadow adjoyning to Collonel Trye's and John 



370 Transactions for the Year 1894-95. 

Windowe's Orcharde eastward. Another little Meadow 
between that and the Churchyard having on the south side 
of both those Meadows, a ground called Church Croft and a 
Close of Collonel Trye's. A Leasow or Pasture Ground 
called the Vicar's Lay containing about i\ acres. A little 
Pasture Ground at Harescombe containing about an Acree. 
About three quarters of an acre of Pasture ground lying in 
the enclosure of Mr. Thomas ffarlowes at the bottom of 
Broadfeild for which our Vicar hath 10s. per ann, ffour 
acres of Mead at the bottom of Park Mead lying entire 
together, ffour acres of Mead in Rodmore lying in two 
distinct places, viz. two acres adjoining to the Dike that 
parts Broadmead and Rodmore, also two acres further 
northward in that Mead where there is a quicksett hedge 
growing over part of it for conveniency of parting the Two 
Rodmores. Thirteen pieces of Arable Land in Broadfeild 
containing about nine acres & three quarters. And whereas 
the old Terrier in the year 1612 specifies three acre pieces of 
Arable Land in Northfield there are now only Two which by 
estimation is about three quarters of an acre, the other piece 
being since enclosed & converted into pasture and now 
lyes in a ground either of John or Nathaniel Symes called 
Northfeild for which our Vic' is now paid one pound per 
ann. And whereas the Old Terrier in the year 1612 specifies 
an Acre and a half of Arable land in the Lye field, now there 
is none at all but that we suppose to be it which is now 
enclosed in a Pasture Ground of one Mr. Reylies of Wor- 
cester adjoining to the Lye Field, being remembered by one 
Thomas Rowles who has shewn the extent of it, by one 
Robert Beard formerly an ancient substantiall Inhabitant, & 
our Vicar hath now by agreement One pound ten shillings 
per ann. One acre of Arable land on Croton Hill, one acre 
of errable land at the top of the hill . . . near Thriple 
Hedge. 

The two yardlands lying in the Tithing of Harscomb in 
the parish of Haresfeild specified in the Old Terrier of 161 2, 
to pay Tithe Hay and Corn to the Vicar of Haresfield which 



Haresfield : Manors and Church. 371 

was enjoyed by two former Incumbents & hath since been 
denied our present Vicar by Sir Ralph Dutton who leased it 
for years to one Robert . » . who still enjoyes it : And this 
Two Yardland was Three Estates, viz Richard Buckle's, 
Thomas Browning's, Rich. Heyward's. 

The Tithe Hay of the Old Orchard formerly Joseph 
Redfern's, now George White's. The Tithe Hay of the 
Grove now Madam Anne Poulton's, the Tithe Hay of Madam 
Poulton's old Orchard, but the Hay denyed by the Im- 
propriator's tenant, but wherefore is disputable, being 
Ground never plowed, called Steane Ground. The Tithe 
Hay and Apples of a part of Mr. John Ridler's Orchard 
parted by a Grip from the Impropriator's claim. The Tithe of 
Madam Poulton's new Orchard part of it. The Tithe Aples 
and Hay of Mr. Stephens's Orchard. The Tithe Hay and 
Aples of Hungerford's Orchard with the adjoyning piece of 
Ground northward to the Streame. The Tithe Hay and 
Aples of part of Widow Packer's orchard formerly called 
-Gillman's parted by a Grip from Impropriator's claime. The 
tithe of a little part of John Rowles's orchard called Teekle's 
parted by a grip from the Impropriator's claime. The whole 
tithe of Edward Nicholson his orchard. The tithe of 
Richard Stratford's orchard wholy. The whole tithe of 
Widow Harris's orchard. The tithe of Madam Smith's 
Mount, her gardens and part of her orchards next the Street. 
The whole Tithe of Widow Watkins her orchard, and George 
White's adjoyning to it Northward. The tithe of William 
Randle's Orchard and Back sides about his House. The tithe 
of Mr. Thomas Veysey's orchard. Now the Rest of the 
Orchards in the Towneship of Haresfeild (but not elsewhere) 
which are many The Impropriator's Tenant takes the Tithe 
Aples which we doe all conceeve he hath no Righte too, and 
which we find by the Old Terrier was not done in the year 
1612, where it is specified that all the Privy Tithes of the 
Parish of Haresfeild with the Tithe Hay of Steane Ground, 
was then in the possession of the Vicarage of Haresfeild, and 
we beleeve should and ought to be still. There is also a 



372 



Transactions for the Year 1894-95. 



piece of Ground lying in a ground called Starr's Mead,, 
adjoyning to the" Upper Green that doth pay Tithe Hay to 
the Vicar, parted by a grip from, the Impropriator's claime 
in that ground for which the Vicar receives i s - 6 d - per ann.,. 
when 'tis mowed. There is also another little piece of ground 
belonging to the Vicar for Tithe Hay in Widow Harris's 
Lower Green Close next the upp' Green Northward, which 
is o s - 8 d per ann., when mowed. 

Wee have noe other Custome in Tithing than what the 
Law directs. As for foreigners buried in our Church yard, 
they usually pay 6 s - 8 d - for breaking the ground. 

There is due for Offerings in our Parish Two pence a piece 
for such as are lyable to pay. And for Churching of a woman 
flour pence. For the tithe of Milk Two pence a Cow : & as. 
for Calves Lambs & Wooll, noe other than what the Law 
directs. 

But in lieu of all this & to avoid Contention, we doe 
with the Consent of Our Vicar, & have ever since he came 
amongst us ... & agreed with him for Six pence in- 
the pound for all our pasture ground chat is not exempt 
from tithe, except Apples Hens Ducks Geese &c, which he 
takes in kind. . 

Our Vicar have as much right and privilege in our Common 
Meadows or any other Common or Pastures, as any of us 
have. Wee have noe Augmentations given to our Church 
since the 12th of King Charles the 2nd. 

Now what is called Exempt from paying all manner of 
Tithe are some lands belonging to the Priory of Lantony :. 
Viz., A hundred pounds per annum belonging to Mr. Daniel 
Lyssons of Hempsted called the Lodge, and a £160 per ann. 
at least belonging to William Trye, Esq. There is also an 
Estate in our Parish called Oakyes ffarrne belonging to one 
Mr. John Rogers which pays privy Tithes for ££>o per ann. 
and noe more : and noe great tithes neither to the Vicar nor 
Impropriators, although belonging to noe Abbye nor Priory 
except one ground that was bought formerly out of Barner's 
Estate for which reason it is soe, we can give noe account 



Haresfield : Manors and Church. 373 



and this ground pays to the Impropriator. Now the whole 
Estate is a Hundred pound per annum. 

Richard Capel 

Vic'. SEAL. 



T , 1 , Daniell Niblett 1 Church 
To. Mills ■> Inhabitants. -o - U A r , 

a^k™ vt^A Thomas Browning/ Wardens 



Richard Buckle 
Jo. Mills 
Ambrose Beard 

As for Charitable Gifts we have only given to the poor of 
our parish by one Thomas Teekle and secured ... by 
a Copy of that part of his will which concerns us and the 
poor, here inserted .... 

[Extract of same from Register No. III. follows] 

Exhibited in the Episcopal Registry of Gloucester, May 
8, 1705. 

(Signed) Thos. Stephens, 

Deputy Registrar. 



NOTE. 

An interesting portrait of Sir Henry Jerningham, Captain 
of the Guard to Queen Mary and a member of the Council, 
is preserved on a panel in the hall at Costessy Park, Norfolk. 
Through the courtesy of Lord Stafford and the Hon. H. 
Stafford Jerningham, we hoped to have been able to add 
this to the illustrations of this paper ; but unfortunately, by 
reason of its position, it has been found impossible to obtain 
a photograph. 



THE CHANTRIES OF WESTBURY-ON-SEVERN. 



By The Rev. LEONARD WILKINSON, B.A., 

Vicar of the Parish. 

There were formerly at Westbury two religious Foundations, 
of the species called " Chantries," by which priests were 
maintained to sing Mass daily for the souls of the Founders, 
and "for all Christian souls " departed. One was dedicated 
to the Blessed Virgin Mary, and the other to St. Nicholas of 
Myra, and St. Thomas a Becket. 1 

The confiscation of these Chantries by the advisers of 
Edward VI. was something more than a wretched piece of 
sacrilege : it was also, from a practical point of view, a very 
great mistake. So long as they remained, the people of 
Westbury had the benefit of the services of at least three 
resident priests ; for the Incumbents of the Chantries could, 
at any time, and especially on an emergency, render valuable 
assistance to the Vicar of the Parish ; and it appears that 
the priest of " Fulcher's " Chantry acted regularly as 
Assistant-Curate here. Sundry of the future Vicars, more- 
over, served a useful sort of apprenticeship here, as priests 

1 The dedication to St. Nicholas was very natural in this agricultural 
and riverside Parish. He was regarded as especially the patron-Saint of 
the people — "the bourgeois Saint, invoked by the peaceable citizen, by the 
labourer who toiled for his daily bread, by the merchant who traded from 
shore to shore, by the mariner struggling with the stormy ocean." 
(Jameson's Sacred and Legendary Art, p. 450.) He was also patron-Saint 
of children, and especially of school-boys ; and most of us have pleasant 
memories of "Santa Claus " (i.e. St. Nicholaus). No Saint in the 
Calendar had so many churches, chapels, and altars as he. 

St. Thomas of Canterbury, martyred in 1170, was regarded by his 
contemporaries, not only as a great Churchman, but also as the champion 
of the oppressed Saxon race against the Norman nobility, and thereafter, 
for centuries, was held in a wonderful veneration. 



The Chantries of Westbury-on-Severn. 375 

of the Chantries. It was pleaded in 1548, when the 
hand of the spoiler was upon them, that "the nombre of 
houselinge people & greatnes of the parishe considered, it 
is verie requisite to haue oon prieste, att the leaste, to- 
contynue as assistaunte to the Vicar there." But all in vain ; 
the greedy fingers of the King's advisers — full as they were 
of hypocritical pretence of anxiety for the spiritual welfare 
of the people — could by no means be kept away from even 
one of these endowments, and the Parish has suffered for 
it from that day to this. 

I. — Chantry of St. Mary. 

In 1275 ^ was found that one Henry de Chasi had given 
to "the Chapel of St. Mary of Westbury " six acres of land, 
held of the King in chief. 1 

This Chapel, in which I suppose that the Altar of the 
Chantry was housed, was doubtless the little Building which 
formerly stood against the east face of the Tower — its roof- 
pitch corresponding to the lower of the two " weatherings " 
there visible. The Buildirfg — then used as a Parish School 
— may be seen in Kip's plate of Westbury Court, published 
by Sir Rob. Atkyns in 171 2. But, pace Sir Robert, it 
cannot have been (as he says) the old Parish Church ; for 
its foundations (yet remaining, close under the surface) show 
that it was much too small — only 50 ft. long, by outside 
measurement, and enclosed within the buttresses — to have 
been used for that purpose. Moreover it is often spoken of 
as "the Chapel" in the Parish Registers and in the Church- 
Wardens' Accounts of the 17th century. Thus we have: — 

"23 Jan., 1580-1. Richard sonne of a poore woman 
dehVed in the Chappell." {Reg. of Bap.) 

"29 Nov., 1592. A poore woman that dyed in the 
Chappell." (Reg. of Bur.) 

" 1672 . . . Pd. for Tile & Lime for to mend the Church 
& Chappell ... 6s. 8d." (Ch. Ward. Accts.) 

From the latter it appears that, in 1779, this old Chapel 
* Ret. Hund, 4 Edw. I. Rec. Com. p. 183. 



376 Transactions for the Year 1894-95. 

was a good deal pulled about and enlarged — the South wall 
being taken down, the roof raised to the level of the higher 
of the two weatherings, and the Building then converted 
into two storeys, whereof the upper one was used, as before, 
for a School, and the lower for Parish purposes, as a Vestry, 
&c. It continued to serve the educational requirements, of 
the poorer parishioners until the first portion of the present 
National Schools was built in 1848. In 1862 the Chapel 
was, unfortunately, pulled down altogether, and nothing now 
remains of it, above-ground, but two corbel-stones. 

Meanwhile, shall we make a digression, and look in, for a 
moment, at this old-time Village School, established in an 
ancient Chantry-Chapel? 

Of Colonel Maynard Colchester, Lord of the Manor of 
Westbury (1694-1715) — who was one of that noble company 
of faithful laymen, which adorned the Church of England in 
the days of "good Queen Anne" — it is recorded, on his 
monument in the Chancel, that he was " a principal Founder 
& supporter of the Societies for Reformation of Manners, & 
promoteing Christian Knowledge 1 by Charity Schools, of 
which he set up & maintained [several] at his own charges, 
and likewise one of the first Members of the Society for 
promoteing the Gospel in foreign Parts. A generous 
encourager of that & many other good designs." Accord- 
ingly, we have at Westbury : — 

" 10th May, 1697. A List of the Names of the Children 
w ch - cometh to Schoole on Coll. Colchester's Account, w th> an 
Account of their entrance, w 1 bookes they were then in, and 
whether they have rec d - Almes, Bookes, or Cloth, and alsoe of 
w*- bookes they are now in, & alsoe they that are gon out, 
as folio weth "... 

Then come the names of no less than 67 little country 
Jocks and Joans, engaged upon Writing, Primer, Testament, 
Bible, and Horn-book — as many as 28 being "in" the Horn- 

1 Colonel Colchester was, in fact, one of that " notable five " who, on 
the 8th March, 1698-9, met together, and established the !' Society for 
Promoting Christian Knowledge." (Overton's Life in the English Church, 
p. 216.) 



The Chantries of Westbury-on-Severn. .377 



book. Nearly all of them were receiving bread ; 8 received 
cloth ; 9 had books — viz., the " Catechism " and the " Whole 
Duty of Man " ; and 2 had been bound apprentice. At the 
end of the year, we find one promoted to "cyphering"; 
others are now in the Psalter; an increased number are 
writing; and only 6 are still conning the horn-book. There 
are also entered the names of 8 little ingrates "that doth nor 
hath not come a great while since." (Colchester Papers.) 

In 1714, there were also 13 "poor children "_ taught by 
Dame Hester Crump, at Gatwick, of whom 3 were in the 
Testament, 7 in the Horn-book, and 3 in the Primer. Each 
^boy and girl had "a cap and band" given them— most of 
them stockings also. Several were given Prayer- Books, and 
Jane Adams, of the matronly age of eleven . years, had a 
"Housekeeper's Duty"! The girls knitted stockings, and 
made " shifts." Goody Russell taught 13, more children at 
Northwood ; Widow Smallman was in charge of 8 at Elton ; 
and Mrs. Pledwell had 2 at Rodley, both in the Horn-book. 1 
Once a year they all repaired to The, Wilderness, Colonel 
Colchester's new-built mansion at Micheldene, when each 
dame was presented with the sum of two .shillings, and the 
scholars with threepence apiece. (MS. Building Bk : Col r - 
Mun ts -) . 

On the North side of the Churchyard may be seen a 
curious memorial stone to Mr. William Clarke — one of 
the old-fashioned pedagogues who wielded the ferule in 
this primitive School, and was gathered to his fathers in 
1835. Thereon Master Clarke himself is graven to the life 
— an amiable-looking bid man, with a great high forehead, 
clad in wide-skirted coat, knee-breeches, and gaiters, and 

1 Some years ago, one of these same old "horn-books" — once so 
common, and now so curiously rare — was discovered behind the panelling 
of a house, now called " Rosetta Cottage," at Bollow, in this Parish. It 
is now in the possession of the late Vicar, the Rev. C.J. Jones, Rector of 
Staunton. It has, I believe, been duly noticed in the lately published work 
on Hornbooks, by Mr. Andrew W. Tuer. 

The Dames' -schools lingered on in this large and scattered parish for 
a long while. Mrs. Mary Ann Harris, the last survivor of those who taught 
them, was buried here in 1893, aged 89. -'• : 



378 



Transactions for the Year 1894-95. 



seated at his desk near a window, quill-pen in hand, with a. 
large book open before him, and others within reach in a 
shelf above. On either side of this quaint sculpture are 
represented an artist's palette and brushes, a roll of MS. and 
the working-tools of a house-painter, plumber, and glazier ; 
and over all the rays of Heaven are shedding their influence 
from clouds above. From all of which I am apt to infer that 
the worthy Dominie of the Village was a " handy " man, in a 
sense other than narrowly scholastic, enlightened in the paths 
of virtue and science, and variously useful in his generation. 

Tradition says that the boys were wont to play at ball 
against the Church-tower, and notably on Sundays, to the 
high scandal of the parson, and in his despite. Refractory 
youngsters were made to crouch painfully in a sort of " little- 
ease " formed by the upper ends of the Chapel windows, 
which rose a yard or so above the floor of the School-room ;. 
and the rod was not spared in those days — not even on 
Sundays. There be sundry living who may well remember 
what an eagle eye a certain Curate-in-charge 1 used to bend 
upon "the boys" — y-parked in the gallery at the West end of 
the Church — from the lofty eminence of the " three-decker " 
pulpit, and how that reverend gentleman would proceed, 
immediately after Service, to dust the jackets of such luckless 
wights as had been detected in a misdemeanour. A certain 
dreadful old man, moreover, sat at the very back of the 
gallery, armed with a long forked stick, with which he used 
to "jab" the necks of such as slept, talked, or played during 
the long, weary Service. So that, what with the Parson, the 

Master, and this "old gaffer A d" the boys had a pretty 

lively time of it ! 

To return. The old Chapel was at one time very often 
used as a burial-place, so that the area of what once was the 
floor is largely occupied by modern vaults. Some monuments,, 
removed therefrom at its taking down, are now on the walls 
of the Tower. Three or four figured tiles — probably of the 
13th century — which once formed part of the Chapel floor,, 
1 Afterwards Vicar of Flaxley. 



The Chantries of Westbury-on-Severn. 379 

may now be seen fixed high up in the East wall of the 
Tower, and similar fragments have been found in the 
Churchyard. 

The upper portion of a large stone coffin — probably of 
the 13th century — preserved in the Church Porch, and the 
old stone — supposed by Mr. Pooley to be of the 12th century 1 
— which carries the shaft of our new Village Cross, were 
both of them discovered imbedded in the South wall of this 
old Chapel-School, at the time of its demolition ; and the 
coffin may very possibly have formed the last resting-place of 
the unknown Founder of this Chantry. 

On the 29th Sept., 14 Hen. VIII. (1522), Thomas Bowghan 
and Thomas Hodges, " pvocuvatores of the Service of Blessed 
Mary the Virgin," with consent of all the Parishioners, 
leased a i-acre dole, lying in Well-meadow, to Robert 
Brooke of Netherley, for 99 years, at 16 pence rent. {Col. 
Mm., Bk. C, p. 38.) 

This Chantry does not appear to be mentioned in the 
Valor Ecclesiasticus (1535), at which time I suspect that it was 
incorporated with the Vicarage, being of small value, and a 
* l Deacon " only maintained by it. 

In 1547 the Churchwardens of Westbury presented " that 
ye Vicare there deteynethe 13 sol. 4d. yerely, which hath bee 
customablye payed towards the Deacons wages, and will not 
paye it this yere presente." 2 

II. — Chantry of St. Nicholas and St. Thomas. 

The Altar of this Chantry would be in the Parish Church 
itself, and possibly in the North aisle, where the sides of the 
East window have at some time been cut away — apparently 
for the purpose of erecting something there. 

The Chantry — already in existence — was augmented in 1458, 

under the Will of one Richard Fulcher, a priest whose 

family had property in Boseley and Northwood, in this 

Parish, and who was himself, very likely, in his lifetime, 

1 Pooley 's Old Crosses of Gloucestershire, p. 1. 
2 From an old MS. Book of Extracts, in the Library of B. & G. A. S., 
Glouc, p. 104. 

26 

Vol. XIX. 



3 8o 



Transactions for the Year 1894-95. 



Chaplain of the original Chantry. This augmentation — 
which was made "for the good estate of the King, and of 
his very dear Consort, Margaret, Queen of England, and for 
their souls after death, for the soul of Richard Fulcher, the 
souls of his parents and benefactors, and the souls of all the 
faithful dead " — consisted of 6 messuages and 80 acres of 
land, in the Lordship of Rodley, held in soccage of William 
Coweley, as mesne between the King and Richard de Anne 
and others, and worth £5 per ami. beyond reprises, with 
other 4 messuages and 80 acres of land, in the Hundred and 
Parish of Westbury, held in soccage of Thomas Sergeaunte, 
as mesne between the King and Richard de Anne and the 
others, and worth 20 shillings yearly beyond reprises. 1 

The Chantry is returned in the Valor of 1535 as being 
worth £8 8s. 5d. per ami. over and above certain chief-rents 
paid to William Colley, George Rauleigh, the Prior of 
Llanthony-by-Gloucester, and the Royal Manor of Rodley, 
amounting to 18s. 2d., and 13s. 4d. distributed yearly to the 
poor, for the soul of Richard Folcher. It was thus much 
more considerable, in point of value, than the generality of 
these Foundations. At the time of its confiscation, in 1548, 
it was worth nearly £9 per ann. — equivalent to about £100, in 
money of the present day. 

III. — Chantry-Priests. 

These — among many others — were apparently Chantry- 
priests at Westbury. 

a.d. 1200 . . . "Roger 2 the Chaplain of Westbury.'* 
{Cat. to Glos. Corp n - Rec. No. 102.) 

a.d. 1289 . . . John de Lockinton. 2 (Reg. Bp. Swinfield> 
fol. 63.) 

a.d. 1327 . . . William de Stynescombe. (Rot. Pat. 1. 
Edw. III. par. 3. m. 14.) He became Vicar of Westbury 
in 1334- 

1 Inq. ad quod damp . 37 Hen. VI. No. 12. This Inquisition was taken 
at Gloucester on the 6th Nov., 1458, in order to obtain the King's licence 
for the augmenting of the Chantry. 

2 But query whether Roger and John were not, respectively, a Curate- 
in-charge and the first Vicar of the Parish. 



The Chantries of Westbury-on-Severn. 



381 



a.d. 1384 . . . John Glover and Richard Wodeford. 
{Clerical Subsidy temp. Ric. II. f^ d . and Col. Mun. Bk. A. fol. 
97.) Wodeford became Vicar of Westbury in 1407, and 
resigned in 1430. 

a.d. 1387 . . . John Sabyn. (Inq. ad quod dam. 10 Ric. II. 
No. 107.) 

a.d. 1406 or 1407 . . . Richard Wodeward and John 
Coteler. Cler. Subs. 7 or 8 Hen. IV. |-^.) 

a.d. 1412 . . . Thomas Stratton and John Benyngton. 
In 141 2 Richard Wodeford and Thomas Stratton were 
enfeoffed by Philip Hooke, of Little Dean, in the "Manor" 
of Stantway, in Westbury, to found therewith a Chantry in 
the Chapel of St. Ethelbert, Little Dean. (Rot. Pat. 13 Hen. 
IV. par. 2. m. 11 : and Inq. p. m. 16 Hen. VI. No. 64.) 
Benyngton was priest of St. Mary's Chantry (Col. Mun.- Bk. 
A. fol. 97), and afterwards Vicar of Westbury, from 1430 to 
1442. In 1435-6 he had, of John (or William) de Anne, a 
grant of some interest in the Manor and Advowson of 
Westbury, which he released in 1441-2, on his resignation of 
the Vicarage. (Col. Mun. Bk. A. fols. 97 and 98.) 

a.d. 1458 . . . Robert Jordan and Richard Coppe. 
(Inq. a. q. d. 37 Hen. VI. No. 12.) These two priests were 
the Executors, appointed under the Will of Richard Fulcher, 
to see to his augmentation of the Chantry of SS. Nicholas 
and Thomas. 

24th April, 1459 . . . The perpetual Vicar of Westbury 
(Walter Llywellyn) was directed to induct William Sergeant, 
Chaplain, into the perpetual Chantry at the Altar of SS. 
Nicholas the Confessor and Thomas the Martyr erected by 
Richard Coppe, executor of the last Will and Testament 
of Richard Fulcher, lately deceased, in augmentation (in 
supplecoem), and called Richard Fulcher's Chantry. Order 
given at Bosbury. (Reg. Bp. Stanbury, fol. 36.) Sir William 
Sergeant — a relative, no doubt, of the then Lord of the 
Manor — was made Rector of Micheldene, at the presentation 
of Thomas Baynham, on the 9th Sep., 1469. (Reg. Bp. 
Stanbury, fol. 88.) 

26 * 



382 Transactions for the Year 1894-95. 

30th October, 1469 . . . Walter Reignolds, priest was 
collated to the perpetual Chantry of Richard Fulcher, on the 
resignation of William Sergeant. {Ibid.) 

21 Edw. IV. (1481-2) . . . John Fawkner, Chaplain of 
the Chantry of St. Thomas the Martyr, gave to Thomas 
Baynham, esqr., Alexander, his son, William Sergeant, 
Rector of Deane Magna, William Stawre, of Westbury, and 
others, certain lands in Mapullhill, 1 Elventon Meade, and 
the Old Marsh, to hold of the chief lords by the accustomed 
services. {Col. Mun. Bk. A. fol. 98.) People who imagine 
that all our pre-Reformation clergy were, of necessity, 
.celibates, may be surprised to learn that this Chantry-priest 
was a married man. In a lease of 16 Edw. IV. (1476-7) 
mention is made of " John Fawkner, Elene his wife, and 
Richard their son." {Col. Mun. Bk. A. fol. 99.) 

a.d. 1502 . . . William Baysse. "Sir William Bays, 
Chaplain," witnesses the Will of Thomas Hampton, of 
Chaxhill — who left twelve pence for a pall {uno paulio) for the 
Church of Westbury — on the 25th June, 1502." {Pverog. Crt. 
Cant. Reg. " Blamyr " fol. 11.) He afterwards became Vicar 
Of the Parish from civc. 1503 to 1537. 

8th Sep., 1511 . . . The Lord Bishop, at Bosbury, con- 
ferred on Sir Thomas Ap Robert, Chaplain, the perpetual 
Chantry in the Parishr Church of Westbury, vacant by the J 
natural death of Thomas Mustell, the last Incumbent, the 
prescribed oath being first of all taken by the said Sir 
Thomas, to observe the statutes and ordinances of the said' 
Chantry, and the Obits in the manner accustomed ; and a 
mandate was sent to the Dean of the Forest to induct him. 
Marginal note — " Collation to the Chantry of St. Thomas the 
Martyr in Westbury." {Reg. Bp. Mayew, fol. 53.) 

3rd Nov., 151 1 . . . The Bishop collated to the Chantry 

1 Maypullhill— " Maplehill" (Bk. A. fol. 102)-^" Mawponhill " (Ibid,, 
fol. 112) — is the large "tump" in Pulmede, or Powmead, whereon hay- 
ricks are sometimes made. Likely enough this was the spot where the 
Village " May -pole " of former days was wont to be set up. Most of these 
lands evidently lay in the old Elton Common-field, on the right-hand side 
oi Garden Pill. 



The Chantries of Westbury-on-Severn. 



383 



of St. Thomas the Martyr 1 in the Parish Church of West- 
bury, Sir Richard Lya, Chaplain, the same being vacant by 
the resignation of Sir Thomas Ap Robert, the last possessor. 
The Dean of the Forest to induct him. Marginal note as 
before. (Ibid. fol. 54.) He held the Chantry, assisting 
Vicars Baysse and Sheryff in the care of the Parish, for the 
long term of 34 years, for the Parish Register records the 
burial of u S r Richard Ly " on the 27th August, 1545. 

a.d. 1544 . . . Ralph Williams. Was priest (probably) 
of St. Mary's Chantry. His Will reads very simply thus : — 
" Radulphe Williams, x th daye of September. In the name 
of God. Amen. In the yere of o r Lord God 1544. I, 
Ralphe Willms, Clerk, make my testament as followethe. 
Impmis, I bequethe my sole to Allmyghty God and to all 
Seynts, and my body to be buryd in the Churchyard of Pet. 
and Paull in Westbyry. All my goods I geve the to Ane 
Cowlstons, my syst r s doughter, to pay my dets, to brynge my 
body to the yerthe, & to dystribute for my soole as shee 
think beeste. Whom I make my Executrix to see this my 
last Wyll done — This beryng witness, Ric. Sheryf, Willm. 
Lynsey, Clerks, Johana Cowstons." (Free. Crt. Gloncs.) He 
was buried at Westbury on the 2nd October, 1 544. (Par. Reg,) 

a.d. 1544 . . . William Lynsey. " Sir William Lynsey, 
Clarke " witnesses several Westbury Wills from the latter 
part of the year 1544 (Prob. Crt., Glouc), and he probably 
succeeded Sir Ralph Williams, as priest of St. Mary's 
Chantry. 

a.d. 1545 . . . Sophia Rosse. Probably succeeded Sir 
William Lynsey in St. Mary's Chantry. His Will also is 
extant, as follows : "I Sophia Rosse, in the name of God. 
Amen, the ix th day of Septeber in the yere of o r Lorde 1545, 
and of o r Soverant Lord Henry the viij, by the grace of 
God of England, France, & Yerland . . . fayth, & of 

1 It is curious to notice that, in compliance with an order of K. Henry 
VIII. — who had a special hatred of this noble Archbishop, as of one who 
had dared to defy another King Henry, in defence of the rights of the 
Church — the name of St. Thomas stands erased in this entry 



3H 



Transactions for the Year 1894-95. 



the churche of England & Yerland, under God, Supeme 
heede, the xxxvij, make my testament & last wyll as 
followythe. Imprimis, I bequethe my solle to Almighty God 
& to all Saynts, & my body to be buryd in the churche of 
Westbyry. Itm. to the hey ault r in the same churche iiij d - 
Itm. to Harry Sophia xl d & my best longe gowne. All the 
rest of my goods I geve the to Ann Aylway and Catheryn 
her doughter, eqlly to be devydyd betwixt the. & do make 
my executor John Aylwey to see thys my wyll done, & to 
haue for his labor vj s - viij d - & I will Thorns Yong to be my 
ov r seer to see the execution of the p r misses, havying for his 
payns and labors vj s - These being wytness, Ric. Sheryff, 
Clark, John Alyway, Thorns Yong, & other moo." This 
Will (part of which has been torn off) is endorsed " Testa tm - 
Dni Sophie Rosse Clrci de Wesbury, A 0 - Dni 1545 — Cant." 
(Prob. Crt. Gloucs.) He was buried here on the 23rd Feby., 
1545-6, and, with Sir Ralph Williams, is entered by the 
Copyist of 1600 as " Minister." [Par. Reg.) 

It is only too plain to see that during the years 1544 arj d 
1545 a frightful "plague" of some sort was raging in the 
Parish of Westbury. Between April 1544, and May 1546, 
as many as 200 persons were buried here; and in that one 
month of September, when Sophia Rosse bethought him to 
make his own Will, the bodies of no fewer than 22 parishioners 
were brought " to theyerthe." The yearly average of burials, 
at this time, would not, perhaps, be more than 25. The 
Chantry- priests of old time are often very ignorantly 
maligned ; but the mere fact that three at least of them are 
known to have perished at Westbury, in so short a space as 
17 months of those two terrible plague-years, may surely be 
taken as a sign of their devotion to duty, in ministering to 
the sick and dying, at such times of fear and trouble. 

a.d. 1545 . . . William Walton. He witnesses the Will 
of John Crump, of Rodley, in August, 1545, and succeeded 
Sir Richard Lya, as the last Incumbent of the Chantry of 
SS. Nicholas and Thomas, paying his Composition therefor 
on the 14th Dec 1- -, 1545. (Exch r - Comp. Bks. 37 Hen. VIII.) 



The Chantries of Westbury-on-Severn. 385 

Walton had been a Black Friar at Gloucester. (Fosbrooke's 
Hist, of Gloucester, p. 296.) After the dissolution of that 
House, he found what he doubtless fondly hoped might 
prove a haven of refuge here — only to be turned adrift 
again, pensionless, and in his old age, in little more than two 
years' time. Roll 23 of the Chantry Certificates appears to 
contain a distinct recommendation that Sir William should 
be continued "as assistaunt to the Cure w* the wages accus- 
tumed"; but this suggestion was evidently disregarded. 
Such were the hardships of those evil days of heartless 
spoliation. 

a.d. 1548 . . . John Shaw. Was Incumbent of St. Mary's 
Chantry at the time of its confiscation. The Roll used by 
Sir John Maclean, in his account of the Gloucestershire 
Chantries — (No. 22) — states that Sir John Shaw had then 
" no other lyving than in the seid S r uice." But another 
Roll, from the Augmentation Office, which I quote below, 
credits him with a pension of cvj s - viij d - — so that he too had 
probably been a member of some Religious House before 
coming to Westbury. Browne Willis notes that he had, in 
respect of his Chantry, a pension of £"3 6s. 8d. in 1553. He 
remained working on here, as Assistant-Curate of the Parish, 
for many more years, and the Parish Register records the 
burial of "John Shawe, Curate of Wesbury" on the 18th 
January, 1570-1. Indeed, I am not so very sure that he did 
not even marry a young wife in his old age! The Registers, 
at any rate, have the following entries: 

" 1570, May 19. — Sara Shawe, daughter of John and Mary 
his wife." 

"1571, Oct. 6. — Daniel Shawe, sonne of Mary Shawe, 
widdowe." {Reg. of Baptisms.) 

" 1571, Nov. 5. — John Grove and Mary Shawe, w eh Mary 
was purified that same day." (Reg. of Marriages.) 

Certainly a man who was born in 1498, had served as a 
member of a Religious House, and then as a Chantry-priest, 
ending his career as a latter-day Curate of the Elizabethan 
type, and falling at last into the abyss of matrimony, must, 



3 86 



Transactions for the Year 1894-95. 



in himself, appear to be a very odd epitome of the many and 
great changes that passed upon men's minds and manners 
in the course of this changeful period of our Church's 
" strange, eventful history." Thus, indeed, did the old 
order change, passing on into the new. 

IV. — Confiscation of the Chantries. 
Chantry Certificates. Gloucester. Roll 23. No. 33. 1 



Conti 1 "- as 
assistaunt to 

the Cure 
w*- the wages 
accustumed 



DEANERY OF THE FOREST. 

In the P r yshe of Wessburye where are of howse- 
linge people vijC. 2 

Fulcher's Chauntry, otherwyse called Saynt 
Nycholas servyce. 

The clere yerely valew ... viij 11 - xix s - 

Wyllym Walton, Incubent, hath for 

his yerely stypend viij 1L ij s - ij d 

To any the uses abovesaide* ... n u - 

C* The yearly p en c 

amount above 

the Incum- 
bent's stipend, OUR LADY SERVYCE. 

^Mh^re^ The clere yerely value lxxj s - vj d > 

mises, to uses John Shawe, Incubent, hath for his 

appointed by yerely stypend the: whole lxxj 3 - vi d - 

the founda- . J J 

tion.] To any the uses abovesaide* n 11 - 

Penc cvj s - viij d - 

Memorand that the saide paryshe is ten myles compasse, 3 

1 In addition to the above Roll (1548) and to the one printed by Sir 
John Maclean, there is a third Roll (1546) of Gloucestershire Chantries, 
the Westbury reference to which is " Roll 21. No. 16." 

2 The 700 " howselinge people" at Westbury, who were what we 
should now-a-days call "Communicants" — from housel, an old word for 
the Holy Eucharist, — afford an index to the population. At this time 
every person of 14 years and above was reckoned a Communicant, as a 
matter of course ; and as the proportion of population under 14 years of 
age to those aged 14 years and above is always about one half — the exact 
decimal has been shown to be .5003 — the population of this Parish, in 
1548, may be taken to have been about 1050. Another estimate would 
make it about 1260. 

3 An error. Following the boundary-line closely, the '' compasse" of 
the Parish is more than twenty miles ; and Sir Rob. Atkyns, who puts it at 
23 miles, is probably not far wrong. 



The Chantries of Westbury-on-Severn. 387- 

and there are a grete nombre of howselinge people, as doth 
appere, wherefore there is necessytie of one pryste to assyste 
the Vicar mynystringe to the parishioners. 

The Royal Commissioners who, in 1548, took stock of the 
Chantries, in order to their confiscation, were obliged to 
report that, at Westbury, as in most other places, of " Orna- 
mentes, plate, & jewells to the same" there were " noone." 
And for a very good reason. As early as Michaelmas 1536,. 
reports were going about the country that " all chalices,, 
crosses, and other jewels of the church should be taken away 
from the same (parish) churches, and chalices of tin should 
be given to the same churches, in lieu of them." Accordingly, 
to give an example — " the common fame was that the 
inhabitants of the town of Hull had sold the church stuff, to 
prevent the King's Commissioners." A sailor from Hull told the 
people of Grimsby — "We hear, at Hull, that ye should 
have a visitation here shortly, and therefore we have taken 
all our church plate and jewels, and sold them, and paved 
our town withal; and so, if ye be wise, will ye do too, and 
mend your town, which is foul withal." (Gasquet's Henry 
VIII. and the English Monasteries, vol. ii., pp. 46 and 48.) If 
the procurators of our Westbury Chantries had not similarly 
sold their plate to mend the " sea-walls," or for some such 
purpose, it is likely enough that it had been disposed of by 
the parish officers, towards the expense of repairing the 
damage done in their church, by the enforced destruction 
of everything there that, by any perversity, could be brought 
under the denomination of " monuments of superstition.'* 
One cannot but rejoice to imagine the Westbury folk thus 
cheating the King's emissaries out of some of their spoil, in 
the shape of the Altar-furniture and plate of the Chantries * 
but it is none the less a sore grief to think of all those ancient 
and hallowed treasures of our old Parish Churches, for ever 
lost to us. 

There remained, however, the lands and rents ; and these 
were variously disposed of, as follows : — 

(I.) 7th Jan., 1563 .. . The lands of St. Mary's Chantry 



388 Transactions for the Year 1894-95. 



were granted by the Queen to Thomas Bassett for 21 years. 
(Col. Mun. Bk. C. p. 38.) 

30th May, 1580 . . . The said lands were granted by the 
Queen to Stephen Foxe, one of the Yeomen of the Chamber, 
for 21 years from the expiration of Bassett's term, at a yearly 
rent of 5s. iod. (Ibid.) 



31st May, 1580 . . . Foxe sold his interest in them to 
Hugh Saxey. (Ibid.) At this time the lands of the Chantry 
are thus described : — 







S. 


d. 


1 acre in Elton meadow 


... 


ij 


viij 


1 messuage 




iiij 


00 


1 messuage and garden 




X 


00 


2 closes called Huckleys 




ij 


00 


1 croft and grove in Northwood called 


S. Mary 






Morelands... 






UU 


1 dole in the close called Casey hill... 




00 


vj 


1 acre in Well-meadow 




i 


iiij 


1 acre in Sowmore 




ij 


00 


1 or 2 acres in Bredenham ... 




ij 


viij 


1 mess, called the Deacon's house ... 




iiij 


00 


3 sellions and 1 grove in Aylwards ... 




00 


iiij 


7 putts in Severne 




iiij 


ij 


1 mess. 1 barn and 1 close in Adsett 




viij 


viij 


1 mess. 1 curtilage and 1 parcel of land 


in Cleeve 


iiij 


00 


1 mess, and 6 parcels of land in Overley 




vj 


iiij 


Divers parcels of land in Overley ... 




iiij 


00 


1 mess. 1 orchard and 12 sellions in Hanging Cliff 






(ten. Joh. Tommes of the Style) 




vj 


viij 


1 parcel of an acre (ten. Joh. Wintle of Cow 


ley's elm) 


00 


vj 



(Ibid. p. 39). 



With the help of the Tithe Map and Apportionment of 
1839 an attempt may be made to identify some of these old 
lands of the Church. 

Huckleys was possibly contained in one of the " Occles " 
(Nos. 1423, 1428, and 1429) lying together at Wilmoor, by 
Windmill-hill Common-field. 

5. Mary Morelands may be represented by " Moorlands " 
(No. 732) beyond Northwood's Green, and near Ley Park. 



The Chantries of Westbury-on-Severn. 389 



Casey hill, likely enough the original gift of Henry de 
Chasi, may be represented by "Caseucy" (No. 1329), 
a seven-acre piece near Wilmoor Common-field, having 
"Casmcy" (sic) next to it — or by " Case Meadow Occles " 
(No. 1428). 

Well-meadow, or " Well-springs," was a Common on the 
roadside by Hartland's hill. 

Sowmore was also a Common-field, between Wilmoor and 
the far end of Rodley. 

Bredenham may be " Broad " Common-field at Lower 
Ley. 

In a list of free-tenants of Westbury Manor, circ. 1642, 
occurs the following : — 

"Thomas Taylor als. Evans, for a house neere the 
Viccaridge, late called the Deacon's house, reputed pte. of St. 
Mary Lands, for w ch Taylor paies the Church Wardens, & 
they pay rent to Man . . . 2s. Quere to pay 3s. 4^." (Col. 
Mun. Bk. C. p. 45.) 

Hanging Cliff, held by John Tommes, of " Stocking-stile," 
Cleeve, is the field called " Hank Clow" (No. 1090), near the 
top of Garden Cliff. 

The fields known in 1839 as "Lady Worg " — i.e. Lady 
Virgin — (No. 1697), in Rodley Marsh, and " Conacer Virgin " 
(No. 2317), at Lower Ley, were doubtless part of these 
Chantry Lands. Possibly also "The Worns " — i.e. The 
Virgin's — (Nos. 1552 and 1570) on the lower road to Rodley, 
near the turning for Berry Court. " Chapelmere," near 
Yew-Tree Farm, Rodley, was probably a boundary of land 
belonging to this Chantry. 

A small orchard at the Noards, jutting Out into the 
Severn at " Rosemary Point " belonged to this Chantry. 
(Col. Mun. Bk. A. fol. 123.) 

20th Nov., 1584 . . . Saxey sold his interest in the 
lands to Henry Elrington, of Cirencester. (Ibid , Bk. C, 
P- 39-0 

24th Mar., 1612 . . . The King, by Letters Patent, sold 
the lands to Francis Morris, and Francis Phillips, and their 



390 



Transactions for the Year 1894-95. 



heirs, to hold of the Manor of East Greenwich, in free 
soccage. (Ibid. p. 40.) 

6th May, 161 2 . . . Morris and Phillips sold them to 
Joseph Baynham and his heirs. {Ibid.) 

From the Baynhams they probably passed with the rest 
of the Manor, in 1622. 

But on the 30th Sep., 1621, Alexander Baynham had sold 
to Tanner Morse and Richard Nourthe, of Westbury, and 
their heirs, for ^119 6s. 8d. a part of these lands, including: 
1^ acres called " Vordmore " in Elton, and the messuage, 
barn, and close at Adsett, adjoining the highway from West- 
bury to Walmore Grange. (Ibid. p. 41.) 

Again, on the 7th Sep., 1622, " Alexander Baynham, for i8 lu 
did bargayne and sell to Thomas Watts, and his heirs for eu r , 
a mess. w th a garden in Westbury, neere my Lo. of Kent's myll,. 
Chauntrey Land, late p r chased by Joseph Baynham, to be holden 
of the Mannor of East Greenwitch." (Ibid. Bk. A. fol. 101.) 

Sir Robert Atkyns, giving no authority, states that "the 
lands, and a messuage at Adsett, which did belong to this 
Chantry," together with Upperley, which "did belong to the 
Chantry of St. Mary in Westbury," were granted to Anthony 
Cope and others, 10 Jac. (1612-3). 

(II.) The lands belonging to " Fulcher's " Chantry were 
(Atkyns says) granted to Sir Nicholas Arnold, 5 Eliz. 
(1562-3). This worthy, who was Lord of the Manors of 
Highnam and Over — which had also been Church-property 
— is famoused to have "bred the best horses in England" 
and to have " written of the manner of their production." 
(Glouces. Notes Quer. vol. iv., p. 270.) 

Thus seizure was made of that which had been solemnly 
consecrated to God, and to pious and charitable uses : " the 
daily Sacrifice was taken away, and the place of its sanctuary 
was cast down" (Dan. viii. 11); individuals suffered hard- 
ship and injustice: the poor lost their doles: and the parish 
was spiritually starved — for what ? Why, somewhat to 
better the estate of an honest gentleman who " bred the best 
horses in England"! Seldom, perhaps, has so little good 



The Chantries of Westbury-on-Severn. 391 



resulted from the doing of a vast" deal of harm as in the 
matter of the secularizing of the. Church lands under the 
Tudors. 

In Kip's plate, before mentioned, may be seen an L-shaped 
house — then converted into several tenements, apparently six 
in number — standing on the edge of the Churchyard, near 
the " scalence "-gate, 1 and facing opposite to the present line 
of houses between the " Red Lion " and what used to be the 
" Bell." A few yards further down the lane, and also in the 
Churchyard, is another house with an inordinate number of 
roofs, and altogether of very quaint appearance. I am much 
inclined to think that these two houses — the first of which 

1 The main gate to the Churchyard at Westbury, Newnham, Canon 
Pyon, and other places, is, or was, popularly known as the "scalence" — 
"scalenge" — " callens " — &c, -gate, and so appears in old Accounts.- 
Thus we have : 

" 1672 . . . Pd. for mendinge of the Scalence gate ... 3s. od." 

"1774 . . . By Cash paid for a Lock for the Callinge gate ... is. od." 
(Westbury Ch. Ward. Accts.) 

" 1709 . . . Pd. Mr. Freeman mending the lock and key for the bell- 
free dore, and for a staple for the Callens . £00 10s. ood." 

" 17 14 . . . Pd. John Lewes for mending the Church Scallins . , . 
£00 02s. 6d." (Newnham Ch. Ward. Accts.) 

Halliwell gives " Scallage — a Lich-gate. Westmoreland"; but the 
meaning of the word is not clear to me. 

Possibly the name may survive from some ancient ceremonies performed 
for the dead at the Lich-gate. The 10th Article of 1536 denounces the 
abuse of " Masses said at Scala Cceli, or otherwhere . . . (to) deliver them 
from all their pain, and send them straight to Heaven." 

Or scala may signify simply the " flight of steps " by which a Church- 
yard gate is very often approached, or the horse-block (called locally a 
" lepping-block ") which was frequently erected there for the convenience 
of ladies who rode to church on a pillion. 

To " scale " again, is to " scatter" or " disperse." Thus—" The church 
f scaled' at twelve. Winston folks always had the justice to admit that 
their 'parson was no spoil-pudding.' " (Longman's Mag., Oct., 1896). The 
V scalence " would thus be the gate by which the congregation dispersed. 

Once again, in Gloucestershire, to "scale" is to " spread asunder " — 
as the staves of a cask would do, if the upper hoops were removed ; also 
to " fall in" — as the sides of a well, or mine; and to "fall out " — as the 
face of a cliff. Possibly, then, the " scalenge " may be a large gate which, 
being divided in the middle, spreads, or falls, outwards and inwards, to and 
from its centre. 



392 



Transactions for the Year 1894-95. 



used to be known as "The Church-House" — were, at one 
time, occupied by our Chantry-priests. But I note also that 
the large, well-lighted, square chamber, formed by the second 
storey of the Church-Tower, bears tokens of having been 
inhabited at some time or other. A fragment of the original 
plastering, still sticking to the East wall, exhibits faint traces 
of a pattern — straight lines and seven-foiled flowers — in dull 
red. The following entries have some bearing upon the 
matter : — 

" 1612-3, Feb. 27 — Johanne Cadle, a poore woman that 
dwelled in the churche house." (Reg. of Bur.) 

" 1675 ... It. payed William Bellamy for six thousand 
of brick, att us. p. thousand, to repaire the Church-house, 
and dividinge it into severall tenements for poore people of 
ye P r ish . . . £3 6s. od." {Overseers' Accounts.) 

" Several Tenements adjoining to the Churchyard, and 
the House called the Church-House, were given by Persons 
unknown for the use of the Poor of this Parish." (Church 
Charity-Table erected in 1759.) 

These Chantry-houses were pulled down altogether, 
in 1790, when the alms-folk were transferred therefrom 
to the newly-built Parish Workhouse. The sites on which 
they stood were at that time taken into the Church- 
yard ; 1 but they have ever since remained mostly unused 
for burials. 

In connection with the Chantries, it may not be amiss 
to conclude with an extract from another old Westbury 
Will, the provisions of which — the date considered — are 
noteworthy : — 

" In the Name of God. Amen. The xij day of August, 
in the yere of o r Lord God 1 544, and in the yere of o r soveraint 
lord Henry the viij, by the grace of God &c. the xxxvj th - I, 
John Malson, of Rodley, in the p r yshe of Wesbury, make my 
testament & last wyll as folowythe. Inp r mis, I bequethe 
my solle to Allmyghty God, & to all saynts, and my body to 
be buryd in the churche yard of Wesbury. It. to the hey 
1 Charity Commissioners' Report, 26th Jan. 1828. 



The Chantries of Westbury-on-Severn. 393. 



ault r in the same church xij d - It. to the lyghts in the same 
church ij d - It. I geve & bequethe to a priest for to pray for 
my soul, my wyff's soole, & all Xtn. solys, v 1L . . vj s - . . viij d v 
for one holl yereys Masses ; wyche priest I wyll Ric. 
Sheryffe, Vicar of Wesbyry, to appoint & sett in the sayd 
church, and to be obbedyent to the sayd Vic r , or elys by 
the sayd Vicar to be amoved, and the sayd Vic r to put in 
an other priest for the said yere. &c. &c. — These beryng 
Wytnes, Ric. Sheryf, clerk, Thomas Malson, & Ric. Malson." 
(Prob. Cvt. Gloucs.) 



ON THE DISCOVERY OF SKELETONS AT THE 
BARTON, CIRENCESTER; 
AND OTHER ROMAN FINDS OF 1896. 



By ERNEST WHATLEY, Local Secretary. 

Just within Earl Bathurst's Park, and outside the walls of 
the Roman Town, is a pasture field, where, for a long time 
since as need arose, gravel has been dug for the use of the 
Estate. It lies at the back of " The Barton," where, in situ, 
is the fine pavement well known to most of the members of 
this Society. Former diggings for gravel have left quite a 
pond, wherein are specimens tempting the angler ; and the 
banks of which are tunnelled by the Kingfisher and Sand- 
martin. The place is, locally, universally known as " The 
Gravel-pits." 

Old workmen relate vague legends of former discoveries 
as the considerable excavations extended, but these are, I 
regret to say, practically unrecorded. 

The first of which I have any definite knowledge is that 
of 1868. On August nth of that year, I had the pleasure of 
assisting in piloting the members of the British Archaeological 
Association around Cirencester. The minute in the Pro- 
ceedings reads : " The attention of the visitors was next 
directed to some open graves and skeletons, in proximity to 
which were an iron arrowhead and fragments of horseshoes 
found just under the soil. It was thought that these remains 
were probably mediaeval, or of the time of the Common- 
wealth : and that the skeletons had been hurriedly buried, 
perhaps immediately after a battle. Some of the iron frag- 
ments, however, may have been Roman nails." 

The conclusions herein arrived at were hasty and incorrect, 



The Discovery of Skeletons at Cirencester. 395 



as the interments were precisely similar to those of which I 
am about to speak, and the "iron fragments " and " Roman 
nails" were those of umbones or bosses of shields, spear- 
heads, &c, &c. ; the best of those found, I have reason to 
believe, having been " appropriated" before the visit of the 
Association. The idea of the "Commonwealth" doubtless 
arose from a recollection of the accounts of the sharp fight 
at "The Barton" in those troubled times. 

Interest in gravel-digging at "The Barton" is first 
awakened by the occurrence of flint flakes in numbers, and 
of " leaf-shaped " arrowheads. I have not seen one barbed, 
as are so frequently the specimens from Miserdine and 
Sutgrove. 

In the Proceedings of the " Cotteswold Naturalists' Field 
Club" for 1870 is a very interesting paper relating to these 
Barton flints by Mr. Thiselton Dyer. He rightly says : 
"They are found in the top spit of the mould beneath the 
turf ; the layer of mould varies from nine inches to a foot in 
thickness. The gravel is apparently derived from the Inferior 
Oolite, as it contains rolled examples of Terebratula fimbria, 
and other characteristic fossils. No flints are found in this, 
but only in the superincumbent soil." Mr. Dyer showed 
some of these flints to Mr. Franks, of the British Museum, 
who selected examples for the Christy Collection. The 
writer of the paper appears to have been singularly un- 
fortunate in his specimens, as he actually seemed to have 
entertained the idea that they were too indeterminate to 
enable anyone to decide on their having been used for any 
purpose by man. The specimens I, this year, secured, and 
which are, I think, far from the best found, would settle that 
question once for all in the affirmative. He then remarks 
that it would be interesting to know from whence they came : 
instances the nearest flint gravel as at Minety ; and the 
occurrence of "chipped flints" at Moreton-in-Marsh. 

In May of the present year, a further supply of gravel 
being required, additional ground was broken. Hearing of 
a discovery of skeletons somewhat late in the day, I went to 

27 

Vol. XIX. 



396 Transactions for the Year 1894-95. 

the spot, and thenceforth continued to visit it until the 
excavations were over. I found the labourers had, before I 
arrived, thrown the numerous flints indiscriminately on the 
bank, as of no value, and they had been carried off wholesale 
by the swarms of visitors. Portions of several skeletons 
were found, and two were almost entire. They were laid 
side by side, their heads inclined towards each other, and the 
legs of one were crossed. From the teeth being so perfect, 
they were probably those of young men. They must have 
each considerably exceeded six feet in height, when living; 
a crack in the parietal bone of one was perhaps the result of 
a violent blow and the cause of death. On one was lying the 
iron boss of a shield (with rivet or nail holes), and, by the 
side, a spearhead of iron ; other iron fragments, probably of 
the arms of the other warriors, were also near, together with 
third brass coins of Constantine, Constantine II., and a coin 
of Magnentius with the Chi Rho monogram ; part of a plain 
armilla, a twisted armilla, a fibula, and the tongue of a large 
fibula. 

To get at the gravel, these skeletons were removed piece- 
meal, but the skulls, and some of the relics, are in the 
Corinium Museum. Fragments of rude black and grey 
pottery abounded. 

I at once communicated with the Rev. W. Bazeley, who, 
in commenting thereon at the Monmouth meeting, observed : 
"The relics were evidence that a conflict took place between 
the Roman garrison at Corinium and a body of barbarian 
invaders" ; and ascribed the probable date to a.d. 352 ; and 
the surrounding Roman remains seem to support this 
conclusion. 

Cremation was not invariable with the Romano-British. 
Skeletons have been repeatedly found, to my personal know- 
ledge, with undoubtedly Roman armillse round the wrists. 
But these may have been hasty interments after a battle. 
And probably burial was substituted on the adoption of 
Christianity. 

A skeleton with a similar umbo, spearhead, &c, to those 



The Discovery of Skeletons at Cirencester. 397 



of "The Barton," was unearthed not long since at Stratton, 
about half a mile from the town, in or near the foundations 
and walls of a building. This would point to the ruin of a 
suburban Roman home from a like invasion. A first brass 
coin of Hadrian, found near, must not be taken as coeval 
with the remains. 

But for the surrounding evidence, I confess I should 
have been disposed, at first sight, to regard these Barton 
burials as Saxon. The boss of the shield, the spearhead, 
their position, and the mode of sepulture being identical 
with those of the " Fairford Graves." And the Fairford 
men, too, were of great stature : one warrior measured seven 
feet, while others of six feet six inches, and above six feet, 
were common. I would earnestly commend to this Society, 
with the permission of Earl Bathurst, further well-organized 
excavation in this field, as I cannot but think the results 
may be extremely interesting. 

The Roman Cemetery proper — where cremation seems 
to have been universal — is at Watermoor, also just outside 
the walls of Corinium, but to the South. Here were found 
the splendid sepulchral stones in 1835, — two of which are 
now in the local Museum, — with urns containing ashes and 
coins : and the sepulchral stone shown to the members of this 
Society on their last visit by Mr. Christopher Bowly at 
Siddington. Here also, excavation would meet with rich 
results. In digging for a well and drain across some cottage 
gardens a few years ago, no less than four urns had been 
discovered, and smashed, before I arrived. I saved another 
from this fate, and it was practically perfect : near it was a 
large shallow saucer of black ware. I handed these to the 
Curator of the Museum. The urn was full of burnt bones, 
and among them was a very small armilla, also calcined. 
These urns are always found in a bed of clay, some 
considerable depth below the surface, and need careful 
exhumation. 

I may mention one or two other interesting Cirencester 
finds during the present year : — 

27 * 



398 Transactions for the Year 1894-95. 

It has been said that the spurs of the Romans were with-, 
out rowels. I had the pleasure of securing an undoubtedly 
Roman spur, beautifully patinated, the formation of which 
completely upsets that view. As it was from Ashcroft, I 
handed it to Mr. Wilfred Cripps, C.B., and it has a place in 
his unique Museum. This spur was ornamented by incised 
lines, and from its small size, probably in past days was 
worn by some fair " equestrienne " of Corinium. 

At about the same time as the discovery at " The 
Barton" a silver coin of Antoninus, with the reverse of 
Ceres, was found in one of Earl Bathurst's fields on the 
Park Farm. It would be interesting for this to remain in 
Cirencester, but I have, as yet, been unable to induce the 
owner to part with it. 

Coins of Magnentius with the monogram of Christ, a 
silver denarius of Alexander Severus, with other third brass 
coins of Probus, &c, and an unusually large fibula, have 
been ploughed up on a farm at Preston. Roman remains 
from Preston are very unusual. These, also, with several 
most desirable items, have fallen into other hands and will 
go from the town, which is much to be regretted. It would 
be very advisable, too, if the many charming relics now in 
private collections here, could be secured for the Museum, as 
in the event of death or removal of the owners they are liable 
to dispersal. 

Of minor articles — a small glass vessel of peculiar shape 
(probably an unguentarium) ; a dainty little "eraser" to 
attach to a chatelaine, and several other toilet instruments 
may claim passing notice ; with countless coins of no special 
types, fragmentary examples of Samian and other pottery, 
and a stamped tile " T.P.L.F." One coin — a first brass of 
L. iElius — deserves notice, as it is the only one I have ever 
seen from Cirencester during the close observation of many 
years. 

On any Ashcroft finds I do not touch, as they are in far 
more capable hands. 



NOTES ON A GREAT HOARD OF ROMAN COINS 
FOUND AT BISHOP'S WOOD IN 1895. 



By MARY ELLEN BAGNALL-OAKELEY, 

Member of the Numismatic Society of London. 

In the Spring of 1895 a large hoard of late Roman coins was 
discovered on the estate of Mr. McCalmont, at Bishop's Wood, 
near Ross-on-Wye, about 400 yards on the Herefordshire 
side of the boundary between that county and Gloucester- 
shire. The coins were found by some workmen who were 
getting surface stones to mend a road, when an accidental blow 
from a pick struck a large earthenware jar in which they had 
been placed, and scattered the coins in all directions (see 
plate.) Two other jars lay in fragments near it, with the coins 
they had originally contained mixed with soil and debris. All 
had been enclosed by rough walling built against the hillside, 
but if ever they had been covered by a stone it had disap- 
peared. The coins are all^rd and 4th Brass of the Constan- 
tine family (except three single coins), and a description of 
17,550 is appended. A good many more were found by 
school-children and others after the workmen had left, and 
early next morning, but no description can be given, as they 
are dispersed. 

There have been at different times a considerable number 
of " finds " of Roman coins in various parts of the Forest of 
Dean, 1 which may be accounted for in several ways. (1.) 
The large villa at Lydney Park seems to have been occupied 
for a long period, 2 and gold, silver, and brass coins have been 
found there in large quantities — the money, in fact, which 
was required for the expenses of this magnificent establish- 
ment. These coins range from Augustus, who died a.d. 14,, 

1 Although Bishop's Wood is at the present time outside the boundary 
of the Forest, it was included within the area of the Forest of Dean in the 
time of Edward I. 

2 See Prebendary Scarth's remarks at Lydney Park Meeting, Transac- 
tions of the B. and G. A. S., vol. i. 



4oo 



Transactions for the Year 1894-95. 



to the departure of the legions from Britain, in the early part 
of the 5th century. (2.) The iron mines of the Forest were 
worked by the Romans for a considerable time, and probably 
most of the hoards hitherto recorded in this district were 
intended for the pay of the miners, as they were all discovered 
either actually in the iron-workings, or closely adjacent to 
them. These coins are mostly small brass (though a hoard 
of silver denarii has been found), and they do not extend over 
a later period than the reigns of Carausius and Allectus. 
Probably, in the disturbed period which succeeded the 
rebellion of the usurpers, the Forest was not in a sufficiently 
peaceful state to continue working the mines. During the 
period of unrest which followed, many of the camps in 
Herefordshire and Gloucestershire were occupied by Roman 
troops, and coins of Constantius and his immediate suc- 
cessors have been found in them. 

Probably the Bishop's Wood " find " was a military 
hoard, and in much the same condition as it arrived from 
the Continent, for it contains coins from the mints of Aries 
(Constantina), Treves, Lyons, Aquileia, Rome, Constan- 
tinople, Siscia, Antioch, Carthage, Nicomedeia, Heracleia, 
and Thessalonica, but none from any mint in Britain. 

The spot where the hoard was deposited is near the village 
school, on steeply sloping ground, which rises from 150 ft. 
to 200 ft. above the level of the river Wye. The ground 
seems to have been escarped on the east, where an ancient 
road passes it in a deep hollow, and leads from the river 
towards Walford and the Great Howie Camp, which is two 
miles north-east of Bishop's Wood. A short distance up the 
stream is an old ford, where the ancient road from Drybrook 
comes out. Since the discovery of the coins, Mr. McCalmont's 
workmen, who were employed in clearing the " Lodge Grove" 
Wood, came upon part of the fosse and vallum of a camp, 
which, from its rectangular form, was probably Roman, and 
a quantity of coarse Roman pottery was found within it. 
The surrounding bank was roughly built with small stones 
and covered with earth, but unfortunately it was at once 



Roman Coins Found at Bishop's Wood. 401 

levelled, through ignorance of its origin, but the configuration 
of the ground still shows where it was placed. About five 
miles to the north-east of Bishop's Wood is the site of Arico- 
nium, which was the great station of the Roman iron 
manufactures of the district. The 13th Iter of Antoninus 
gives Ariconium as the next station beyond Glevum (Glou- 
cester), and from it the road proceeded to Blestium (Mon- 
mouth), across the beautiful country on the banks of the Wye, 
among hills which are in many places covered with ancient 
cinders. From Blestium the road continued to Burrium 
(Usk), and after a short stage the traveller arrived at the 
grand city of Isca (Caerleon), the headquarters of the second 
Legion. Along so important a highway it is but natural 
there should have been many camps for defence, and soon 
after leaving Ariconium the ancient road passed between the 
strongholds of Penyard and Chase Wood. After crossing 
the Wye at Goodrich, the road passes near the two camps of 
Great Doward and Little Doward, both of which command 
the Wye. The latter camp, though evidently older than 
Roman times, must have been occupied by them for some 
considerable time, for a recfangular addition has been made 
on the one end, and Roman coins and swords were discovered 
there some years ago, when the late Mr. Blakemore was 
making a drive to the summit of the hill. 

The most interesting subject connected with the Bishop's 
Wood " find " is a series of coins bearing Christian symbols 
and devices. They were struck at that period of Roman 
history when the pagan deities hitherto figured upon the 
reverses of the current money were being replaced by his- 
torical subjects and Christian devices and symbols. This 
change probably began about a.d. 312, when Constantine the 
Great avowed himself a Christian ; but pagan reverses are 
found later from some mints than from others. Whether the 
account given by Eusebius of the Cross which appeared in 
Heaven be the real cause of the Emperor's conversion or 
not, it must have been a mighty influence which induced the 
ruler of the Roman people to place the sign of the despised 



402 



Transactions for the Year 1894-95. 



Jesus of Nazareth upon the banner of pagan Rome, and 
upon the money which was to circulate through the known 
world. The description given by Eusebius of the Labarum 
itself, with the sacred sign upon it, accords in every particular 
with the banner represented upon some of these coins, and 
several varieties of the Chi-Rho and different forms of the 
Cross itself occur upon many of them. 

It is remarkable that in this large hoard there are only four 
coins of Crispus. This probably arises from the fact that Crispus 
was put to death a.d. 326, whereas this hoard cannot have been 
deposited till well after a.d. 337, when Constans and Constantius 
received the title of Emperor ; for many coins of both which 
occurred in the hoard bear the title of Augustus. 

In a hoard of 2,000 to 3,000 small brass coins found at 
Haresfield Beacon on August 19, 1837, only 12 coins of 
Crispus were present ; those of Helena, Theodora, Constan- 
tinus L and II., Constantinopolis, Urbs Roma, Fausta Del- 
matius, Constans, and Constantius II. constituted the 
remainder. This deposit must have been buried at much the 
same time as that of Bishop's Wood. 

LIST OF COINS AND TYPES. 

CLAUDIUS GOTHICUS. 
Died a.d. 270. 

Claudius Gothicus was made by Valerianus 



1. Ob, DIVO CLAVDIO OPTIMO IMP. Laureated 
head to right. 
R. REQVIES OPTIMOR(ww) MERIT(«w)- Em- 



Governor of Illyricum and the Lower Danube in 

A.D. 259. 



Types. 



No. of 
Coins. 



peror veiled, seated, right hand raised 
In exergue : ?RS. 



1 



Total 



1 



A posthumous coin, probably struck under Con- 
stantine the Great. 



Roman Coins Found at Bishop's Wood. 403, 

rp No. of 

T yP es ' - Coins. 
DIOCLETIAN. 

Emperor a.d. 284. Abdicated a.d. 305. Died a.d. 313. 

1. Ob. IMP.C.C VAL DIOCLETIANVS. PP.AVG. 
Radiated head to right. 

R. CONCORDIA MILITVM. Jupiter presenting 
a Victory, which holds a palm branch, to 
the Emperor 1 

In ex.: ANT. Infield: * 

Total 1 

MAXIMIANUS HERCULES. 
Emperor a.d. 286. Died 310. 
1. Ob. IMP. C.MA MAXIMIANVS AVG. Head 
with radiated crown to right. 

R. CONCORDIA Ml(litum). Soldier with spear 

presenting a Victory to Emperor r 

In ex. : ALf (Alexandria, 5th Mint). 

Total 1 

HELENA, 

Mother of Constantine the Great. Died a.d. 328. 

1. Ob. FL IVL HELEN AE AVG. Head of Helena 

to right. 

R. PAX PVBLICA. Peace standing with palm 

branch and long sceptre 312 

All struck at Treves. 

See list of Christian reverses. 

2. Ob. FL HELENA AVGVSTA. 

R. SECVRITAS REIPVBLICAE. Security hold- 
ing palm branch in right hand 3 



Total 315 



404 Transactions for the Year 1894-95. 



CoVs f 

THEODORA, 
Second wife of Constantius I. Died a.d. 328. 

1. Ob. FL MAX THEODORAE AVG. 

R. PIETAS ROMAN A. Piety standing, holding 

an infant in her arms 271 

Total ... ... 271 

All struck at Treves. 
See list of Christian reverses. 

LICIN1US I. 
Emperor a.d. 307-323. 

Licinius married Constantina, sister of Constan- 
tine the Great, who associated him in the 
Empire a.d. 307 

Ob. IMP C VAL LICIN LICINIVS PF AVG. 
Radiated head to right. 

R. IOVI CONSERVATORI. Jupiter standing, 
sceptre in left, a Victory in right, and at his feet 
an eagle presenting wreath, a captive on ground 

at left, in field to left. 

/SMNA \ 
-r JSMNA 

Inex ' : ) smn r • 20 

(SMALP J 

2. Ob. IMP LICINIVS PM AVG. 

R. GENIO POP.ROM. Genius with modius on 

head, patera in right hand, cornucopia in left . 1 

Infield: F. In ex. : I f^ALP 

Total 21 

LICINIUS II. 
Caesar a.d. 315-326. 
Son of the elder Licinius by Constantina, sister 
of Constantine the Great. Declared Caesar 
a.d. 317. Put to death after his father's death 
by Constantine a.d. 326. 



Roman Coins Found at Bishop's Wood. 



4°5 



No. of 

oes - Coins. 
Ob. DN.VAL LICIN.LICINIVS NOB.C. Helmet 

on head, spear over right shoulder. 

R. IOVI CONSERVATORI. Emperor standing. 

Spear in left ; Victory in right ; at feet eagle 

presenting wreath '. 7 

In ex.: SMNA 

Total 7 

CONSTANTINE I. THE GREAT. 
Emperor a.d. 306-337. 

Ob. CONSTANTINVS MAX.AVG. Head with 
diadem. 

R. GIORIA EXERCITVS. Two soldiers with 
spears and shields. 
This type was not used till after the death of 
Crispus 2396 

The following coins are all varieties of Type 1 : 

a. Chi-Rho on Labarum 34 

b. Cross between standards 4 

c. Cross on Labarum 3 

These are fully described among the Chris- 
tian reverses, page 

d. Star of eight rays, do 61 

e. Oak leaf between standards ... 29 

Always Constantina mint. 
/. F between soldiers in field ... ... 2 

g. Chi Rho in field ... 1 

h. Spear heads end in crosses 2 

These are counted in the number of Type 1. 

Ob. CONSTANTINVS AVG. Emperor in helmet 
and cuirass. 

R. BEATA TRANQVILITAS. Altar with VOT XX 

and globe, three stars above ... ... 2 

PTR 
STR^ 



4-o6 . Transactions for the Year 1894-95. 

rr\ NO. Of 

T ?P es - Coins. 

3. Ob. Same. 

R. PROVIDENTI^E AVGG. Praetorian gate, 

• star over ... .. 5 

TR^ \ 

PTR^ ( Struck at Treves, 

STRE ( 1st & 2nd Mints. 
STR ; 

4. Ob. CONSTANTINVS AVG. Head to right, laurel 

wreath and paludamentum. 
R. SARMATIA DEVICTA. Victory with palm 

branch standing over captives 6- 

( 2 STR ) 
In ex. : 2 STR W 

( 2 PTR ) 

Large good coins. 

Constantine conquered the Sarmatians a.d. 322. 

5. IMP. CONSTANTINVS P.F AVG. Head with 

diadem, or wreath. 

R. SOLI INVICTO COMITI. The sun walking 

to left 6 

FT r PTR 

In field : \ RS In ex. : 

AS ( PLC 

6. Ob. IMP. CONSTANTINVS MAX AVG. Head to 

right, helmet and wreath, cuirass. 

R. VICTORIAE ? Two Victories, placing 

buckler on altar t 

7. Ob. CONSTANTINVS AVG. Head in helmet to 

right. 

R. Illegible. Two winged Victories holding shield, 
•<u VOT 

With ^-p 2: 

8. Ob. Same. 

R. VIRTVS AVGVSTI. Constantine with spear 

and shield, wreath round head. Large size. t 



Roman Coins Found at Bishop's Wood. 407 

No. of 

P es - Coins. 
Ob. CONSTANTINVS AVG. Laureate head to 

right. Large size. 
R. CONSTANTINI AVG. Round the inscription, 

VOTIS XX 1 

In ex. : PLS. 

. Ob. Same as 2. 

R. VIRTVS. EXERCIT. Two captives on ground 



under banner, on which is 



VOT 

XX 



A coin exactly similar to 9, but with head looking 
left. Both these are very rude work 1 

. Ob. Head of Constantine without legend. 
R. CONSTANTINVS AVG. across the field; 

wreath above 5 

In ex, : STR. 

CONSECRATION COINS. 

Veiled head to right. 

. DIV.CONSTANTINVS PT. AVG 20 

Described among Christian reverses. 

. DIVO CONSTANTINO ... 7 

Described among Christian reverses. 

Total 2455 

CONSTANTINOPOLIS. 
This Type was introduced at the Dedication of 
Constantinople, a.d. 330. 

Ob, CONSTANTINOPOLIS. Helmeted head of 
City personified, with sceptre on her shoulder. 

R. A Victory standing, with prow of vessel at her 

feet, holding sceptre in right, leaning on shield 3512 
1 coin has the above obverse, and the Wolf 
and twins reverse. 



408 Transactions for the Year 189 4.-95. 

Coins' 

There are the following varieties : 

a. w in field to left. 

b. Wreath in field. 

c. Palm branch in field. 

d. Triple palm branches in field.: 

e. Oak leaf in field. 
/. F do. do. 

g. % in field. 

i. Sceptre on obverse ends in 
a cross. 

j. Shield on obverse has a 
cross on it. 



All described among 
the Christian 
reverses. 



Total 35 12 

URBS ROMA. 

Ob, VRBS . ROMA. Helmeted head of Roma to 
left. (There is a slight difference in helmet.) 

R. Wolf and twins. No legends 4 2T 4 

There are several varieties of this Type. Some 
have SMH£ . 

or SMTS6 m the exergue * 

a. Two stars above wolf. 

b. \j> between two stars. (Described among Chris- 

tian coins.) 

c. Wreath between two stars. 

d. Palm branch do. 

e. Triple palm branch do. 
/. Three stars above wolf. 

g. Two stars with j between. SMNf 

h. — between stars. P CONST 
One coin has the above obverse and the usual 

reverse of Constantinopolis, Victory marching, 
&c. 



Total ..." ... 4214 



Roman Coins Found at Bishop's Wood. 409 



CRISPUS. 

Son of Constantine the Great. Caesar a.d. 317-326. 

1. Ob. CRISPVS NOB CAES. 

R. BEATA TRANQVILITAS. 

Altar with VOTIS XX 1 

In field : CP In ex. : PLC 

2. Ob. Same. 

R. CAESARVM NOSTRORVM. Wreath with 

VOT X 

In ex. : TRP 

3. Ob. IVL CRISPVS NOB. C. 

R. Same as No. 2 ... .~ 1 

4. Ob. DN.FL.IVL.CRISPVS NOB CAES. 

R. IOVI CONSERVATORI CAESS. Jupiter 
standing, Victory on right hand, spear in left, 
captive on ground, eagle offering wreath. ... 1 

Infield- * Inex - : SMK - 

' NT (Signata Moneta Karthagenae). 

Total 4 

DELMATIUS, OR DALMATIUS. 
Nephew of Constantine the Great (Caesar a.d. 335.) 
Died a.d. 337. 

1. Ob. FL DELMATIVS NOB. C. Head to right, 

hair bound with fillet. 
R. GLORIA EXERCITVS. Two soldiers with 

standard between them o 

In ex.: B:SIS. 

2. Ob. Same as 1. Head to right, laureated. 

R. GLORIA EXERCITVS. Two soldiers holding 

spears, leaning on shields. Two standards ... 2 

TRS. SLC. 

3. Ob. Same as 1. 

R. Same, but oak leaf between standards 1 

In ex.: P. CONST. 



410 Transactions for the Year 1894-95. 



No. of 
Coins. 



Types. 

4. Ob. Same. 

R. Same, but palm branch between standards ... 19 
In ex. : TRS^- 

5. Ob. Same as 1. 

R. The Labarum, with P. CONST ... 5 

6. Ob. Same as 1. 

R. The Labarum, with $ S. CONST ... 1 



Total 30 

These two latter are fully described among Chris- 
tian reverses. 

CONSTANTINE II. 
Caesar a.d. 317. Augustus a.d. 337-340. 
Ob. CONSTANTINVS IVN. NOB C. Head to 

right, laureated, wearing paludamentum. 
R. GLORIA EXERCITVS. Two soldiers with 

spears, leaning on shields with standard ... 3672 
The following are varieties of this type : 

a. Chi-Rho and cross on Labarum, which is between 

soldiers. 

b. Star of eight rays between and above standards. 
All described among Christian reverses. 

c. Oak leaf? between standards. 

A1 PCONS 
Always g QONS 

d. Palm branch between standards. 

e. Wreath ,, 

Ob. Youthful head of Constantine to left, without 
legend. 

7?. CONSTANTINVS CAESAR across the field 1 

Ob. CONSTANTINVS IVN AVG. 

R. BEATA TRANQVILLITAS X. Altar with 

VOTIS 
XX 1 

In ex. : PLC 



PLATE L 




^0 



ff. o. /l of fa ft. 



JAR WHICH CONTAINED ROMAN COINS FOUND ON THE 
BISHOPS WOOD ESTATE NEAR ROSS AND RUARDEAN. 



LAVARS A CO., BRISTOL. 



Roman Coins Found at Bishop's Wood. 411 



Types. 



No. of 
Coins. 



4. Ob. CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C. 

R. CAESAR NOSTRORVM DO MI ? Within a 

garland is VOT V ... 1 

5. Same, but VOT X ... ' 1 

6. Ob. Same. 

R. PROVIDENTIA CAESS. Praetorian gate, 

with star above 1 



7. Ob. Same. 

R. VIRTVS AVG. Praetorian gate ... 3 

In ex. : ARLS 

8. Ob. FL IVL CONSTANTINVS AVG. 

R. SECVRITAS AVG. Security, with spear in 

right hand, leaning on column 1 

In ex. : PfS 
Described among Christian reverses. 

9. Ob. Large head of different type. 

R. Same 1 

10. Ob. CONSTANTINVS, AVG. Head to left, 

laureated. 

R. Victory marching with spear, leaning on shield 

(the common reverse of Constantinopolis) ... 1 

Total 3683 

CONSTANS. 

Caesar a.d. 333, Augustus a.d. 337. Died a.d. 350. 

1. Ob. FL. IVL. CONSTANS AVG. U , + . 

or I Head to right, 

CONSTANS AVG j laureated - 

R. GLORIA EXERCITVS. Two soldiers with 

spears and shields 439 



In ex. : STP 



Varieties of Type 1. 



a. w on Labarum. 

b. oak leaf between standards. 

c. Sacred monogram on Labarum. 

d. Cross on Labarum. 

e. between standards. 




Described among 
Christian reverses. 



28 



Vol. XIX. 



4 



412 Transactions for the Year 1894-95. 

rp NO. Of 

T yP es - Cobs. 

2. 0£. Same as 1. 

R. VIRTVS AVGGNN. Emperor wearing, helmet 

? 

spear in left hand, sword in right. 

TRP 2: 

TRS 2, 

3. Ob. CONSTANS AVG. 

R. VICTORIEAE DD . N-N. Two winged Vic- 
tories with wreaths in their hands, an ivy 
leaf in field. 

TRP $ 

TRS 1 

4. Ob. CONSTANS. PF. AVG. Head to right, diadem. 

R. Same as 1 2 

5. Ob. FL IVL CONZTANS. Very rude coin. 

R. GLORIA, &c 1 

TRS 

Total 45O' 

CONSTANTIUS II. 
Caesar a.d. 323. Augustus 337-361. 
1. Ob. FL.IVL.CONSTANTIVS NOB CAES, or C. 
Head to right. • 

R. Two soldiers with spears and shields ; one or 

two standards GLORIA EXERCITVS. ... 2193. 

Varieties of Type 1 : 
a. Oak leaf between standards. 

P Prima 
4 coins. All or CONST. or 



b. Star between standards. 

c. Wreath do. 

d. Palm branch do. 

e. F in field. 



S Secunda 

Constantina (Aries). 



Roman Coins Found at Bishop's Wood. 413 



No. of 

T yP es - Coins. 



/. s£ on Labarum. 

5 coins. 

g. 4* on Labarum. 

9 coins. 

h. f on ground. 

2 coins. / In ex. : AQS 



Described among 
Christian reverses. 



2. Ob. FL IVL CONSTANTIVS NOB C. Face to left. 
R. PROVIDENTIA CAESS. Praetorian gate, 

star over 1 

In ex. : STPE ? 

3. Ob. Same as 2. 

R. Emperor in paludamentum 1 

4. Ob. FL IVL CONSTANTIVS AVG. Laureated 

head to right. 
R. VIRTVS AVGG.NN. Military figure with 

reversed spear and shield 3 

TRP 

5. Ob. Same as 4. 

R. Emperor with spear *in left, Victory on right 

hand, two captives on ground 1 

6. Ob. Same as 4. 

R. SECVRITAS RE .... Security standing ... 1 

7. Ob. Same. 

R. Victory marching with spear and shield (the 

ordinary Constantinopolis reverse) 1 

Total 2201 

There are many examples of careless workmanship upon 
these coins. On some of them two stamps of the same device 
and legend are found, one intersecting the other. On some 
the obverse is perfect, but slightly convex, while the reverse 
is concave, with an incuse re-presentation of the same 
subject — the result of putting a piece of metal to be struck, 
on the top of a coin already stamped, but not taken out. 

28 * 



Transactions for the Year 1894-95. 



A few coins have names blundered in spelling, and several 
of the letters in the exergue are reversed ; but most of the 
coins are in good order, and many of them as fresh as when 
they were struck. 

THE COINS WITH CHRISTIAN EMBLEMS 
are as follows : — 

ON COINS OF HELENA 1 (RESTORATION). 

Ob. FL. IVL. HELEN AE AVG. Bust of Helena to right. 
R. PAX . PVBLICA. Peace standing to left, holding olive 
branch in right, and long sceptre in left. In the field cga 
to left. 10 coins. 

Do. to right. 4 coins. 
All TRP and TRS. (Treveris Prima and Secunda). 
Treves 1st and 2nd Mints. 

THEODORA (RESTORATION). 

Ob. FL. MAX. THEODORAE AVG. Bust of Theodora 

to right, laureated. 
R. PIETAS ROM ANA. Piety standing, carrying an infant. 
In the field to right t%*. 

7 coins. All TRP and TRS. 
Treves 1st and 2nd Mints. 
As these ladies were Christians, the usual DIVA is 
omitted, though the legends are in the dative case. 

CONSTANTINE THE GREAT. 

Ob. CONSTANTIN VS MAX. AVG. Head to right, diadem 

and paludamentum. 
R. GLORIA EXERCITVS. Two soldiers, &c. ; between 
them, near the ground, -f-. 

4 coins : AQP, AQS 

Aquileia Prima and Secunda. 
. Aquileia 1st and 2nd Mints. 
1 See Num. Chron., vol. xvii., 1877, p. 265. 



Roman Coins Found at Bishop's Wood. 415 



There is another form of cross,, cgp. 
Ob. Same. 

R. Same, but between soldiers the Labarum, with . \ 
34 coins. Small, poor coins. 

No. of Coins. 

3 P. CONST. Prima, and ) Constantina 
S. CONST. Secunda. j (Aries). 

1st and 2nd Mints. 

<; PLC Prima. It 1 

2 SLC Secunda.} Lugdunensis. 

1st and 2nd Mints. 

Ob. Same. 

R. Same as above, but >|< in field above standards. 

2 coins. P. CONS. 
Ob. Same. • " : 

R. or on Labarum. 3 coins, one of which has a -|- at 
top of spear. P. CONST. Prima Constantina (Aries). 
TRP (Treveris Prima). 

R. 4 coins have ^ between soldiers. In ex. : PLC. 
t 

These types were used between a.d. 335 and a.d. 337. 
Ob. Same. 

R. Same, but # (large and small) above standards. 

1st or 2nd Mint, Constantina. 
P 

61 coins. All or CONST. 
S 

Many of the coins of this Emperor have the letter X in 
" exercitus" greatly enlarged, and exactly in the middle 
the standards. On some with the Labarum, it is of 
actually touching the top of the spear. It may be intended 
as a latent representation of a cross. 
Ob. Same. 

R. Same, but the spear-heads terminate in crosses, 

1st or 2nd Mint, Constantina. 

P 

In ex.: or CONST. 

r . . S • 



416 



Transactions for the Year 1894-95. 



CONSECRATION COINS. 
Veiled head. Struck after the death of Constantine, a.d. 337. 
Type. No. of 

1. DIVVS or DIV CONSTANTINVS PT AVGG. Coins. 
R. Chariot with four horses (Quadriga) driven by the 

anima of the Emperor, who holds out his hand to 
meet another large hand coming from the clouds. 

/PLC 1 

In ex.: TRP 13 

ITRS 6 

Total 20 

2. R. DIVO CONSTANTINO .... Veiled head. 

AETERNA PIETAS. Emperor standing. 

Helmet and paludamentum. Spear in right, 

globe in left, with V in field over) , , (SCONS 

or N „ under} ^ lobe tP CONS - 2 

One coin has -P above globe 1 

With doubtful exergued letters ... 4 

All small coins. 1 — 

Total 7 

constantinopoles. 2 

1. Ob. CONSTANTINOPOLIS. Bust of the City personi- 

fied, helmeted, to left with sceptre. 

R. No legend. Victory, with wings extended, walking to 
left, holding a spear in right hand and resting the left 
on a shield. In the field to left >v . 
Of these 10 coins. 

This type introduced a.d. 330, at the dedication of Con- 
stantinople, but struck at Constantina and Aquileia. 

2. Same as above, but with in field. 

AQS and P. CONST. 

1 See Nmm. Chron., vol. xvii., p. 284. 2 Ibid, p. 269. 



Roman Coins Found at Bishop's Wood. 



3. Same as above ; but the sceptre, in the left hand of City on 

obverse, ends in a cross, thus : •/ • SMKB. 

4, R. Others have a cross upon the shield, thus : *:• 
Struck at Carthage, 2nd mint. 

URBS ROMA. 

Ob. VRBS ROMA. Bust of the City personified, helmeted, 
to left. 

R. No legend. Wolf suckling twins ; above the Sacred 
monogram, between two stars with eight rays. 

22 coins. All P. and S. CONST. 
This type was introduced at the time of the dedication of 
Constantinople, a.d. 330, but struck at Constantina 
(Aries). 1 

DELMATIUS. 

Ob. FL. DELMATIVS NOB CAES. 

R. GLORIA EXERCITVS. Two soldiers, &c, between 
them Labarum with £ 

3 coins with P. CONST. 
2 large size S. CONST. 
1 small P. LC. 
Issued after a.d. 335, as Delmatius was made Caesar that 
year. 
Ob. Same. 

R. Same, but a cross below Labarum TRS 

CONSTANTINE II. 

Ob. CONSTANTIN VS IVN. NOB. C. Bust of Constantine 
II. to the right, laureated, with cuirass. Some have diadem. 
R. GLORIA EXERCITVS. Two soldiers,, helmeted, 
standing, each holding a spear, and leaning on a shield ; 
between them the Labarum, on which is the Sacred 
monogram. 

24 coins, Small coins. 

1 See Num. Chron., 1877, P- 2 7°- 



4i8 



Transactions for the Year 1894-95. 



Ob. CONSTANTINVS 

R. Same, with + on Labarum, PLC 

Ob. Same, but with a star of eight rays between soldiers. 
P 

10 coins, or CONST. Large coins. 
S 

Ob. FL. IVL CONSTANTINVS AVG. 

R. SECVRITAS AVG. Security, with hasta n right, 

leaning on column. ? 

in ex. : pfs. 1 com. 

Ob. Same as 1. This is a larger coin than the others. 

R. Same as 1, but has + between soldiers. 

2 coins. AQS. 

CONSTANS. 

1. Ob. FL. IVL. CONSTANS. AVG. Bust of Constans 

to right, laureated. 
R. GLORIA EXERCITVS. Two soldiers standing, 
holding spear and leaning on shield ; between them th 
Labarum, on which is the Sacred monogram. 
Ob. CONSTANS AVG. 

24 coins. All P. and S. CONST, or SIS. (Siscia. 
R. Same as above. 

2. Ob. Same. 

R. Same, except that upon the Labarum is + or 
6 coins. 

3. Ob. Same as 2. 

R. Same, but cross below monogram. 
2 coins. SLC. 

4. Ob. Same. 

R. Has a star of eight rays between standards. 

Many of the coins of this emperor have the X in 
EXERCITVS very much enlarged, and placed 
exactly overthe Labarum or between the standards. 1 

1 See Num. Chron,., vol. xvii., p. 264. 



Roman Coins Found at Bishop's Wood. 



419 



CONSTANTIUS II. 

Ob. FL. IVL. CONSTANTIVS NOB. C. Bust of Con- 
stantius to right, laureated. Paludamentum. 

R. GLORIA EXERCITVS. Two soldiers, &c. ; between 
them, in the field, % . The heads of standards end in 
small crosses. 

1 coin. S. CONST. 

Ob. Same. 

R. Same, except that + is on the Labarum between the 
soldiers. 

P 

or CONST. 5 coins. 

S 

One coin has -f on Labarum. PLC. One coin =(? . SLC. 
Ob. CONSTANTIVS AVG. Small coin. 
R. Same, but Labarum has a cross below. PLC. 

2 coins. 
Ob. Same as 1. 

R. Same, but Labarum has upon it *J«. 

9 coins. TRP and TRS. P. CONST. 
Ob. Same as 1. * 
R. Same, but star of six rays between standards. 
35 coins. S. CONST. 
On some coins of this reign the X in " exercitus " is not 
only greatly enlarged, but has expanded ends. 

The following explanation of some of the letters in the 
exergue may be useful: — 

P Prima 1st Mint. 

S Secunda 2nd Mint. 

Greek letters, probably for numerals : — 
A 1st Mint 



Generally after the letter 
indicating the city where 



B 2nd do , 

r 3rd do , 

A 4th do. the coins were struck. 

6 5th do ) 

SM Signata Moneta. The mark of the money. 



420 Transactions for the Year 1894 

A or AL Alexandria. 

AN or ANT ... Antioch. 

AQ Aquileia. 

AR or ARL ... Aries. 

CON or CONS... Constantinople. 

CONST Constantina (Aries). 

K or KAR Carthage. 

H Heracleia. 

LVC or LVG ... Lyons. 

N Nicomedia or Narbonne. 

R or RO or ROM Rome. 

RA Ravenna. 

SIS Siscia. 

T ... Tarraco or Thessalonica. 

TR Treves. 



TRANSACTIONS OF THE 

\mtal vmxb §lo\xtt%ttx^m J^rlja^gtml %nmi% 

At the Annual Meeting held at Berkeley, 

On Tuesday , Wednesday, and Thursday, August 13th, 14th, 
and 15th, 1895. 



The twentieth Annual Summer Meeting of the Bristol and 
Gloucestershire Archaeological Society was held at Berkeley 
<on the days above mentioned. The President for the year 
was the Right Hon. Lord Fitzhardinge, but owing to the 
illness of Lady Fitzhardinge his lordship was unable to 
be present. The Society could not have selected a more 
attractive place for the holding of the meeting, as Berkeley 
Castle and the surrounding neighbourhood are of such an 
historic character as to afford ample interest for the 
archaeologist. Those who intimated their intention of 
being present were Sir Brook Kay (President of the 
Council), Alderman F. F. Fox (Bristol), Mr. T. Dyer- 
Edwardes (County High Sheriff of Gloucestershire), 
Rev. W. Bazeley (general secretary), Rev. J. L. Stackhouse 
{local hon. secretary and treasurer) and Mrs. Stackhouse, 
Rev. W. T. Allen (St. Briavels), Rev. G. S. Master (Bolton 
Grange, Flax Bourton), Canon Jay Jones (Stanton Rectory, 
Coleford), Rev. C. Cripps (the Vicarage, Stone), Rev. W. 
Bagnall Oakeley and Mrs. Bagnall Oakeley (Newland), 
Rev. W. Silvester Davies (Horsley Vicarage, Stroud), Rev. 
C. S. Taylor (Clifton), Rev. J. Melland Hall (Harescombe), 



422 



Transactions for the Year 1894-95. 



Rev. W. H. P. Harvey (Chipping Sodbury), Rev. S. E. Bart- 
leet (Gloucester), Rev. A. Jennings (Kingstanley), Major- 
General Vizard (Dursley), Col. Salmon ( Almondsbury) 
Col. E. Smyth (Stroud), Col. Hardy, Mr. G. M. Currie 
and Mrs. Currie (Cheltenham), Mr. F. D. Fox (Yate House, 
Chipping Sodbury), Mr. J. Drew (Cheltenham), Mr. P. D. 
Prankerd (Bristol), Mr. F. F. Tuckett (Frenchay), Mr. C. 
H. Stanton (Stroud), Mr. W. Leigh (Woodchester Park), 
Mrs. Clement Ritchie and Miss Ritchie (Stroud). Mrs. 
D'Arcy May (Stoke Bishop), Mr. E. A. D' Argent, Miss 
D'Argent, and Miss A. D'Argent (Oxford), Mr. H. W. 
Bruton (Gloucester), Mr. C. H. Dancey (Gloucester), Mrs. 
Margetson, Miss Margetson, Miss C. Margetson, and Mr. 
W. Margetson (Stroud), Mrs. A. Ritchie (Stroud), Mrs. 
Oman (Cheltenham), Mr. T. Thorpe and Mrs. Thorpe 
(Gloucester), Mr. V. R. Perkins (Wotton-under-Edge), Mr. 
S. H. and Mi§s Swayne (Clifton), Mr. E. and Mrs. Whatley 
(Cirencester), Mr. J. A. Matthews (Gloucester), Mr. F. Adams 
Hyett and Miss Hyett (Painswick House), Mrs. T. Perkins 
(Wotton-under-Edge), Mr. G. H. Gordon (Prestbury), Mr. 
J. Bush (Clifton), Mr. A. Le Blanc (Prestbury), Mr. C. Jay 
Jones (Stanton), Mr. G. Meedway and Mrs. Meedway 
(Cheltenham), Mr. W. J. Stanton and Miss Stanton (Stroud), 
Mr. and Mrs. J. Bruton (Gloucester), Mr. W. P. W. Phill- 
more (London), Mr. and Mrs. G. Sheffield Blakeway 
(Gloucester), Mr. F. de Sausmarez (Cheltenham), Miss Bel- 
field (Frenchay), Mr. J. Dearman Birchall (Upton St. 
Leonards), Mr. G. W. Keeling (Lydney), Mr. F. J. Cullis 
(Gloucester), Mr. W. George, Mr. A. G. W. Jefferies, 
Mr. W. Lyne Fear, Mr. James Peter, Mr. Allen, 
&c. The inclemency of the weather in the morning 
no doubt kept a good many members from participating 
in the meeting, but in the afternoon the weather was 
delightfully fine. 

The Council Meeting of the ; Society for the election of 
members, and for the final revision of the Council Report, was 
held at the Church House. ° 



The Annual Meeting. 



The Annual Meeting. 

The General Meeting was held in the Town Hall, under 
presidency of Sir Brook Kay (President of the Council), in 
the unavoidable absence of Lord Fitzhardinge, the President 
the Society. 

The Rev. J. L. Stackhouse gave the Society a most hearty 
welcome to Berkeley. He said it was not the first time that 
the Society had come to that place for a short visit, but as 
far as he knew — -and he had been at Berkeley for twenty-four 
years — it was the first time they had made it their head- 
quarters. As chaplain to Lord Fitzhardinge, he had to say 
how deeply he regretted his lordship's absence on that 
occasion, but the doctors had insisted on Lady Fitzhardinge 
going to Homburg for the benefit of her sight, and they were 
obliged to go away : but their thoughts would be with them 
that day, and if Lord Fitzhardinge was not able to preside, 
as he had intended, he had an admirable substitute in Sir 
Brook Kay. 

Sir Brook Kay said they had heard the reason of his being 
placed in the postition he then occupied, and they must all 
very much regret the cause of Lord Fitzhardinge's absence. 
The gentleman who had been asked to fill 'his lordship's place 
would have been most acceptable, but Sir John Dorington 
was obliged to be in his place in the House of Commons, and 
for the same reason the president of last year (Mr. Michael 
Biddulph) was also absent. They regretted that through these 
causes they would have no annual address from the chairman 
that day. They knew what excellent addresses they had had 
from year to year, and in what eloquent language they had 
been told of some of the surrounding places which were to be 
visited in the neighbourhood. He also referred to a former 
visit to Berkeley, and he recommended members to procure 
copies of the Lives of the Berkeleys, in which they would find 
all about the Berkeleys who had been famous for centuries 
past. 



424 Transactions for the Year 1894-95. 



The Annual Report. 
The Rev. W. Bazeley read the Annual Report, as follows : 

The Council presents the following Report to the members of the Bristol 
and Gloucestershire Archaeological Society for the past year. There are 
at present 338 annual members, 77 life members, and 3 honorary members 
on the Society's list, giving a total strength of 418 members. 

The income of the Society for the financial year ending April 21st, 
1895, was £257 6s. 1 id. The expenditure during the same period was 
£118 14s. The balance in the hands of the Society's Treasurer on April 
21st, 1895, was /580 19s. 5d., as against a balance of ^"442 6s. 6d. on April 
21st, 1894. Besides this balance, in which the cost of two parts of the 
Transactions for 1893-4 an d two parts of the Transactions for 1894-5 must 
be considered a charge, the Society has a funded capital of ^432 3s. 8d. in 
Consols, representing the fees paid by the life members. 

The Society has held two General Meetings during the year. The 
Annual Summer Meeting of 1894 took place at Ledbury, under the presi- 
dency of Mr. Michael Biddulph, M.P. The Report went on to say that 
several of the places visited were not entirely new to the Society, while 
they were new to many of its present members. When a County Society 
such as this, making excursions on four, or sometimes five, different days 
in each year, is on the eve of attaining its majority (the Society was 
founded 1875), it was impossible to be finding pastures new for the intel- 
lectual refreshment of its older members, or to avoid at times transgressing 
the bounds which King Alfred a thousand years ago somewhat arbitrarily 
laid down for the Hwiccas who dwelt near the Severn estuary. Fortu- 
nately, they possess historic buildings, of which Berkeley Castle was pre- 
eminently an example, which would bear more than one, or even many, 
visits. 

The Spring or Early Summer Meeting was held this year on the 13th 
of June, when visits were paid to four of the parishes which cluster round 
the foot of Bredon Hill, and the attendance of nearly 70 members and 
associates was a proof that such meetings have lost none of their attrac- 
tiveness. The village churches of Bredon, Kemerton, Overbury, and 
Beckford were of far more than ordinary interest and beauty, and in at 
least two of them the Society found able exponents of all that could be 
gathered from past records, and from the buildings themselves, to recall 
their history. It was not always so ; it would have been impossible for so 
many atrocities to be perpetrated under the cloak of restoration in 
hundreds of the parish churches during the last half century if their 
guardians and their patrons had made a study of sacred art and architec- 
ture and local history. If the hold of the English Church on the people 
might be regained by the energetic work and wide sympathies of her 
clergy, it might also be strengthened by making the village church an 
object-lesson to arouse the interest of the parishioners in the lives and 
struggles of their forefathers in the faith. The Council exceedingly re- 



The Annual Report. 



425 



gretted the wretched state of Beckford Church and the injury lately 
done to the Norman Chancel arch by whitewashing. The members were: 
somewhat surprised to find that such a barbarous practice, supposed 
to be peculiar to the Georgian Churchwarden era, had survived to the 
close of the 19th century. 

The Committee which was formed to prepare a descriptive list of the 
church plate of Gloucestershire had so far progressed with their work that 
arrangements might now be made for editing and printing. The Council, 
in accordance with a suggestion made by that Committee, recommended 
that the list should be issued to the members of the Soctety in lieu of an 
annual volume of Transactions, and that the Proceedings of the Society 
for 1894 an d 1895 be compressed into one volume (vol. xix.). If that 
recommendation was adopted the Transactions of the Society should no- 
longer be in arrears, and the Council would be able to apply ^150 of the 
Society's fund (the average cost of an annual volume) to the special fund 
for printing and illustrating a list of church plate. It was believed that 
many persons who were not members would be glad to join the Society in 
order to obtain copies, or that the printing fund might be raised to £zoo 
by inviting subscriptions or by selling the work through a publisher at a 
price of not less than 15s. The Council had invited the Rev. J. M. Hall, 
Rector of Harescombe, the Rev. C. S. Taylor, and Mrs. Broome Witts, to 
edit conjointly the list, being responsible for a description of the Church 
Plate in the three Archdeaconries of Gloucester, Bristol, and Cirencester 
respectively. Mr. Wilfrid Cripps, the distinguished author of Old English 
Plate, would very kindly give every possible assistance to the editors. 
The connection of his name with the work would be a guarantee of its 
excellency. 

The Photographic Survey of Gloucestershire might now be considered 
to be fairly launched. The Committee appointed to prepare a scheme 
had met on several occasions. A Sub-Committee, consisting of photo- 
graphic experts, had drawn up regulations with regard to the size and 
quality of the photographs, and the processes by which they might be 
rendered permanent ; and another Sub-Committee, consisting of members 
of the Society, were preparing lists of objects of archaeological interest for 
the use of actual workers. It was believed that many of the county 
amateurs and professional photographic artists had in their possession 
negatives from which points suitable for the survey might be taken, and it 
was desired that lists of such negatives might be sent to the Committee 
with a view to utilising the good work which had already been done. It 
was proposed to hold an exhibition of selected prints at Gloucester in the 
forthcoming winter; and at other centres (Cheltenham, Stroud, and Ciren- 
cester, &c.) in the winters following. A suggestion had been made that 
annual subscriptions to the survey should be invited, which should entitle 
the subscribers annually to a certain number of permanent photographs 
(duplicates of those which would form part of the survey) to be selected at 
the exhibition ; those subscriptions would be handed over to the exhibitors 
whose photographs were selected. 



426 



Transactions for the Year 1894-95. 



The seventh Congress of the Archaeological Societies in union with the 
Society of Antiquaries of London was held at Burlington House on Thurs- 
day, July 4th, and this Society was represented by the Rev. S. E. Bartleet 
the Rev. J. Melland Hall, as Delegates, and the Rev. W. Bazeley, as Hon. 
Local Secretary for Gloucestershire of the Society of Antiquaries. The 
Congress resolved to call the attention of the various municipal, county, 
and other authorities to the importance of the documents under their 
charge, and to the necessity of taking steps for their preservation and 
proper use. The delegates of this Society were able to report with some 
pride the steps which had been taken in this direction by the Mayor and 
Corporation of Gloucester, who had printed a calendar of the records of the 
Corporation of Gloucester, 1893, an d by Lord Fitzhardinge, who had pre- 
pared a descriptive catalogue of charters, &c, of Berkeley Castle, 1892. It 
was suggested by Mr. Bartleet, and generally approved, that special atten- 
tion should be paid without loss of time to the charities and other deeds 
belonging to extinct Corporations, such as Thornbury, Wotton-under- 
Edge, Chipping Sodbury, and Chipping Campden, and that their contents 
be epitomised and printed. The Council would gladly arrange to print 
such epitomes in the Society's Transactions, and appealed to the trustees 
and others who might be interested to assist in carrying out Mr. Bartleet's 
suggestion as far as it related to this county. 

The Rev. W. Bazeley, at the invitation of the Congress, laid before the 
delegates proof-sheets of the Manual of Gloucestershire Bibliography, on which 
Mr. Hyett and Mr. Bazeley had been engaged for many years. Mr. 
Bazeley also explained the system in which the work had been drawn up. 
Those gentlemen received the thanks and congratulations of the Congress, 
and a hearty approval was accorded to the Manual. The Council was glad 
to learn that the first volume of this important work was in type, and 
would be issued to the subscribers shortly, that the subscription list was 
fairly well filled, and that all of the hundred large paper copies had been 
subscribed for. The Council had gladly subscribed for a copy for the use 
of the members. The Congress also considered the need of great care in 
the custody and preservation of sculptural sepulchral monuments, and the 
danger which ensued from turning them out into the churchyard, and thus 
exposing them to all weathers. The Council would suggest to the mem- 
bers the desirability of making lists of such monuments in their own 
neighbourhoods with a view to a complete county list being made here- 
after, and also of using their influence to prevent neglect and wilful injury. 
The Council had subscribed for several years for copies of the index of 
archaeological papers which had appeared in the proceedings of the various 
societies, arid had issued this to the members of the Society with the Tran- 
sactions. The Council proposed to do so this year also. They would 
also obtain free of charge an issue with volume xviii., part 2, a report on 
the transcription and publication of the parish registers drawn up and 
printed under the direction of the Congress. That would be accompanied 
by a circular relating to the ethnographical survey of Gloucestershire. 
The assistance of the Society had been invited by the National Trust for 



The Annual Report. 



427 



places of historic interest and readily given, with a view to the preservation 
of Little Sodbury Manor House, the home -for awhile of William Tyndale, 
whilst he was acting as tutor to the sons of Sir John Walsh. The Council 
was confident the ladies who possessed the estate and their trustees would 
accede to the request which had been made to them. It would be a 
national loss if a house so highly interesting for its architecture and its 
historical associations were allowed to fall into decay. 

At the last Annual Meeting the Council reported that a presentation of 
a silver inkstand had been made to Sir John Maclean by various members 
of the Council on behalf of the Society. They had now to refer with the 
deepest regret to the death of that distinguished antiquarian. If the 
Society had taken a foremost place amongst similar local societies the 
credit had been principally due to Sir John Maclean for his able editor- 
ship of the Society's Transactions. Sir John Maclean was an assiduous 
and earnest worker. Archaeology was with him no mere pastime or recrea- 
tion, but the one thought of his riper years. His renown as an antiquary 
was widespread, and the works he wrote and edited would always be held 
in esteem. Another antiquary, one who was equally skilful in deciphering 
ancient documents and no less diligent, the Rev. T. P. Wadley, an hon. 
member of the Society, had also passed away, and his vacant place would 
not easily be filled. The work he did for the Society in editing the book 
of Bristol Wills, and the readiness with which he imparted information from 
his store of learning to individual members of the Society who appealed to 
him, entitled him to their gratitude and lasting esteem. The Council 
would also refer with the deepest regret to the loss of Mr. Francis James, 
of Edgeworth Manor, Vice-President of the Society, whose hospitality to 
the members in the summer of 1887 would be remembered by many, and 
also of Mr. W. C. Heane, a member of the Council, and an able gene- 
alogist. Many other members had been lost to the Society through death 
or departure from the country. Amongst the latter the Council would 
refer to Mr. Charles Witchell, of Stroud, who for several years had acted 
most energetically as local Secretary, and had organised more than one 
successful meeting. He had now taken up his residence in Canada, and 
the Council offered him their best wishes for a successful career in that 
important colony. 

Nothing had yet been done in finding a room for the Society's library 
at Gloucester. The Council rejoiced at the likelihood in the near future 
of a public Free Library being established in that prosperous and ancient 
city, and hoped that if a new building formed part of the scheme the 
views of the Society might be taken into consideration by the Municipal 
authorities. The Society had the nucleus of an excellent archaeological, 
topographical, and historical library, and needed only space to rapidly 
improve it. 

The Council had great regret in reporting to the Society that Lord 
Fitzhardinge, in obedience to the desire of Lady Fitzhardinge's medical 
adviser, had gone with her ladyship to Germany, and was therefore unable 
to preside at this Congress. He and Lady Fitzhardinge had, however,. 

29 

Vol. XIX. 



428 



Transactions for the Year 1894-95 



readily given permission to the members to visit Berkeley Castle, and had 
desired the agent of the estates, Mr. J. Peter, to make every provision for 
their hospitable reception. It was Lord Fitzhardinge's wish that Sir John 
Dorington, Bart., M.P., should preside in his room, and that gentleman 
would gladly have done so, but his parliamentary duties had prevented 
him. For the same reason Mr. Michael Biddulph, M.P. , who so ably 
presided over this Society at Ledbury, was unable to be present and preside 
over the preliminary meeting of the Congress. In the absence of Lord 
Fitzhardinge and those gentlemen, Sir Brook Kay would act as President 
of the Society. The Council reported with very deep regret that Sir Brook 
Kay wished to resign his position as President of the Council, which he 
had held since the death of Sir William Guise in 1887. The uniform 
■courtesy and kindness which he had extended to every member of the 
Council, and the interest which he had taken in the work of the Society 
and the conduct of its business, gave him a lasting title to their gratitude 
and respect. The reasons which Sir Brook Kay proffered for his resigna- 
tion were failing strength and increasing years, which made it well-nigh 
impossible for the Council to press him to withdraw it permanently, but 
they rejoiced to be able to state that he had consented for awhile to con- 
tinue to preside at their meetings. In the meanwhile, the Council recom- 
mended the Society that a Committee be appointed to consider generally 
the constitution of the Council of the Society, with a view to making such 
alterations as time and experience had rendered necessary. In 1875, when 
the Society was formed, Gloucestershire had only two electoral divisions, 
East and West Gloucestershire, and although that had been all changed 
and there were now five electoral divisions, the representation of members 
on the Council was still in accordance with the old order that had passed 
-away. The Council would ask the Rev. S. E. Bartleet, on whose proposal 
they had made that recommendation, to explain the subject more fully, 
and to name the proposed Committee whose duty it would be to draw up 
a new constitution and lay it before the Society at the next annual meeting. 
They would recommend that the position and election of the President of 
the Society, President of the Council, and of the Vice-Presidents be also 
considered by this Committee and form a part of their report. The Com- 
mittee desired now to nominate the President of the Council, the General 
Treasurer, the General Secretary, the Editor, the Vice-Presidents, and the 
Local Secretaries for re-election. 

The following members of the Council retire by rotation but were elig- 
ible for re-election :— Rev. S. E. Bartleet, Canon Ellacombe, Rev. J. M. 
Hall, Rev. H. D'Ombrain, Mr. G. S. Blakeway, Rev. W. Bagnall Oakeley, 
and Mr. H. Medland. 

Rev. G. S. Master proposed that the Report of the Council be adopted. 

Mr. W. George seconded the motion. 

The Rev. S. E. Bartleet proposed the appointment of a Committee 
to consider the general constitution and election of the Council and other 
officers of the Society, and to report to the next annual meeting. He said 
ihe Society was formed twenty years ago, and the representation of the 



Find of Roman Coins at Bishopswood. 429 



Council was arranged in accordance with the then electoral divisions of 
the county. The electoral divisions had now been altered by the Reform 
Act, but the arrangement for the election of members had not been altered. 
He proposed as the Committee the Rev. W. Bazeley, Mr. Ernest Hartland, 
the Rev. C. S. Taylor, Alderman F. F. Fox, Mr. F. A. Hyett, and the 
Rev. S. E. Bartleet. 

The Report was adopted, and the proposition of the Rev. S. E. Bartleet 
was incorporated in the resolution. 

On the motion of Mr. Allen, the following gentlemen were elected 
members of the Council :— The Rev. Canon Ellacombe, Rev. J. M. Hall, 
Rev. S. E. Bartleet, Rev. H. A. D'Ombrain, Rev. W. Bagnall Oakeley, and 
Mr. H. Medland, and that the names of Mr. G. M. Currie and Mr. C. H. 
Dancey be added to the list. 

Sir Brook Kay proposed ' ' That the President of the Council be requested 
•to convey to Lord Fitzhardinge the regret of the Society at his lordship's 
absence, and his consequent inability to preside, and to express their sorrow 
on hearing of Lady Fitzhardinge's indisposition, and a hope that ere long 
her ladyship might be restored to her usual health." 

The motion was carried with acclamation. 

Mr. T. Dyer-Edwardes, County High Sheriff, proposed a hearty vote 
■of thanks to Sir Brook Kay for presiding, in doing which he expressed a 
hope that he would be able to continue to act as President for many years 
to come. 

Mr. P. D. Prankerd seconded the motion, which was put to the meeting 
toy Alderman Fox, and adopted. 

Sir Brook Kay, in acknowledging the compliment, said that the Society 
had succeeded admirably owing to its efficient officers, particularly the 
Honorary Secretary. They had lost a grand old member of the Society 
in Sir J ohn Maclean, but they hoped his successor would fill his place 
adequately, and that the name of the Society would continue to stand high 
among the names of Archaeological Societies. 

FIND OF ROMAN COINS AT BISHOPSWOOD. 

The Rev. W. Bazeley said that a short time ago there was a large find 
of Roman coins in the Forest of Dean, and he wrote, as secretaries often 
wrote, asking apparently a very simple thing of Mrs. Bagnall-Oakeley, that 
she would report on these coins. She would give her report, and show that 
the secretary in asking that simple thing was asking a good deal more than 
most people would care to do. 

Mrs. Bagnell-Oakeley read the following report: — "I have been 
asked to report on this unusually large 'find ' of Roman coins, which took 
place in April last upon the Bishopswood estate, belonging to Mr. McCal- 
mont, M.P., next to the boundary between Gloucestershire and Hereford- 
shire. Alterations are being made in the grounds of the coppice occupied 
-by Capt. Partridge, through whose kindness I have been allowed to have 

29 * 



430 



Transactions for the Year 1894-95. 



the whole of the coins to arrange and describe for him, but the enormous 
number prevent a detailed report at present. The 'find' weighed cwt., 
and contains 17,226 coins, all small brass of the Constantine family, and 
in excellent preservation in consequence of the situation. As the workmen 
were levelling some ground on the slope of the hill a chance stroke of pick- 
axe touched one of the jars in which the coins were deposited, and its 
contents were scattered in all directions. A closer inspection showed that 
there had been at least three of these jars, and a rough low wall had 
been built round them, but there was no trace of any cover. Two of the 
jars were broken to fragments, which were mixed with coins and soil. The 
place where the ' find ' took place is 300 to 400 feet above the Wye, with 
a very deep descent, which seems to have been scooped, but roads and 
buildings have considerably altered its face. A deep ancient road runs by 
it, and the place looks as if it might have been used as an outpost to some 
of the Roman camps in the neighbourhood, and the city of Ariconium is 
only a few miles from it. I believe there are some earthworks at Ruardean 
within sight. Hitherto no Roman coins have been found in the Forest of 
Dean later than Carausius, from which it has been inferred that the iron 
mines were not worked by them after that time ; but this ' find ' is a mile 
at least beyond the mineral district of the Forest, and was probably placed 
where it was for military purposes. The coins may be roughly described 
thus— 1, Constantius Chlorus, died at York 306. 2, Flavia Julia Helena, 
his first wife ; 3, Flavia Maxima Theodora, his second wife ; 4, Licinius ; 
5, Constantine the Great ; 6, Constantinopolis, and 7, Urbs Romana, both 
struck in honour of cities by him ; Fausta, his wife ; Crispus ; 10, Con- 
stantine II., or junior; II. Constans ; 12, Constantius II., a.d. 361 ; 13, 
Helena. But in such an enormous number it is quite possible that others 
might yet be found." 

Mrs. Bagnell-Oakeley, in answer to questions, said the coins were 
contained in a pot of rough red Roman ware. 

The Rev. W. Bazeley expreseed the thanks of the meeting to Mrs. 
Bagnall-Oakeley for her report. He said he knew that she had examined 
4,000 of the coins, and would not be content till she had examined the 
whole 17,000. There was a similar " find " about the year 1837, on Hares- 
field Beacon, when upwards of 3,000 coins were found. These coins had 
passed into his (Mr. Bazeley 's) hands, and it would be interesting to compare 
them with the coins which had been more recently found. 

Mr. Allen said that some years ago, at Woolaston, near the Severn, a 
large number of coins were found in a pot, and they passed into the hands 
of a family near Chepstow. They were completely rusted together, These, 
coins were about the date of Constantine. 

The members then separated. 

VISIT TO BERKELEY CASTLE. 

In the afternoon a visit was paid to Berkeley Castle, and after viewing 
the exterior of the historic Castle and the surrounding valley, the party- 
assembled in the fine hall. 



The Conversazione. 



43i 



Mr. J. Peter gave the visitors a hearty welcome on behalf Lord and 
Lady Fitzhardinge, and expressed a hope that her ladyship would return 
home restored to health. In the absence of Lord Fitzhardinge, he (Mr. 
Peter) would endeavour to make the visit successful. 

The Rev. W. Bazeley gave some interesting particulars of the history 
and architecture of the Castle, and he also gave some particulars of the 
tragic death of Edward II. He said that as the result of his investigation 
it was impossible to acquit the Earl of Berkeley of complicity in the 
murder. It was, however, extraordinary with what favour he was received 
by the murdered monarch's son. Early title deeds, the Wotton-under- 
Edge, and Berkeley Corporation insignia, and other objects of interest were 
displayed by Mr. Peter, after which the members were conducted over the 
Castle in two parties by the Rev. W. Bazeley and the Rev. J. L. Stackhouse. 
Both these gentlemen and the Rev. C. S. Taylor imparted much interesting 
information to the visitors ; and Mr. Vincent Perkins pointed out different 
localities which are to be seen from the Thorpe Tower, and the extensive 
prospect thus opened up was greatly admired, the scenery around being most 
enchanting. Subsequently, the members and associates were invited to tea 
in the large hall, the original intention of having tea in the beautiful gardens 
being abandoned on account of the unpropitious weather. Sir J. Brook 
Kay proposed a hearty vote of thanks to Lord and Lady Fitzhardinge, and 
requested the Rev. J. L. Stackhouse and Mr. Peters to convey the same to 
Lord and Lady Fitzhardinge. 

THE CONVERSAZIONE. 

In the evening a conversazione took place in the Town Hall, when the 
following papers were read and discussed: — " Some account of Thomas, 
nth Lord Berkeley, and his wife, illustrating the life of an English home in 
the 13th and 14th centuries," by Mr. Bagnall-Oakeley ; " The Berkeley s of 
Uley," by Mr. W. P. W. Philimore ; " Berkeley Castle in the Middle Ages," 
by Rev. T. Veal ; and " Sir Thomas Bradstone," by Rev. W. Bazeley. 



SECOND DAY. 

The members of the Society inspected the parish church of St. Mary, 
Berkeley, on Wednesday morning, the many objects of interest being 
pointed out and described by the Vicar of Berkeley (Rev. J. L. Stackhouse). 
They were afterwards driven to Berkeley Railway Station, where several 
other members of the Society joined the excursionists, and Wanswell 
Court was reached at 11.30. " Wandswell " (the ancient well of the Wans- 
well Court estate, and from which the Hamlet of Wanswell, 400 yards 
distant, took its name) was inspected, and an interesting paper, with refer- 
ence to the ancient belief in its wonderful healing powers, was read by the 
Rev. W. Bazeley. Wanswell Court, the ancient residence of the Thorpe 
family was minutely inspected, the present occupier, Mr. Zebedee Bacon, 



432 



Transactions for the Year 1894-95. 



and his wife having given the members permission to examine any portion 
of the interior of the building. The Rev. W. Bazeley, in continuation of 
his paper, stated that ten families of the name of Swaniger during a period 
of 300 years resided at Wanswell Court (the Swanigers were members of 
the Thorpe family), and that the present residence was built during the 
reign of Henry VI. The members drove through Wanswell Court fields to 
Manor-house farm, Breadstone (the residence of Mr. and Mrs. James Par- 
slow and family), formerly the residence of Sir Thomas Bradstone, one of 
the greatest heroes of his time. The supposed site of an old church was 
pointed out by Mr. Parslow, and many objects of interest in the interior and 
exterior of the building were noted. The excursionists afterwards drove to 
North Nibley, where luncheon was provided at the residence of Mr. C. 
Bennett. The parish church was inspected, and a very pleasant drive of 
two miles to Wotton-under-Edge parish church was much enjoyed. The 
excursionists also drove to Bradley Court, and on the return journey to 
Berkeley inspected Nibley Green, where the historical battle was fought 
between two claimants to the castle and lands of the manor of Berkeley. 



THIRD DAY. 

The members left the Berkeley Arms Hotel at half-past ten for Stone, 
whence, after an examination of the very interesting church, they proceeded 
to Tort worth. The following account of the Parish Church was kindly 
given by the Rector, the Rev. P. Arthur : 

ACCOUNT OF TORTWORTH CHURCH. 

The church, dedicated to St. Leonard, has only the tower remaining of 
the ancient structure. This is of the 15th century and, with the exception 
of the portion above the belfry windows, which was rebuih with the rest 
of the church, is intact. The most noticeable feature in connection with 
it is the roofing of the staircase turret upon the south side of it, which is 
very effectively managed. Some of the original gargoyles are still to be 
seen in the churchyard, and are very spirited in execution. The remainder 
of the church, having fallen into decay, was pulled down and re-erected in 
1870, at the sole expense of the Earl of Ducie, and under the direction of 
Messrs. Slater and Carpenter. With the exception of a niche built into 
the north porch, a doorway of the 15th century built upon the south side, 
of the aisle, and some buttress weatherings, it possesses little of historical 
interest as regards the structure itself. There are, however, two exceed- 
ingly fine tombs in the south aisle, one against the south wall, and one 
occupying the position of what was an altar against the east wall. The 
former of these is to the memory of Thomas Throckmorton, Knight, 1568, 
and is a fine example of Early Elizabethan workmanship, showing the new 
Renaissance forms carried out by a workman who still clung to the old 
Gothic tradition. It is said that no better example exists of the harmonious 



Account of Tortworth Church. 433 



blending of these divergent forms than this fine tomb. A small portion of 
the knight's armour still remains. The latter of the two monuments 
showed the more fully-developed influence of the classic manner intro- 
duced from Italy. It is to the memory of Sir Thomas Throckmorton, who 
died January 31, 1607, aged 69 years, and is a typical example of the finest 
monuments of the period. Until recently these monuments were concealed 
behind a large organ which occupied the whole floor space of the last bay 
of the aisle. This, however, is now being moved to a more appropriate 
place by the Earl of Ducie, in memory of the late Countess of Ducie. 
Among the old mural monuments in the church there is only one worthy 
of much notice, and that is an excellent one of the Early Georgian period, 
to the memory of the first Baron Ducie. The font is of curious design and 
uncertain age ; its cover is of the 17th century. The sedilia, reredos, altar- 
platform and altar-rails, as well as the apparatus for raising the font cover, 
have all been added to the church during the last twelve years, under the 
direction of Mr. W. D. Caroe, one of the architects to the Ecclesiastical 
Commissioners, and Consulting Architect to the Charity Commissioners. 
The actual carving of the reredos was done by Mr. N. Hitch, of Kenning- 
ton. The lectern was placed in the church during the same period, and 
is from a design made by Messrs. Slater and Carpenter at the time of the 
rebuilding of the church. The east window by Powell, and the window 
by Clayton and Bell, near the pulpit, have been put in during the last few 
years under the superintendence of Mr. Caroe, and the brass over the 
sedilia and a mural tablet of English alabaster on the north wall, are also 
from designs of the same architect. It is also under Mr. Caroe's direction 
and from his plans that the organ chamber over the vestry and the 
memorial to the late Countess of Ducie in the churchyard are being built. 
The other window, by Claytomand Bell, was put in when the church was 
rebuilt. The remnants of a preaching cross exist in the churchyard in 
very good preservation. No doubt it was originally surmounted by a taber- 
nacle. The stump was completed from a design of Mr. Caroe eleven years 
or so ago, but as the addition is essentially a modern one no history 
has been interfered with. There are some interesting gravestones of an 
humble character in the churchyard. 

Thence a move was made to the Swan Hotel, at Thornbury, where 
lunch was provided. After lunch a Meeting was held, at which the usual 
votes of thanks were made to all who had so kindly contributed to the 
success of the meeting ; and it was arranged that the next Annual Meeting 
should, if possible, be held in the neighbourhood of Monmouth, and Mrs. 
Bagnall-Oakeley most kindly undertook to make the necessary arrange- 
ments. 

After lunch the members were conducted over the house and grounds 
of Thornbury Castle by E. Stafford Howard, Esq., a former President of 
the Society. They also visited the very beautiful Parish Church, and then 
the party broke up, after having enjoyed a most interesting and instructive 
meeting. 



IPtoiiaa of ^MxtvAxoxxs. 



WOMAN UNDER MONASTICISM. CHAPTERS ON SAINT-LORE 
AND CONVENT LIFE BETWEEN a.d. 500 AND a d. 1500. By 
Lina Eckenstein. Cambridge University Press. Pp. xv. 496. 1896. 

This is a learned and sympathetic account of the conditions of Women's 
life and work under different phases of the Monastic system during the 
period of rather more than one thousand years preceding the dissolution of 
the Religious Houses. It should be mentioned, however, that the authoress 
has confined her attention to England and Germany. 

After an introductory chapter, there follow chapters on Convents 
among the Franks, Convents among the Anglo-Saxons, Anglo-Saxon nuns 
in correspondence with St. Boniface, forming a link between English and 
German female Monasticism,' and Convents in Saxon lands. Then, after 
tracing in this way the origin of Monasticism in England and Germany, 
a chapter is given on the Monastic revival of the Middle Ages, which is 
followed by chapters on the work of the Monasteries, Art Industries, 
prophecy and philanthropy, and early mystic literature. Finally, there is 
an account of the attempted reforms before the dissolution, and the work 
closes with narratives of the dissolution of several English Houses of 
Women. The book is furnished with a very satisfactory index. 

Much of the introductory chapter, which deals with the borderland of 
Heathendom and Christianity, belongs rather to the history of social 
development of womankind than a history of Christian Monasticism. 
There is no real analogy between the position of loose women under 
Heathendom or in Christendom, recognised and even at times respected as 
their status may have been, and the Christian nun. No doubt the spirit 
of independence, and impatience of the control of men and distaste for 
family ties, may have formed an element in the spirit of each system ; but 
in neither system was it the essential element. That which formed the 
very breath of life of the baser system it was a part of the very breath of 
the life of the Monastic system to reject. In truth, much of what is said 
on this subject is based on a false analogy, and is out of place in a book 
on this subject. 

On the other hand, what is said about the connection between heathen 
divinities and Christian Saints is most interesting, and is well worth careful 
study. Nothing, for instance, is gained by attempting to deny the simi- 
larity of the rites of the Festivals of St. Agatha with those of the festivals 
of the goddess Ceres which preceded them in the same district of Sicily. 
And what is true in that case is no doubt true in many more of the 



Notices of Publications. 



435 



numerous instances which are cited. At many times and in many places 
it was a part of the settled policy of Christendom to graft a Christian 
meaning on to heathen rites and pagan. observances. Thus the fires which 
blaze on so many heights in North-Western Europe on St. John's Eve, are 
no doubt survivals of fires lighted in honour of the Sun ; and we find the 
two Solstices marked by the Festivals of the Forerunner and the Saviour, 
while the Equinoxes are guarded by the Festivals of those highest in the 
Hierarchy of Heaven, the Virgin Mother of the Lord, and the Lord of the 
Heavenly Hosts. But this appropriation of heathen interests and rites 
was not all gain to the Church. If a new and better meaning was given 
to the old associations, the new and higher system was degraded by contact 
with the old associations. 

The chapter on Convents among the Anglo-Saxons gives a most inter- 
esting, and generally very accurate, sketch of the rise and developement of 
Religious Houses for Women in the various English and Saxon kingdoms. 
It seems that the first religious settlement for women in England was 
founded at Folkestone in 630 by the Princess Eanswith, a grand-daughter 
King Ethelbert, who received St. Augustine. But before the end of the 
century such houses were found all over the country. Minster in Thanet, 
Minster in Sheppey, Southminster, Folkestone, and Lyminge in Kent ; 
Wimborne among the West Saxons ; Barking in Essex ; Ely in East 
Anglia ; Repton, Wenlock, and Castor among the Mercians ; Bath and 
Gloucester among the Huiccians ; Hartlepool, Coldingham, Walton, 
Easington, Hackness, and, the greatest, of them all, St. Hilda's house at 
Whitby among the Northumbrians, were all under the direction of women ; 
serving as homes of learning and industry, and as missionary centres for 
the spread of the Gospel in the regions around. Because they were mis- 
sionary centres, many of them were double communities, both of men and 
women. And it is a singular proof of the courage of this noble group of 
Abbesses that they thus ventured to build up this system of double houses, 
as it is also a proof of their managing power that, with the exception of 
Coldingham, no scandal arose in the women's monasteries until after the 
close of the seventh century. 

It is a singular thing, that with the exception of the House at Barking, 
and some of those in Wessex, these Houses, in later Anglo-Saxon times, 
passed into the possession of men. This may possibly have been a con- 
sequence of the scandalous condition of so many English Religious Houses 
during the eighth century. 

It would not be fair to expect absolute accuracy in local details in a 
work of this kind, but it is certainly unfortunate that the authoress should 
repeat Walter Map's scandal concerning the fate of the Monastery at 
Berkeley, a scandal for which there is absolutely no authority at all, that 
is worth the name. 

The correspondence of English women with St. Boniface throws much 
light on the condition of women's communities in the early part of the 
eighth century. 

With the reigns of Osred of Northumbria, who ascended the throne in 
706, and Ceolred of Mercia, who became king in 709, evil days came upon 



436 Transactions for the Year 1894-95. 

the Monasteries. The fervour of devotion of earlier times had cooled ; 
their lands were taken away, inmates were carried off, and only too often 
their condition was one of neglected rule, and of an idle or even a 
vicious life. Many religious women therefore sought counsel from St. 
Boniface in the difficulties which beset them, and some followed him to- 
Germany. 

Among other letters there is one from a woman named Ecgburg, whom 
the authoress supposes to have been a daughter of Ealdwlf, king of the: 
East Angles, but who, as she mourns the loss of a brother named Osher by 
a cruel and bitter death, was more probably a sister of Oshere, king of the- 
Huiccians, and therefore identical with Eadburga the second Abbess of 
Gloucester, who is said to have presided over the Monastery from 710 to 
735. As the letter must be dated between 716 and 722, this identification 
is very probably a correct one. A summary of the letter is given in the- 
Dictionary of Christian Biography, s.v. Egburga. 

Ecgburg also mourned the loss of her sister Wethburgh, who having 
gone on a pilgrimage to Rome was, for some cause not mentioned, confined 
in a prison there. Finally, she asked St. Boniface for a relic or a few 
words of blessing to remind her of his presence. We find St. Boniface- 
however telling an Abbess Bugga that he had heard from Wethburgh that 
she had found the quiet that she longed for near the threshold of St. Peter; 
and he advised Bugga to make a like pilgrimage, which she did, and met 
St. Boniface himself at Rome. Yet St. Boniface found it necessary to- 
advise Cuthbert, Archbishop of Canterbury, to' prevent these pilgrimages, 
on account of the sin into which the women fell, and the consequent 
scandal to religion ; and he brought the women who settled in Germany 
under his control into stricter discipline than had been customary in the 
Frankish or English Monasteries. 

The chapters relating to women's life and work in Mediaeval Monas- 
teries cover more familiar ground than the earlier chapters of the book, 
and therefore less need be said about them ; but they also will well repay 
careful study. Especially interesting is the account of the arrangements 
of the Convent of Sion, which was founded by Henry V. out of the spoils 
of alien monasteries. It was a double house of men and women, and the 
rules, which are fully described, give a very clear idea of the life and work 
of a well-ordered community. 
. There can be no doubt that by the time of the dissolution the Religious. 
Houses had outlived their usefulness, that there was much sloth and 
neglect of rule, and some immorality. The chapter on Visitations of 
Nunneries in England shews that the wiser ecclesiastics tried to enforce 
a stricter discipline, and in some cases, it may be in despair of improve- 
ment, they used the endowments of the smaller houses to found Colleges. 
This was done both at Oxford and Cambridge, and with the sanction of 
the Pope. 

With regard to the dissolution itself, no one can have read the reports 
of the Commissioners sent out by Cromwell to visit the Religious Houses, 
without being struck by their prevailing spirit of roughness and coarse- 
ness ; it is evident that the visitors were not at all the sort of men wha- 



Notices of Publications. 



437 



should have been chosen to conduct an enquiry of great difficulty and 
delicacy. 

A comparatively few cases of immorality were clearly proved, but even 
with regard to these it must be borne in mind that a confession of inconti- 
nence some years before may refer to a period before the offender had 
entered a Religious House. In many cases the Commissioners reported 
that it would be well that certain Houses should be spared specially as 
places of education ; and it is certain that in many districts the opinion of 
the neighbourhood was favourable to their continuance. There can be no 
doubt also that the higher education of girls in England received a blow at 
the dissolution from which it is only now recovering. 

A few of the heads of Women's Houses obtained a respite for their 
homes by the payment of bribes to the King or his officers ; but at last 
they were all swept into the waste. 

The book is one which is well worthy of most careful study and thought 
on the part of all those who are interested in the revival of communities 
of women, whether for religious or secular purposes. It contains much 
that will be most useful for their guidance, and encouragement, and 
warning. 

HISTORICAL AND TOPOGRAPHICAL COLLECTIONS RE- 
LATING TO THE EARLY HISTORY OF PARTS OF SOUTH 
SOMERSET. By John Batten, F.S.A. Whitty and Son, Yeovil. 
Pp. iii, 199. 1894. 

It is a question whether ^the day for the publication of County Histories 
has not passed. For not only is the amount of time required more than 
most men are willing and able to give ; but also the sources of information 
now thrown open would afford such a mass of information, that it would 
probably take more than one lifetime adequately to write a History of 
Gloucestershire or Somerset, or even to edit a new edition of Fosbroke's 
or Collinson's History. Both those authors were clergymen in charge of 
large country parishes ; and it is quite certain that no clergyman in charge 
of Long Ashton or Horsley would now be regarded as doing his duty by 
his parish if he undertook so great a work as the compilation of a County 
History. This change of feeling may or may not be beneficial to the 
Church or to local history, but there is no doubt that the change has 
taken place. 

But if ever County Histories are to be written, or re-written, in the 
future, books of the type of the one now under review will be found most 
helpful. And the book may give some idea of the scale of a County 
History of the future. It treats of ten small parishes in the neighbourhood 
of Yeovil, the very names of which are hardly known outside the district ; 
yet the book contains two hundred closely printed pages, and there are 492 
parishes in Somerset. 

Of course there is not very much of general interest in the history of 
these parishes. Barwick, a small parish of 784 acres, contains the free 



438 Transactions for the Year 1894-95. 



borough of Stoford, which possessed a Guildhall, the remains of which still 
exist, and a common seal. Stoford stands at the point where an old pack- 
road from London crosses the river Yeo, which here divides Somerset from 
Dorset, and no doubt it was to this cause that the little borough owed its 
existence. The author has given a very full and well-written account of 
each of the parishes about which he treats ; he has provided eleven well- 
executed illustrations, and an index both of persons and places ; and if 
anyone should feel inclined to do a little work for his own neighbourhood, 
he could hardly do better than obtain a copy of Mr. Batten's book and 
use it as a model. 



BATTLES AND BATTLE-FIELDS IN ENGLAND. By C. R. B. 
Barrett. London : A. D. Innes & Co. Pp. xxviii, 458. 1896. 

It is true that a history of battles is not a history of a people, but it is also 
true that battles are the landmarks of national history. For they mark 
the point at which diverse or opposing tendencies which have grown up 
side by side meet at last, and strive for the mastery. Such a book as the 
present therefore has a very real historical value, for the battles recorded 
in its pages form points on which hang the history of the periods in which 
they were fought. Anyone who took up the book and mastered its con- 
tents, would have learned a great deal about the general course of English 
History, and he would possess a framework in which the results of deeper 
and wider study would fitly find a place. 

The combats which are described are thirty-seven in number, ranging 
from Fulford and Stamford Bridge, fought in September, 1066, to Sedg- 
moor, the last battle fought on English soil, on July 6, 1685. It is, perhaps, 
to be regretted that Mr. Barrett did not include one of the fights, such as 
Maldon or Assandun, in Old English times. There is material enough for 
a most life-like description of the battle of Maldon. How Brihtnoth mar- 
shalled his men and arranged his shield-wall. How Olaf Tryggevesson 
demanded tribute and was refused. How the hosts waited on each side of 
the Blackwater till the tide permitted the Danes to wade across, and how 
Brihtnoth in his overweening pride allowed them to cross too easily. Then 
follows the combat, the death of Brihtnoth, the treacherous flight of the 
few and the heroism of most of the English. It would have been well to 
have one story of a fight in which the only weapons were the battle-axe 
and spear, and the only defence was the shield-wall. 

So far as the battle-fields are concerned Mr. Barrett's work is most 
carefully done ; and certainly with regard to the battle-fields with which 
the writer is acquainted — Tewkesbury, Flodden, and Naseby— the descrip- 
tions are accurate, and give a faithful idea of the scene of combat. There 
are several sketch-plans of the more important battles, to illustrate the dis- 
position of the troops at different stages of the battles, and to explain the 
movements by means of which the result of the combat was brought 
about ; and there are also a large number of sketches of the scenery of the 
battle-fields, which are most helpful. 



Notices of Publications. 



439 



The descriptions of the actual fighting are for the most part clear and 
well thought out. But there are no references to original authorities, we 
are entirely dependent on the author for the facts. How far such refer- 
ences can fairly be expected will depend on the view that is taken of the 
nature of the book, and a writer is justified in casting his work in what 
mould he pleases. But the absence of references of this kind will prevent 
the work from being quoted as one of authority on the subject concerning 
which it treats. It would not have been difficult to place on the head of 
each chapter a list of original authorities which might be consulted with 
regard to the fight which is described. Such a list would have been very 
helpful to those who might wish for further information, and would save 
the pages from being encumbered with foot-notes. 

It is difficult to think of any battle fought on English soil during the 
period covered by the book which is not described in it, for the combat at 
Nibley Green was rather the settlement of a family feud. It was, however, 
considered as a fight, as notable for the keenness of the struggle as some 
of the contests between the houses of York and Lancaster of which accounts 
are given. Even the smaller combats between the men of the rival roses 
were important however, for they generally resulted in the death of some 
members of the feudal aristocracy. 

Two points seem to stand out prominently in the accounts of these 
battles, — first the extraordinary power of a flight of arrows, and secondly 
the number of battles which were lost by too great eagerness in pursuit of 
enemies when flight was either genuine or feigned. So long as their 
quivers were supplied and their formation was unbroken, English archers 
were invincible, for the shafts would pierce even plate armour if they 
struck the mail squarely. While from Hastings to Naseby instance after 
instance occurs where too great eagerness in pursuit brought defeat on the 
pursuers' army. The really great commanders were men like Balliol at 
Neville's Cross, Sir Edward Stanley at Flodden, and Cromwell at Naseby, 
who turned their victorious soldiery against the part of the enemies' host 
that was yet unbroken. 

Some of the feats of marching seem to be almost beyond belief. On 
Friday, July 20, 1403, Prince Henry marched from Lichfield to Shrews- 
bury, a distance of nearly 45 miles, in order that he might reach the town 
before Hotspur. He won the race by a few hours, and on the following 
day his army won the battle of Shrewsbury. Mr. Barrett does not tell us 
to what extent Sir John Falstaff larded the lean earth during that forced 
march. 

On May 3, 1471, a very hot day, Queen Margaret's army marched from 
Bristol to Tewkesbury, some 45 miles, without a halt ; while King Edward 
marched along the edge of Cotswold, some 30 miles, from Sodbury to 
Tewkesbury. The Queen wished to cross the Severn into Wales, and 
Edward's purpose was to prevent her. On the morrow the battle of 
Tewkesbury was fought. 

But even these feats of endurance were surpassed by the English host 
at Otterburn, which leaving Newcastle at noon on August 19, 1388, 



44° Transactions for the Year 1894-95. 

marched 32 miles, and then fought by moonlight — for Otterburn, like the 
battle of the Nile, was a night action — until the dawn. 

Perhaps the last battle-scene recorded in the book is the noblest of all. 
Mr. Barrett records how the Duke of Monmouth's followers at Sedgemoor, 
who had certainly never been in action before, remained after their leader 
had deserted them exchanging volleys with the Royal troops across the 
Rhine, how they repulsed the attack of the King's guards on either flank, 
how when their ammunition failed they yet stood firm, defending them- 
selves as best they might with clubbed muskets, pikes, and mounted 
scythes, and how when the King's cannon at last opened fire and scattered 
•most of them, the Mendip miners refused either to surrender or to fly, and 
like the Huscarles at Hastings lay where they fought. 

Things will not go altogether badly with England if in her hour of need 
she can always find a leader like Harold and followers like those men of 
Somerset. 

Mr. Barrett concludes his book with a severe and well-merited censure 
on the violation of soldiers' graves. 

The book is prefaced with an introduction by Mr. H. D. Traill, and 
concludes with a sufficient index. 



VENERABILIS BED/E HISTORIAM ECCLESIASTICAM GENTIS 
ANGLORUM, HISTORIAM ABBATUM, EPISTOLAM AD 
ECGBERTUM UNA CUM HISTORIA ABBATUM AVCTORE 
ANONYMO. Instruxit C. J. Plummer, M.A. Oxford : Clarendon 
Press. Vol. II. 

Though there is so little in Bede that directly concerns Gloucestershire, it 
would not be right to pass by Mr. Plummer's Edition altogether without 
notice. For all Englishmen who are interested in the early history of their 
nation will be glad to know that at last the works of the Father of English 
History appear in an Edition that is worthy of him. The first volume of 
Mr. Plummer's work contains not only the Ecclesiastical History, but also 
the lives of the Abbots of Jarrow and Wearmouth, and the letter to Egbert, 
Archbishop of York. The second volume consists mainly of notes on the 
■texts. The texts of the works given are admirably printed, and where Mr. 
Plummer has been able to trace the origin of a passage cited by Bede, the 
-words quoted are given in italics ; where, however, Bede gives the sub- 
stance rather than the words of an earlier author, a mere reference is 
-given in the margin. It need not be said that these references add very 
much to the interest of the work, and give an excellent idea of the wide 
range of the studies of Bede. 

There is less difficulty in forming a good text of Bede's works than in 
the case of most early writers— partly because some of the manuscripts 
date back almost to his own time, and partly also because the manuscripts 
differ but little from each other ; and this was probably a consequence of 
the fact that Bede made but little alteration in his own work after it was 



Notices of Publications. 



441 



once completed. In fact there was but little time for alteration, for the 
History was only completed in 731, and the Historian died on the Eve of 
Ascension Day, 735. If, however, the allusion to " gravissima Saracen- 
orum lues," v. 23, refers to Charles Martel's great victory over them at 
Tours in October, 732, it is evident that some addition must have been 
made by Bede or another after 731. 

It is interesting to note that Mr. Plummer agrees with Professor Earle 
{Land Charters, &c, xxxiii.) in the opinion that the literary use of the 
Incarnation as a Chronological era is due to Bede. It is certain that the 
use of the era in deeds of contract dated from Bede's time, and that it was 
from England that the practice spread through Christendom. 



INDEX. 



Abbey of Cormeilles, 63 

Abbey of Martin and Barbara, Saints, 63 

Abyndon, Richard de, 179 

Andoversford, 71 

Andrews, John, 316 

Andrews, Richard, 316 

Ansfrid de Cormeilles, 62 

" Archaeological Journal,'' reviewed, 167 

Ariconium, 401 

Arnold, Sir Nicholas, 390 

Athelstan, King, 163 

Atkinson, Canon, 91 

Augustine of Canterbury, Saint, 162 

Aulus Plautius, 24 

Aust, 76 

Axe, William de, 176, &c. 



Badlesmere, Bartholomew de, Constable of 

Bristol, 174, &c. 
Bagnall-Oakeley, Mrs., 12, 421, 433 ; her 

paper on "A great Hoard of Roman 

Coins found at Bishopswood in 1895," 

399—420 
Baker, J., 1 

Baldwin, Abbot of Edmundsbury, 31 
Barkly, Sir Henry, 63 
Barrett, William, 107, 122 
Bath, 72 

"Battles and Battlefields in England," 

reviewed, 438 
Bazeley, Rev. W., Secretary, 1, 2, 5, 10, 15, 

19, 396, 421, 424 
Beauchamp Family, Earls of Warwick, 32 
Beckford Visited, 23 ; Notes on the History 

of, by Rev. J. Melland Hall, 61 
Bede, The Venerable, 72 ; Edition of 

his Works, by Rev. C. J. Plummer, 

reviewed, 440 
Bellows, Mr. John, 158 
Bentley, Rev. S., 1, 11, 12 
Berkeley, Annual Meeting at, 421 
Berkeley Castle, 71, 82, 85, 430 
Berkeley Church, 431 
Berkeley Hundred, 70, 78 
Berkeley Minster, 70, &c, 435 
" Berkeley Castle, The Domestic Life of," 

paper by the Rev. Thomas Veal, 85 
Ladies of Berkeley — 

Anne, 89 

Elizabeth, 88 

Joan, 87 

Margaret, 89 



Lords of Berkeley — 
Henry I., 87, 99 
James I., 102, 103 
Maurice II., 95, 97, 102 
Maurice III., 95, 186 
Maurice IV., 88, 95 
Thomas I., 102 

Thomas II., 86, 87, 89, 94, 96, 97, 99, 
102, 179, 182 

Thomas 1 1 J., 86, 96 

Thomas IV., 89, 95, 100, 103 

Thomas VI., 89 
Berrow, 41, 43 
Beverstone, 80 

Bickham, Spencer H., Local Secretary of 

Ledbury Meeting, 1 
Biddulph, Michael, M.P., President of the 

Society, 1, 2, 15, 424 ; his address, 5 
Binding Volumes of Transactions, 4 
Birts Morton, Visit to, 13 
Blestium, 301 
Boddington, 28 
Bohun, Henry de, 289 
Bohun, Humphrey de. 285, 287, 288, 291 
Bohun, John de, 287, 331 
Bohun, Margaret de, 284 
Bosa, 11 

Bosbury, Visit to, n 
Boteler, Sir Almeric, 286 
Bowley, Mr. Christopher, 397 
Breadstone, Visit to, 432 
Bredon Hill, 25 
Bredon Visited, 19 
Brictric, 161 
Bristol, 4, 5, 95 

Bristol Enclosures Thrown Down, 132 
Bristol, Famines in, 138, 140, 141 
Bristol Gaol, 130, 140 

"Bristol Calendars, Two," paper by Mr. 

E. A. Hudd, 105 
Bristol, Officials of, 1216— 1608, 108— 141 
Bristol, Plague in, 134, 136, 138, 140, 141 
Bristol, Rebellion of, 171 
Bristol, Rebellion of— King's party, 189 

,, ,, Townsfolk, 191 

Bristol, Details of Tallage of, 1312, 199 — 

278 

Bronsil Castle, 12 

Buckingham, Edward, Duke of, 301 
Buckingham, Henry, Duke of, 301 
Buckingham, Humphrey, Duke of, 301 
Burhred, King of the Mercians, 42 
Button, John de, 179 



444 



INDEX. 



Camden Society, 106 

Ceolwulph, King of the Mercians, 22, 421 ; 

his gift of Overbury to Worcester 

Cathedral, 59 
Cheltenham, 61 
Cheyney, Sir John, 65 
Chippenham, 161 
Chrisom, 55 

Christian Types of Roman Coins, 398, 

401, 414 
Church Plate, 425 

Ciolburga, Abbess of Berkeley, 70, 74, 76, 
77 

Cirencester, 172 

Cirencester, Abbot of, 172 

Cirencester, Discovery of Skeletons at, 394 

Clarke, William, 377 

Cloveshoe, Councils of, 75, 77, 163 

Cnut, 163 

Colchester, 195 

Colchester, Colonel Maynard, 377 
Cribbs, Mr. Wilfrid, 398 
Cromwell, Oliver, 148 
Cynethritha, 77 
Cynulf, 78, 83 



Dancey, C. H., t 

Deerhurst, 71, 73, 79, 80 

Deneberht, Bishop of Worcester, 61, 76 

Denys, St., Abbey of, 28, 31 

Deorham, Battle of, 26 

Didcot in Beckford, 66 

Dobuni, 24 

"Documents illustrative of English Church 

History," reviewed, 161 
Donovan, Mr. W., 142 
Durandus, Sheriff, 282 
Dyer, Edwards, Esq., T., High Sheriff of 

Gloucestershire, 421 
Dyer, Mr. Thisleton, 395 
Dymock Church Visited, 17 



Eadgifu, Abbess of Leominster, 81 
Eadric the Wild, 161 
Eadric, Sheriff of Wilts, 161 
Ealdred, Bishop of Worcester, 52 
Eanulf, 76 

Ecgfrid, son of King Offa, 76 
Edmar, 282 
Edmund, King, 164 
Edward I., 85 
Edward II., 85, 86 

Tallage of 1312, Under, 171 
Edward III., 65, 85 
Edward IV., 85, 95 
Edward VI., 303, 374 
Egbert, Archbishop of York, 73, 74 
Eisey, 161 

Ethelheard, Archbishop of Canterbury, 76 
Ethelhun, Abbot of Berkeley, 74, 78 
Ethelmund, 72 

Ethelred, Ealdorman of the Huiccians, 
78, 83 

Ethlered, King of the Mercians, 6r, 76 
Ethelric, 73, 76 

Eton, College of S. Mary at, 65 
Eulogius, Patriarch of Alexandria, 162 
Eusebius of Caesarea, 402 
Eustace, Count of Boulogne, 161 



Faulfisch, Nicholas, 34 
Faulfisch at Kemerton, 35 
Fermbaud, Nicholas, 175 



" Feudal England," by Mr. J. H. Round, 

reviewed, 159 
Fisher, Major Hawkins, 1 
Fitzhardinge, Baron, President of the 

Berkeley Meeting, 421, 427 
FitzHerbert Family, Pedigree of, 295 
FitzHerbert, Lucy, 284 
" Folklore, An Introduction to," reviewed, 

164 

Fotheringay, College of, 66 
Fox, Mr. F. F., 1, 2, 5, 106, 107, 421 
Fraunceys, Peter le, 182 
Freeman, Mr. E. A., 104, 159 
Fulcher, Richard, 379 

Fuller, Rev. E. A. ; his paper on " The 
Tallage of 6 Edward II , and the 
Bristol Rebellion," 171 



Garrood, Jesse, Acting Local Secretary of 
the Ledbury Meeting, 1 

Girard, Camerarius, 28, 31 

"Gloucestershire Notes and Queries," re- 
viewed, 165 

Gloucestershire, Early Churches in, 61 

Gloucester, "Roman and Mediaeval Re- 
mains found on the site of the Tolsey," 
paper by Mr. M. H. Medland, 142 

Gloucester, 4, 5, 72, 80 

Gloucester, Churches of — 

Abbey of St. Peter and St. Paul, 157, 
284 

The Cathedral, 145 

All Saints', 143, 146, 147, 150, 152 

St. Aldate's, 144 

St. Michael s, 150, 151, 152 

St. Owen, 150 

Trinity, 151 
Gloucester, Earl of, 175, 181 
Glover, Sir Thomas, 66 
Glynn, Rev. C, 21 ; his paper on Overbury 

Church, 41 
Glynne, Sir Stephen, 67 
Goats, 93 

Godwin, Earl, 80, 81 

Goodiman, Godfrey, Bishop of Gloucester, 
377 

Green, Rev. Prebendary Madison, 1, 15 

Gregory the Great, 162 

Gytha, wife of Earl Godwin, 80, 81 



Hall, Rev. J. Melland, 23 ; his Notes on 
the History of Beckford, 61, 421 ; his 
paper on " Haresfield Manors and 
Church," 279 — 373 

Ham in Berkeley, 93 

Haresfield, Manors and Church, 279 — 373 
Haresfield, Benefice of, 328 
Haresfield, Church of, 336 
Harford, Mr. C. J., 105, 107 
Hatfield, Council of, 163 
Heaberht, Bishop of Worcester, 77 
Headda, Abbot of Worcester, 71 
Heane, Mr. W. C, 427 
Henbury, 76 

Hendley, Robert, Bell-founder, 49 

Henry I., 63 

Henry II., 63, 90 

Henry III., 98 

Henry IV., 300 

Henry V., 300 

Hereford, Earls of, 283 

Hereman, Bishop of Ramsbury, 161 

Hertford, Council of, 74, 163 

Hooke, Andrew, 106 



INDEX. 



445 



Hopton Family, 33 
Horton, Rev. R., 17 

Hudd,_Mr. A. E. ; his paper on "Two 

Bristol Calendars," 105 
Hus, John, accused of heresy, 34 
Huys, Thomas, 33 



Inventory of Church Furniture at Kemer- 
ton in 1553, 54 



James II., 143, 149 

Jemima, Marchioness Grey, 325 

Jernyngham, Lady Frances, 310 

Jernyngham, Sir Henry, 310, 373 

John, King, 172 

Julius Csesar, 24 



Kay, Sir Brooke, 421, 423, 428 

Kemerton Visited, 21 ; Paper on the His- 
tory of, by the Rev. J. J. Mercier, 24 ; 
Meaning of the name, 26 ; Court 
Houses at, 37 ; Enclosure Act at, 39 ; 
List of Rectors, 39 

Kenne, John, 286 

Kenulf, King of Mercia, 77 

Kerr, Russell J., 2 

Kingston, Pedigree of, 312 

Knights Templars, 12 

Knyehnicz, George de, 34 

Kyngston, Sir Anthony, 303, 309 

Kyngston, Sir William, 302 



Lancaster, Thomas, Earl of, 183 
Lanfranc, Archbishop, Consecrators of, 163 
Lantony, Priory of, 283, 305 
Latimer, John, 4 ' 
Latton, 161 

Lay-people heads of Monasteries, 74 
Ledbury, Annual Meeting at, 1, 5 ; Parish 

Church visited, 15 
Lee, Sir Richard, 66 
Leofric, Earl, 80 
Leominster, 81 

Lichfield, Archbishopric of, 76 
Ligon, Sir Arnold, 32, 33 
Lisle, Lord, 102 

Lloyd Baker, Thomas John, 328 



Maclean, Sir John, Presentation to, 2, 427 ; 

Resignation of the Office of Editor, 5 ; 

In Memoriam, 168 
Malvern, Little, Priory Church visited, 14 
Map, Walter, 81 

Marcle, Much, Church visited, 17 

Martin, Mr. Robert, 22 _ 

Martin and Barbara, Saints, Abbey of, 63 

Martyn, Robert, 187, 

Master, Rev. G. S., 1 

Matthew, Captain William, 106 

Mauley, Edmund de, 175 

Mercier, Rev. J. J., 21 ; his paper on the 

History of Kemerton, 24 
Milo, Earl of Hereford, 282, &c. 
Milred, Bishop of Worcester, 71 
Minety, 172, 195 

Monasteries under the rule of Laymen, 74 
Monmouth, Annual Meeting at, 433 
Mumping at Kemerton, 49 
Musard, Ralph, 286 
Musgrose family, 32 



Niblett, Daniel John, 328 
Nibley Green visited, 432 
"Notes and Queries for Somerset and 
Dorset," reviewed, 166 



Offa, King, 71, 76 
Oldcastle, Sir John, 36 
Oldminster in Berkeley, 82 
Osculatory found at Gloucester, 156 
Osric, 72 

Ostorius Scalpula, 25 
Overbury visited, 21 

Overbury Church, Paper on, by Rev. C. 

Glynn, 41 
Overbury, Rectors and Vicars of, 57 
Overbury, Land-boundaries of, 60 



Parsons, John, 32, 33 
Pembroke, Audomar, Earl of, 185 
Pendock, 42 
Peter, Mr. J., 431 

Photographic Survey of Gloucestershire, 3 
Piper, George H., Local Secretary of 

Ledbury Meeting, 1, 10, 12 
Pointz, Nicholas, 103 
Preston Church visited, 17 
Purdue, Bell-founder, 49 



Randolph, William, 177, &c. 

Redcliff, Borough of, incorporated with 

Bristol, 108 
Redcliff Steeple thrown down, 122 
Redclifif, Church of St. Mary, repaired, 140 
Regenbald, Chancellor of Edward the 

Confessor, 161 
Report, Annual, for 1893-4, 2 
Ricart, Robert, Town Clerk of Bristol, 

106, 107 
Richard I., 172 
Robert fitz Alan, 63 
Roger de Ivri, 62 
Roger of Berkeley, 70, 82 
Roger, Earl of Hereford, 283 
Roman Coins found at : — 

Bishops wood, 399-420, 429 

Cirencester, 398 

Haresfield, 280, 402 

Christian Types, 398, 401, 414 
Royce, Rev. David, 4 
Rudder, 63 

Rudhall, Abraham, Bell-founder, 49 



Seyer, Rev. Samuel, 105, 106, 107, 174 
Sheringham, Rev. H., 4 
Silures, 25 
Siward, Earl, 80 
Smyth, — , 86, 92, 103 

Stackhouse, Rev. J. L., Secretary of 

Berkeley Meeting, 421, 423 
Stafford, Anne, Countess of, 300 
Stoke Bishop, 77, 78, 79, 83 
Stroud, 4 

Stubbs, William, Bishop of Oxford, 73, 77, 
161 

Swayne, S. H., 1 

Swegen, son of Earl Godwin, 81 



Tallage, 171 

Taverner, John le, 176, &c. 
Taxation of English Clergy, 164 



446 INDEX. 



Taylor, Rev. C. S., 1, 5, 62, 421 ; his paper 

on Berkeley Minster, 70 
Tewkesbury, Abbey of, 174 
Thomas of Canterbury, St., 374 
Thornbury visited, 433 
Thorpe, Archdeacon, Rector of Kemerton, 

36 

Thorp, Dr. Disney Lander, 37 
Throckmorton family of Tortworth, 432 
Tidswell, Robert Ingham, 328 
Tilhere, Abbot of Berkeley, 71, 74, 78 
Tortworth visited, 432 
Trye, William, 316 
Tuckett, Mr. F. F., 5 



Uley Bury, 25 



Veal, Rev. Thomas; his paper on "The 
Domestic Life of Berkeley Castle," 85 
Vineyards, 94, 155 
Vizard, General, 5 



Wakeman, Edward, 66 
Wanswell, Visit to, 431 
Warwick, Guy, Earl of, 183 
Westbury-on-Severn, Chantries of, 374-393 



Westbury-on-Severn, School at, 376 

Westbury-on-Trym, 76, 77, 78 

Westminster Abbey, 27, 71, 80 

Whateley, Ernest, Mr. ; his paper " On 
the Discovery of Skeletons at Ciren- 
cester," 394 

Wilfred, St., 75 

Wilkinson, Rev. Leonard ; his paper on 
" The Chantries of Westbury-on- 
Severn," 374-393 

William I., 163 

William Fitzosbern, Earl, 62, 63 
Winepress at Gloucester, 155 
" Woman under Monasticism," reviewed, 
434 

Woodchester, 80 

Worcester Cathedral, 77, 79 

Worcester, Church of St. Clement's, at 46 

Wotton-under-Edge visited, 432 

Wulfheard, Bishop of Hereford, 61 

Wulstan, St., 161 

WyclifT, John, 34 

Wyldemarsh, Robert de, 184 

Wyliton, J. de, 179 



Yate, 76, 99 

Yorke, Sir Philip, afterwards Earl of 
Hardwicke, 324, 350, &c. 



J. W. Arrowsmith, Printer, Quay Street, Bristol. 



BRISTOL & GLOUCESTERSHIRE ARCHAEOLOGICAL 

SOCIETY. 



fisi 0.f Itl embers for 1896-7. 

MAY, 1897. 



Names of Life Members are given in heavier type. 



An asterisk is affixed to the names of Members of Council for 1897. 

The Treasurer will feel obliged if Members will inform him of any 
change in their address. 

Ackers, B. St. John, Huntley Manor, Gloucester. 
Adams, J. W., Commercial Road, Gloucester. 
Adams, Wm. Townsend, Wotton-under-Edge. 

Adlam, William, F.S.A., D.L., Manor House, Chew Magna, Bristol. 

Allen, Rev. William Taprell, M.A., St Briavel's Vicarage, Coleford. 

Archer, Lieut. -Col., Cleeve House, n All Saints Road, Clifton, Bristol. 

Armitage, W. H., Wotton-under-Edge. 

Arrowsmith, J. W., 24 Westfield Park, Redland, Bristol. 

Asher & Co., 13 Bedford Street, Covent Garden, London, W.C. 

Atherton, Rev. W. Bernard, B.A., Atherstone, Warwickshire. 

Baddeley, St. Clair, Castle Hale, Painewick, Stroud. 

*Bagnall-Oakeley, Rev. W., M.A., Newland, Coleford. 

Bagnall-Oakeley, Mrs. W., Newland, Coleford. 

Baker> Arthur, Henbury Hill House, Henbury, Bristol. 

Baker, Granville E. Lloyd, Hardwicke Court, Gloucester. 

*Baker, James, F.R.G.S., F. R. Hist. S., Sewelle Villa, Goldney Road, 

Clifton, Bristol. 
Baker, W. Proctor, Broomwell House, Brislington, Bristol. 
Balfour, Henry T., Newnham, Gloucestershire. 
*Ball, A. J. Morton, The Green, Stroud. 
Banks, C, Longford, Gloucester. 

Barclay, Rev. Chas. W., M.A., Little Amwell Vicarage, Hertford Heath, 
Herts. 

*Barkly, Sir Henry, K.C.B., G.C.M.G., 1 Bina Gardens, South Kensington, 

London, S.W. 
Barnsley, A. E., Pimbury Park, Cirencester. 
Barron, Rev. Canon, Bishop's House, Clifton, Bristol. 
Barstow. H. C, 2 Albert Road, Clifton, Bristol. 
•Bartleet, Rev. S. E., M.A., F.S.A., St. Mark's Vicarage, Gloucester. 
Bathurst, Charles, Junr., Lydney Park, Lydney. 
Baynes, C.R., The Lammas, Minchinhampton. 
Bazley, Sir Thomas S., Bart, Hatherop Castle, Fairford. 
"Bazeley, Rev. William, M.A., Matson Rectory, Gloucester (Hon. Member,) 

(Hon. Secretary and Librarian). 
Beach, The Rt. Hon. Sir Michael E. Hicks, Bart., D.L., M.P., 

Williamstrip Park, Fairford. 
*Beddoe, John, M.D., F.R.S., The Chantry, Bradford-on-Avon. 
Bell, Rev. Canon Charles Dent, D.D. 

Berkeley, Francis L., Riverside, San Barnardino, California, U.S.A. 
Bethel, W. Wood, 7 Queen Anne's Gate, Westminster, London, S.W, 
Bevan, Rev. Llewellyn W., The Priory, Monmouth, 



2 



Bevir, E. J., Q.C., no Harley Street, London, W. 

Bibliotheque, Nationale, Paris, c/o T. Wohlleben, 46 Great Russell Street, 

London, W.C. 

Biddell, Sidney, New University Club, St. James" Street, London, S.W. 
*Biddulph, Michael, M.P., The Lodge, Ledbury. 
Birchall, J. Dearman, Bowden Hall, Gloucester. 
Birchall, Miss Lanesfield, Lansdown Road, Cheltenham. 
•Blakeway, G. S., Tuffley, Gloucester. 

Blathwayt, Geo. W. Wynter, 35 Church Street, Manchester. 
Blathwayt, Rev. Wynter Edward, M.A., Dyrham, Chippenham. 
"Blathwayt, Rev. Wynter T., M.A., Dyrham Rectory, Chippenham. 
Blathwayt, Lieut. -Colonel, Linley, Batheaston, Bath. 
Blood, John N., 3 Berkeley Street, Gloucester. 

*Bloom, Rev. J. Harvey, M.A., Grammar School, Long Marston, 

Stratford-on Avon. 
Blosse, Rev. R. C. L\nch, Stinchcombe Vicarage, Dursley, Glos. 
Bodleian Library, Oxford. 
Bonnor, Benjamin, Barn wood, Gloucester. 

"Bourne, Rev. Canon Gr. D., M.A., D.L., F.S.A., Weston-sub-Edge, 

Broadway, Worcestershire. 
*Bowly, Christopher, Siddington House, Cirencester. 
Braikenridge, W. Jerdone, 16 Royal Crescent, Bath. 

Bramble, Lieut. -Col. James Rogers, F.S.A., Cleeve House, near 

Yatton, Somerset. 
Brandt, Francis, Berkeley Hall, Pittville, Cheltenham. 
Bravender, T. B., 96 Oakfield Road, Anerley, London, S.E. 
Briggs, William. Exchange, Bristol. 
*Bruton, H. W., Bewick House, Wotton, Gloucester. 
Bruton, James, Wotton Hill Cottage, Gloucester. 
Bryan, John, Chester Hill, Inchbrook, near Stroud. 
Bubb, Henry, Ullinwood, near Cheltenham. 
Buchanan, James, Standard Office, Gloucester. 
Burroughs, Jno. Beamies Cooper, 24 Bridge Street, Bristol. 
Bush, Edward, Alveston, R.S.O., Gloucestershire. 
Bush, John, 9 Pembroke Road, Clifton, Bristol. 
Bush, T. S.. Dale Cottage, Charlcombe, Bath. 

Bute, The Most Honourable the Marquis of, c/o R. F. R. Conder, 22a 

Queen Anne's Gate, London, S.W. 
Butt, Rev. Walter, Minety Vicarage, Malmesbury. 



Cardew, C. E., A.M.I.C.E., 37 Montpellier Terrace, Cheltenham. 
Cardew, G. A., 5 Fauconberg Villas, Cheltenham. 

Cave, Sir Charles D., M.A., D.L., Stoneleigh House, Clifton Park, 
Bristol. 

Chance, T. H., Journal Office, Gloucester. 
Chanter, A. H., Bradley Court, Wotton-under-Edge. 
Charlesworth, Chantry Road, Moseley, Birmingham. 
Cheesman, Rev. A H., Salford House, Derby Road, Gloucester. 
Cheetham, Joshua Milne, M.A., Eyford Park, Bourton-on-the- Water, 
RS.O. 

Cheltenham Free Library (Librarian, W. Jones, Cheltenham). 
Cheltenham Permanent Library, Royal Crescent, Cheltenham. 
Chilton, George Horace David, North Point, Durdham Park, Bristol. 
Church, A. H., M.A., F.R.S., Shelsley, Kew, Surrey. 
Clarke, Alfred Alex., Wells, Somerset. 

Clarke, Oscar W., M.D., Rahere, Brunswick Road, Gloucester. 

*Clark, George T., F.S.A., Talygarn, Llantrissant. 

Clark, Rev. Thomas E., M.D., 1 Leigh Road, Clifton, Bristol. 

Clifton College Library, Clifton, Bristol. 

Cockshott, Miss, Hazelhurst, Ross. 

Collett, John M„ Guy's Cliff, Wotton, Gloucester. 



3 



Collins, Thomas, The Cross, Tewkesbury. 

Cook, Surgeon-General, H. N. D., Prior's Mesne, Lydney, 

Cornock, Nicholas, 47 Lillieshall Road, Clapham Common, London, S.W. 

Cornwall, Rev. Allan Kingscote, M.A., Ashcroft, Wotton-under- 

Edge. 

Cowley, Charles, LL.D., 12 Middle Street, Lowell, Massachusetts, U.S.A. 
Crawley-Boevey, A. W., 76 St. George's Square, London, S.W. 
Crawley-Boevey, Sir T. H., Bart., Flaxley Abbey, Newnham, 

Gloucestershire. 
Crawley-Boevey, Rev. R., M.A., Doynton Rectory, Bath. 
Crewdson, Theodore, Norcliffe House, Handforth, Manchester. 
Cripps, Richard, Gaitmore House, College Road, Clifton. 
*Cripps, Wilfred J., C.B., F.S.A., The Walnuts, Cirencester. 
Croggan, Edmund, 4 Beaufort Road, Clifton, Bristol. 
Cruddas, C. J., Oakfield, Stoke Bishop, Bristol. 
Cullimore, J., Chisleton, Chester. 
Cullis, F. J., F.G.S., Tuffley, Gloucester. 
*Currie, G. M., 26 Lansdown Place, Cheltenham. 

*Dancey, Charles Henry, 6 Midland Road, Gloucester. 
Davenport-Hill, Miss Florence, 25 Belsize Avenue, London, N.W. 
Davies, E. Jenner, Haywardsend, Stonehouse, Gloucestershire. 
Davies, Rev. John Silvester, M.A., F.S.A., Adelaide House, Enfield, 
London, N. 

*Davies, Rev W. H. Silvester, M.A., Horsley Vicarage, Stroud. 

Davis, Cecil Tudor, The Court House, Painswick, Stroud. 

De Paravicini, Rev. F., Avening Rectory, Stroud. 

De Sausmarez, F. B., 5 Queen's Parade, Cheltenham. 

De Ferrieres, Baron, Bayshill House, Cheltenham. 

Dening, Edwin, Manor House, Stow-on-the-Wold, Gloucestershire. 

Derham, Henry, Sneyd Park, Bristol. 

Derham, "Walter, M.A., F.G.S., 63 Queensborough Terrace, Bays- 
water, London, W. 
Dobell, C. Faulkner, Whittington Court, Andoversford, Cheltenham. 
Dobell, Clarence Mason, The Grove, Charlton Kings, Cheltenham. 
Doggett, Hugh Greenfield, Clare Street, Bristol. 

Dominican Priory, Rev. Prior of, Woodchester, Stonehouse, Gloucestershire. 
"Dorington, Sir J. E., Bart., M.A., M.P., Lypiatt Park, Stroud. 
Drew, Joseph, M.D., Montrose, Battledown, Cheltenham. 
Ducie, The Right Hon. the Earl of, P.C., F.R.S., Tortworth, 

Park, Falfield, R.S.O. 
*Dyer-Edwardes, Thomas, Prinknash Park, Painswick, Stroud. 

Eager, Reginald, M.D., Northwoods, Winterbourne, Bristol. 
Eberle, J. F., 96 Pembroke Road, Clifton, Bristol. 
Edwards, Sir Georga W., Sea-wall Villa, Sneyd Park, Bristol. 
*Ellacombe, Rev. Canon H. N., M.A., The Vicarage, Bitton, Bristol. 
Ellicott, A. B., His Honour, The Culls, Stroud (The Chancellor of the 
Diocese). 

Elliot, Major-Gen., 1 Fauconberg Villas, Cheltenham. 
Ellis, T. S., 6 Clarence Street, Gloucester. 
Emeris, Rev. William, Taynton Rectory, Burford, Oxon. 
Evans, J. B., 20 Lansdown Crescent, Cheltenham. 



Fawcett, Miss E. G. Painswick, Stroud. 

Fear, W. Lyne, 9 South Parade, Clifton. 

Fendick, R. G., 3 Claremont Place, St. Paul's Road, Clifton. 

Fenwick, Rev. J. E. A., M.A., Thirlestaine House, Cheltenham. 

Firth, Rev. E. H., Felpham, Bognor, Sussex. 

*Fishe r, Major C. Hawkins, The Castle, Stroud. 

*Flower, Edgar, The Hill, Stratford-on-Avon . 



4 



Flux, Edward Hitchings, 144 Leadenhall Street, London, E.C. 

Forbes, Col. G. H. A., R.A., Rockstowes, Dursley. 

Foster, R. G., 2 Spa Villas, Gloucester. 

Fowler, Rev. F. H., Barnwood Vicarage, Gloucester. 

*Fox, Francis Fredericks Yate House, Chipping Sodbury. 

Foxcroft, E. T. D., D.L., Hinton Charterhouse, Bath. 

Fry, Francis J., Eversley, Leigh Woods, Bristol. 

Fry, Lewis, M.P., Goldney House, Clifton, Bristol. 

Fuller, Rev. E. A., 8 George Street, Carlisle. 

•Gael, E. C, Charlton Kings, Cheltenham 

George, Ch. W., 51 Hampton Road, Bristol. 

George, Frank, 73 Ellenborough Crescent, Weston-super-Mare. 

George, Rev. P. E., M.A., St. Winifred's, Bath. 

George, W. E , Downside, Stoke Bishop, Bristol. 

George, William, St. Wulfstan's, Durdham Park, Bristol. 

Gibbs, H. Martin, Barrow Court, Flax Bourton, Somerset. 

Giller, William Thomas, 16 Tisbury Road, Hove, Brighton. 

Gloucester, The Very Rev. the Dean of, The Deanery, Gloucester. 

Gloucester, The Worshipful the Mayor and Corporation of, c/o 

G. S. Blakeway, Esq., Guildhall, Gloucester. 
Greenfield, Benjamin Wyatt, F.S.A., 4 Cronbury Terrace, Southampton. 
Gresley, Rev. Nigel W., M.A., The Rectory, Dursley. 
Grist, William Charles, Brookside, Chalford, Stroud. 
Gurney, W. Gerald, 12 Wellington Square, Cheltenham. 
Guise. Sir W., Bart., Elmore Court, Gloucester. 



Hale, C. B., Claremont House, London Road, Gloucester. 
Hale, Maj.-Gen. Robert, Alderley, Wotton-under-Edge. 
*Hall, Rev. J. M., M.A., The Rectory, Harescombe, Stroud. 
Hallen, Rev. A. W. Cornelius, M.A., The Parsonage, Alloa, N.B. 
* Halle tt Palmer, MA., Claverton Lodge, Bath. 
Hallett, Mrs., Claverton Lodge, Bath. 
Hamel, Miss, Staunton House, Coleford, Glos. 
Harding, E. B., Chasefield, Upper Knowle, Bristol. 
Harding, Rev. John Taylor, M.A., Pentwyn, Monmouth. 
Harford, William Henry, Oldown, Almondsbury, Gloucestershire. 
Harford, Edmund, 3 Priory Street, Cheltenham. 

*Hartland, Ernest, M.A., F.S.A., Hardwicke Court, Chepstow (Hon. Member,) 

(Hon. Treasurer). 
*Hartland, E. Sidney, F.S.A., Highgarth, Gloucester. 
Harvard College, U.S.A., c/o Triibner & Co., Paternoster House, Charing 

Cross Road, London, W.C. 
Harvey, Rev. W. H. Peyton, M.A., The Vicarage, Chipping Sodbury. 
Harvey, Edward A., 26 Victoria Square, Bristol. 
Harvey, John, Glenside, Leigh Woods, Bristol. 
Hasluck, Rev. E., M.A., Little Sodbury, Chipping Sodbury. 
Hawkesbury, The Right Hon. Lord, F.S.A., Kirkham Abbey, 

Yorkshire. 

Hayward, The Venerable Archdeacon, The Vicarage, Cirencester. 

Heberden, Rev. H. B., Oddington Rectory, Stow-on-the-Wold. 

Heffernan, Surgeon-General, Eton Villa, The Park, Cheltenham. 

Helps, Arthur S., Gloucester. 

Henly, E. H., Wotton-under-Edge. 

Herapath, Howard M., 12 St. John's Road, Clifton. 

Hill, Charles, Clevedon Hall, Somerset. 

Hoar, Hon. G. F., Worcester, Mass., U.S.A. 

Holbrow, Rev. Thomas, B.A., Shaw Well, Corbridge-on-Tyne. 

Holmes, James G., Thorne Lodge, Oakfield Grove, Clifton, Bristol. 

Horlick, James, Cowley Manor, Cheltenham. 

Howard, Edward Stafford, The Castle, Thornbury. 

Howell, Rev. W. C, M.A., Holy Trinity Vicarage, Tottenham, London, N. 



i 



*Hudd, Alfred E., F.S.A., 94 Pembroke Road, Clifton, Bristol. 
Hughes, W. W., Downfield Lodge, Clifton, Bristol. 
*Hyett, F. A.,Painswick House, Painswick, Stroud. 

Isacke, Miss, Stratford Abbey College, near Stroud. 

James, Rev. H. A., B.D., The School House, Rugby. 
Jefferies, A. G. W., Ash Lodge, Pucklechurch, near Bristol. 
Jenkins, R. Palmer, Beechley Lodge, Chepstow. 

•Jennings, Rev. A. C, M.A., King's Stanley Rectory, Stonehouse, 
Gloucestershire. 

Johnston- Vaughan, W. J., The Old Rectory, Wotton, Gloucester. 

Jones, D. Brynmor, M.P., Q.C., LL.B., 27, Bryanstone Square, London, W. 

Jones, Rev. Canon, Staunton Rectory, Coleford, Gloucestershire. 

Judge, Frederick, 90 Richmond Road, Montpellier, Bristol. 

*Kay, Sir Brook, Bart., Stanley Lodge, Battledown, Cheltenham, 

(President of Council). 
Keble, Rev. George C. St. Catherine's Vicarage, Gloucester. 
Keble, Rev. Thomas, M.A., Bisley Vicarage, near Stroud. 
•Keeling, George William, 10 Lansdown Terrace, Cheltenham. 
Kerr, Russell J., The Haie, Newnham-on-Severn. 
King, Miss, Avonside, Clifton Down, Bristol. 
Kitcat, Rev. D., M.A., Weston Birt Rectory, Tetbury. 



Landale, Surgeon-General, Douro House, Douro Road, Cheltenham. 
Langley, A. F, Golding, Peterstow-super-Ely, Cardiff. 
•Latimer, John, 3 Trewlany Place, Bristol. 

Lawrence, R. Gwyne, Middleton Hall, Llanarthney, South Wales. 

*Le Blanc, Arthur, The Hayes, Prestbury, near Cheltenham. 

•Leigh, William, Woodchester Park, Stonehouse. 

Leigh, E. Egerton, Broadwell Manor House, Stow-on-the-Wold. 

Lewis, Archibald M., Upper Bryon Place, Clifton, Bristol. 

Lewis, Harold, B.A., Mercury Office, Bristol. 

Little, E. Caruthers, Field Place, Pakenhill, Stroud. 

Little, E. P., Lansdown, Stroud. 

Little, Brown & Co., Boston, U.S.A., c/o Sampson Low & Co., Fetter 

Lane, London, E.C., 
Liverpool Free Library, Liverpool. 
Llewellin, John, Hazeland, Devizes, Wilts. 
Llewellin, W., 15, King Square, Bristol. 
Lloyd, F. M., The Grange, Newnham, Gloucestershire. 
London Library, 12 St. James' Square, London, S.W. 
Long, Col. William, Woodlands, Congresbury. R.S.O., East Somerset. 
Low, Charles Hoskins, Tower Hurst, Leigh Woods, Clifton 
Lowe, C. J., 8 St. Stephen Street, Bristol. 
Lovendge, P. B., 12 Oxford Place, Cheltenham. 
•Lucy, William C, F.G.S,, 11 Campden Hill Square, London, W. 
Lynes, Rev. W., M D., Cinderford Vicarage, Newnham. 

Machen, C. E , Bicknor, Coleford, Gloucestershire. 
Maclaine, Wm, Osborne, D.L., Kineton, Thornbury. 
Macpherson, J., Sorrento, San Diego, California, U.S.A. 
•Madan, H. G., Bearland House, Gloucester (Hon. Librarian). 
Manchester Library— (Charles W. Sutton, Sec), Manchester. 
Margetson, William, Brightside, Stroud. 
Marling, Capt. Walter B., Clanna, Lydney. 
Marling, Stanley, Stanley Park, Stroud. 

Marrs, Kingsmill, South Park. Saxonville, Massachusetts, U.S.A. 
•Martin, A. T., M.A., F.S.A, Rodborough House Percival Road, Clifton, 

Bristol (Hon. Editor). 
Martyn, Rev. C. J., Daglingworth, Cirencester. 



6 



Master, Rev. G. S., M.A., Bourton Grange, Flax Bourton, R.S.O., 
Somerset. 

Master, Mrs. Chester, Knowle Park, Almondsbury, R.S.O. 

Matthews, J. A., Lewishurst, The Spa, Gloucester. 

May, Arthur C, Avon House, Sneyd Park, near Bristol. 

Meadway, G., South Lawn, The Park, Cheltenham. 

*Medland, Henry, Clarence Street, Gloucester. 

Meredith, W. Lewis, 7 Midland Road, Gloucester. 

Middlemore-Whittard, Rev. T. M., M.A., Hawkesley, Exmouth, Devon. 

Miles, Rev. H., The Rectory, Huntley, near Gloucester. 

Mills, H. Hamilton, Sudgrove House, near Cirencester. 

Mitford, A. B. Freeman, C.B., Batsford Park, Moreton-in-Marsh. 

Mockler, Frederick J., Wotton-under-Edge, Gloucestershire. 

Monk, C. J., M.P., 5 Buckingham Gate, London, S.W. 

Morgan, Miss, Cherith, 2 Beaufort Buildings, Gloucester. 

Morris, R. Groves, 5 Beaufort Buildings, Gloucester. 

Mullings, John, Cirencester. 

Nash, Rev. Canon R. S., M.A., Old Sodbury, Chipping Sodbury. 
Norman, George, Alpha House, Bayshill, Cheltenham. 
Norman, George, 12 Brock Street, Bath. 
Norris, Herbert E., The Market Place, Cirencester. 

O'Connell, Major-Gen., Battledown View, Cheltenham. 

Oman, C. W. C, M.A., F.S.A., All Souls' College, Oxford. 

Oman, Mrs., St. Philip's Lodge, The Park, Cheltenham. 

Owen, Rev. Richard Trevor, M.A., F.S.A., Llangedwyn, Oswestry, Salop 

Painter, Capt. A. C, 6 Lansdown Terrace, Weymouth. 

Palmer, Rev. Feilding, M.A., Eastcliffe, Chepstow. 

Parker. Rev. Canon Charles J., M.A., Upton Cheyney, Bitton, Bristol. 

Pass, Alfred Capper, The Holmes, Stoke Bishop, Bristol. 

*Paul, Alfred H, The Close, Tetbury. 

Perceval, Cecil H. Spencer, Longwitton Hall, Morpeth, Northumberland. 
Percival E. H., Kimsbury House, Gloucester. 
*Perkins, Vincent R., Wotton-under-Edge. 
Perry, John F., 3, Downside Road, Clifton. 
Philips, Miss, Hazelhurst, Ross. 

Phillimore, W. P. W., M.A., B.C.L., 124 Chancery Lane, London. 
Philp, Capt. J. Lamb, Pendoggett, Timsbury, Bath. 
Pike, Mrs., Hempsted Court, Gloucester. 
Piper, G. H., The Court House, Ledbury. 

Pitcairn, Rev. D. Lee, M.A., Monckton Combe Vicarage, Bath. 
Pitt, Theophilus, 143 Minories, London, E.C. 
Playne, Arthur T., Longfords. Minchinhampton. 
Piatt, James, Somerset Villa, Bristol Road, Gloucester. 
Pollock, Erskine, Q.C., 74 Queen's Gate, London, S.W. 
Ponting, Albert, Tocknells, Painswick, Stroud. 
Ponting, C. E., F.S.A., Lockeridge, Marlborough, Wilts. 
*Pope, T. S., 3 Unity Street, College Green, Bristol. 
Power, Edward, F.S.A., 12 Bolton Gardens, Collingham Road, 
London, S.W. 

Poynton, Rev. Francis John, M.A., Kelston Rectory, Bath. 

♦Prankerd, P D., The Knoll, Sneyd Park, Bristol. 

Prichard Augustin, F.R.C S., 4 Chesterfield Place, Clifton, Bristol. 

Pritchard, J. E., Guy's Cliff, Sydenham Road, Bristol. 

Protheroe Frank, 11 Alfred Place, West Thurloe Square, London, S.W. 

Prothero, H. A., 13 Promenade, Cheltenham. 

Pryce, Bruce, A. C, Abbeyholme, Overton Road, Cheltenham. 

Purnell, Rev. R. H., Staverton Vicarage, near Cheltenham. 



Rice-Rice, Hon. Maria E., Matson House, Gloucester. 



1 



Ringer, Surgeon-General, 20 Lansdown Terrace, Cheltenham. 
Robbins, J.W.E., 23 Campden Hill Square, London, N. 
Robertson, J. L., Whittington Manor, Cheltenham. 
Rogers, William Frederick, Tetbury. 

Rogers, Lieut. -Col. R., Fern Clyffe, Battledown, Cheltenham. 
Rowe, J. Brooking, F.S.A., Castle Barbican, Plymouth, Devon. 
Roxby, Cyril L. M., The Rectory, Cheltenham. 

*Royce, Rev. David, M.A., Nether Swell Vicarage, Stow-on-the-Wold. 
Rudman, J., Path Head, Apsley Road, Clifton. 

Sadler, G. W., Keynsham Villa, Cheltenham. 

Salmon, Lieut. -Col. H. T., Tockington Manor, Almondsbury, Gloucester- 
Salwey, Edward R., Stonehouse Court, Glos. [shire. 
Saunders, Joshua, Sutton House, Clifton Down, Bristol. 
Sawyer, John, Glevum Lodge, Battledown, Cheltenham. 
Science and Art Department, South Kensington Museum, London, S.W. 
Scott, Charles, Lennox House, Spa, Gloucester. 
Scrivens, Herbert, Beresford Buildings, Cheltenham. 
Selwyn-Payne, J. H., Badgworth End, near Cheltenham. 
Sessions, Frederick, F.R.G.S., M.R.A.S., Monkleighton, Alexandra Road, 
Gloucester. 

Sewell, Edward C, Elmlea, Stratton, Cirencester. 

*Seys, Godfrey, Wirewood's Green, Chepstow. 

Sibbald, J. G. E., Mount Pleasant, Norton St. Philip, Bath. 

Shaw, J. E., M.B., 23 Caledonia Place, Clifton, Bristol. 

Sherborne, Rt. Hon. Lord, 9 St. James' Square, London, S.W. 

Sheringham, Rev. H. A., Tewkesbury. 

Shum, Frederick, F.S.A., Norfolk Crescent, Bath. 

Simpson, J. J., Osborne House, Cotham Park, Bristol. 

Skipton, H. S. Kennedy, 30 Montpellier Villas, Cheltenham. 

Skrine, Henry Duncan, Claverton Manor, Bath. 

Smith, T. Sherwood, F.S.S., The Pynes, Keynsham, Bristol. 

Smith, Alfred Edward, The Hollies, Nailsworth. 

Smith, Richard Henry, The Kestrels, Rodborough, Stroud. 

Smithe, Rev. F., LL.D., Churchdown Vicarage, Gloucester. 

Smyth, Rev. Christopher, Firwood, Chalford, Stroud. 

Smyth, Col., Theescombe House, Stroud. 

Sneath, Rev. P. A., The Lawn, Woodchester, Stroud. 

Sneyd, Rev. G. A., Chastleton Rectory, Moreton-in-Marsh. 

Society of Merchant Venturers, The Worshipful The Master of the, Bristol. 

*Stackhouse, Rev. J. Lett, The Vicarage, Berkeley. 

Stanton, Charles Holbrow, M.A., Field Place, Stroud. 

Stanton, w alter John, Stratford Lodge, Stroud. 

Stanton, J. Y., The Leaze, Stonehouse, Gloucestershire. 

Stanton, Rev. Canon, M.A,, Hasleton Rectory, Cheltenham. 

Stephens, Albert J., Woodside, Slad, Stroud. 

Stone, John, 12 Royal Crescent, Bath. 

Strickland, Edward, c/o 13 Victoria Square, Clifton, Bristol. 

Stubs, Peter, Blaisdon Hall, Newnham, Gloucestershire. 

Swayne, Joseph Griffiths, M.D., 74 Pembroke Road, Clifton, Bristol. 

Swayne, Miss, 129 Pembroke Road, Clifton, Bristol. 

* Swayne, S. H., 129 Pembroke Road, Clifton, Bristol. 

Symonds, Rev. W., M.A., Frocester Vicarage, Stonehouse, Glo'stershire. 

Tait, C. W. A., M.A., College Gate, Clifton College, Clifton, Bristol. 

Tagart, Francis, F L.S , F.R.G.S., Old Sneyd Park, Bristol, 

Tarr, F. J., Roseneath, Willsbridge, near Bristol. 

•Taylor, Rev. C. S , M.A., Ban well Vicarage, Somerset. 

Thorpe, Thomas, Hilldrop, Gloucester. 

Thursby, Piers, Broadwell Hill, Stow-on-the-Wold. 

Tibbits, John, 5 Theresa Place, Gloucester. 

Townsend, Charles, St. Mary's, Stoke Bishop, Bristol, 



$ 

Treeby, A., The Warren, Wotton-under-Edge, Gloucestershire. 
Trenfield, J. D. B., Hill House, Chipping Sodbury. 
Trower, G. Oakeley, Meldon Lodge, Cheltenham. 
Trusted, Charles J., Sussex House, Pembroke Road, Clifton, Bristol. 
Tucker, Miss, The Studio, Sheepscombe House, Stroud. 
Tuckett, Francis Fox, F.R.Gr.S., Frenchay, Bristol. 
Tuckett, Richard C, 4 Exchange Buildings, East, Bristol. 
Tudway, Clement, Cecily Hill, Cirencester. 
Turner, A. M. Sidney, Brighton. 

Twells, The Right Rev. Bishop, D.D., Pembroke Gate, Clifton, Bristol. 

Vassall, R. L. Grant, Oldbury Court, Fishponds, R.S.O., Gloucestershire. 

*Vassar-Smith, R. Vassar, Charlton Park, Cheltenham. 

Viner, Rev. A. W. Ellis, B.A., Badgeworth Vicarage, Cheltenham. 

Vizard, Major-Gen., Woodmancote Court, Dursley. 

Venner, Capt., The Reddings, Stonehouse, Gloucestershire. 

*Waller, Frederick S., F.S.A., F.R.I.B.A., 18 College Green, Gloucester. 

Warren, Robert Hall, F.S.A., 9 Apsley Road, Clifton, Bristol. 

Webb, R. B., Down House, Ashley Down, Bristol. 

Wedmore, E., M.D., 11 Richmond Hill, Clifton. 

Wells, W. S., Netherleigh, Lansdown Place, Cheltenham. 

Wenden, James Gordon, Dursley. 

*Whatley, E., 113 Dyer Street, Cirencester. 

Whitcombe, George, The Wotton Elms, Gloucester. 

Whitfield, G., Glaisdale House, Weston Road, Gloucester. 

Whitwill, Mark, Linthorpe, Tyndall's Park, Bristol. 

Williams, Rev. Augustin, 21 Bruce Street, Northampton. 

Wilkinson, Rev. L., Westbury-on-Severn, Newnham, Gloucestershire. 

Wills, Frederick, Heath Lodge, Hampstead Heath, London, N.W. 

Wingfield, E. Rhys, Barrington Park, Burford. 

Winslow, Benjamin, 53 Russell Square, London, W.C. 

Wintle, Charles, Queen Square, Bristol. 

*Wintle, Douglas J., Newnham, Gloucestershire. 

Winwood, Rev. H. H., M.A., F.Gr.S., n Cavendish Crescent, Bath. 
Wiseman, Rev. H. J., M.A., Clifton College, Clifton, Bristol. 
Witchell, E. Northam, Lansdown, Stroud. 
Witts, F. V., Fosse House, Broad well, Stow-on-the-Wold. 
*Witts, G. B., C.E., Hill House, Leckhampton, Cheltenham. 
*Witts, Rev. F. E. Broome, M. A., Upper Slaughter, Bourton-on-the- Water, 
R.S.O. 

Wood, Walter B., 12 Queen Street, Gloucester. 
Woodward, J. H., 2 Windsor Terrace, Clifton, Bristol. 
Wright, J., Stone Bridge, Bristol. 

Yabbicom, Col. T. H., C. E., 23 Oakfield Road, Clifton, Bristol. 



Zachary, Henry, Cirencester. 



Literary Societies exchanging Transactions with this Society: 

The Society of Antiquaries of Newcastle, The Castle, Newcastle-on-Tyne. 
The Society of Antiquaries of London, Burlington House, Piccadilly, 
London, W. 

The Society of Antiquaries of Scotland, Royal Institution, Edinburgh. 
The Royal Archaeological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland, 20 

Hanover Square, London. 
The British Archaeological Association, 32 Sackville Street, London. 
TheBirmingham and Midland Institute, Archaeological Section .Birmingham. 
The Clifton Antiquarian Club, Hon. Sec, A. E. Hudd, Esq , F.S.A., 94 

Pembroke Road, Clifton, Bristol. 
The Cambrian Archaeological Society. 28 Great Ormond Street, London, 

W.C. 

The Cotteswold Field Club, Hon. Sec, A. S. Helps, Barton Street, 
Gloucester. 

The Royal Institute of Cornwall, Museum, Truro, Cornwall. 
The Royal Society of Antiquaries (Ireland), Dublin. 
The Derbyshire Archaeological and Natural History Society, Derby. 
The Essex Archaeological Society, The Lawn, Coggeshall, Essex. 
The Kent Archaeological Society, Museum, Maidstone, Kent. 
The Powys Land Club, Museum and Library, Welshpool. 
The Somerset Archaeological and Natural History Society, The Castle, 
Taunton. 

The Suffolk Institute of Archaeology and Natural History, Hon. Sec, The 

Rev. F. Hazlewood. F.S.A., S. Matthew's Rectory, Ipswich, Suffolk. 
The Surrey Archaeological Society, Hon. Sec, Mill Stephenson, Esq., B.A., 

F. S.A., 8 Danes Inn, Strand, London, W.C. 
The Sussex Archaeological Society, Lewes, Sussex. 

The William Salt Archaeological Society, Stafford, Hon. Sec, Major-Gen. 

The Hon. G. Wrottesley. 
The Wiltshire Archaeological and Natural History Society, Devizes, Wilts. 
The Yorkshire Archaeological and Topographical Association, Hon. Sec, 

G. W. Tomlinson, Esq., F.S.A., Wood Field, Huddersfield. 



TERMS OF ADMISSION TO THE SOCIETY. 



Those who are desirous of joining the Society, can be admitted, after 
election by the Council, on the following conditions : 

I. As Life Members for a Composition of £5 5s., and an Admission 

Fee of 10s. 6d., which will entitle them to receive gratuitously 
for life, the annual volumes of Transactions of the Society that 
may be issued after the date of payment. 

II. As Annual Members upon payment of 10s. 6d. Entrance Fee, and 

an annual subscription of 10s. 6d., which will entitle them to 
receive gratituitously, the annual volumes of Transactions for 
every year for which their subscriptions are paid. 

The annual subscription becomes due on the 1st of January, and the 
Treasurer, Mr. Ernest Hartland, will be obliged if members 
will send their subscriptions to him at Hardwicke Court, 
Chepstow. 

By order of Council, the Transactions of the Society are only issued 
to those members who have paid their subscriptions for the 
corresponding year. 

Application for admission as members to be made to the Rev. W 
Bazeley, M.A., Matson Rectory, Gloucester, Hon. Secretary. 



Rules of the Society. 

<- ' 

NAME AND OBJECTS OF THE SOCIETY. 

I. — The Society shall be called "The Bristol and Gloucester- 
shire Archaeological Society." 

Its objects shall be to promote an interest in the antiquities 
of Bristol and Gloucestershire, and to encourage the study of 
Archaeology : 

(a) By holding Meetings in the County or its vicinity. 

(b) By printing for its Members Transactions of its 

Meetings, and Papers on Antiquarian, Genealogical, 
or Historical subjects. 

(c) By printing (so far as its funds will permit) ancient 

records and MSS. relating to Bristol or Gloucester- 
shire. 

(d) By the establishment of a Library and Museum. 
CONSTITUTION OF THE SOCIETY. 

II. — The Society shall consist of Subscribing and Honorary 
Members. 

III. — The Subscribing Members shall be elected by the 
Council. A Subscribing Member shall pay an entrance fee of 
half-a-guinea, and either an annual subscription of half-a-guinea 
or a composition fee of £5. Members who compound for 
their subscriptions shall be Life-Members of the Society. 

Subscriptions shall be due on the 1st January in each year. 

IV. — Honorary Members shall be nominated by the Council 
for their eminence in Archaeology or for special services 
rendered to the Society, and they shall be elected at a General 
Meeting of the Society. 

V. — The rights and privileges of Subscribing and Honorary 
Members shall be the same. 

VI. — All Members shall be entitled to attend the Meetings 
of the Society, and to receive copies of such of the Society's 
Transactions as are printed for the period of their member- 
ship ; but no copy of the Transactions for any year will be 
forwarded to a Member whose subscription for that year is in 
arrear. Members will be entitled to free access to the 
Library, and to the use of the books, at such times and 
subject to such conditions as the Council may from time to 
time determine. 

VII. — Membership of the Society shall cease 

(a) By voluntary resignation, after payment of all sub- 

scriptions that may be due. 

(b) By breach of the Rules of the Society. 

(c) By conduct which, in the opinion of the Council, would 

bring discredit on the Society. 



ia 

Provided that no Member shall cease to belong to the Society 
under clauses (b) or (c) of this rule until a resolution to that effect 
has been passed by the Council. A copy of any such reso- 
lution shall be forwarded to the Member to whom it relates. 

The Council may also remove a Member's name from the 
list of Subscribing Members if his subscription is three years 
in arrear. 

VIII. — Ladies or Gentlemen may, on the introduction of a 
Member, join the Society as Associates for a year. Each 
Lady Associate shall pay a subscription of 5s., and each 
Gentleman Associate a subscription of 10s. 6d. Associates 
shall be entitled to attend all Meetings of the Society, other 
than Business Meetings, and to join all Excursions. They 
will not be entitled to receive the Society's Transactions, but 
Gentlemen Associates may purchase copies of the Transactions 
at half-price. The Tickets of Lady Associates are transfer- 
able among members of the same family. 

IX. — The affairs of the Society shall be managed by a 
Council consisting of Ex-officio Members and elected 
Members. 

The Ex-officio Members of the Council shall be : 
The President of the Society, 
The Vice-Presidents of the Society, 
The Hon. Gen. Secretary, 
The Hon. Treasurer, 
The Editor of the Society's Transactions, 
The Local Secretaries. 

X. — The President and Vice-Presidents shall be elected 
annually at the General Meeting of the Society, on the 
Nomination of the Council. The President shall take the 
Chair at all Meetings of the Society and of the Council at 
which he is present. In his absence the Chair shall be taken 
by one of the Vice-Presidents or by some other Member of 
$he Council. 

The Vice-Presidents of the Society shall not exceed fifteen 
in number. They shall be elected, when practicable, with a 
view to the Representation on the Council of different parts 
of the County. 

XI. — The Treasurer shall be elected annually. He shall 
receive all moneys due to the Society, and pay all accounts 
passed by the Council. He shall, as soon as possible after 
the close of the financial year, submit a balance sheet, 
accounts, and account books for audit by the Finance Com- 
mittee, and he shall lay the balance sheet before the Annual 
Meeting. 

XII. — The Secretary shall be elected annually. He shall 
personally or by deputy attend the Meetings of the Society 



IS 

and of the Council, and enter in a Minute Book the proceed- 
ings at such Meetings. He shall also send out Notices of 
the Meetings of the Society and of the Council. 

XIII. — The Editor shall be nominated by the Council, and 
appointed at a General or Special Meeting of the Society, and 
he shall hold office during the Society's pleasure. He shall 
receive such remuneration as the Society may from time to 
time determine. It shall be his duty to edit and to supervise 
the printing of the Transactions of the Society. 

XIV. — The Local Secretaries shall be elected annually, on the 
Nomination of the Council, for such Towns or Districts as the 
Council may think fit. The total number of Local Secretaries 
shall not exceed fifteen. It shall be the duty of the Local 
Secretaries to promote the interests of the Society in the 
localities for which they are respectively elected, and to report 
to the General Secretary any Archaeological discoveries or 
matters of special interest that may occur in such localities. 
It shall also be their duty to furnish the Council with such 
information as it may from time to time desire. 

XV. — There shall be not more than thirty elected Members of 
Council, a third of whom shall retire annually, but shall be 
eligible for re-election. 

The undermentioned localities shall be represented on the 
Council in the following proportions : — 

City of Bristol ... .. ... ... 6 Members, 

Parliamentary Division Cirencester ... 3 
,, ,, Forest of Dean 3 

,, Stroud ... 3 
„ Tewkesbury ... 3 
,, „ Thornbury ... 3 

City of Gloucester ... ... ... 2 

Borough of Cheltenham ... ... ... 2 

Not assigned to any district 5 

Total 30 Members. 

XVI. — The Council shall appoint a Finance Committee, 
consisting of not less than three Members whose duty it shall 
be to examine the Accounts of the Society before they are 
presented to the Council. 

MEETINGS OF THE SOCIETY AND OF THE 
COUNCIL. 

XVII. — The Society shall hold at least one General 
Meeting for the transaction of business in each year. At this 
Meeting a report of the Council on the proceedings of the 
Society during the past year, and of its financial position, 
shall be laid before the Society, and the officers and members 
of the Council for the ensuing year shall be elected. The time 
and place of the General Meetings shall be determined by the 
Council. 



INDEX 



OF 



ARCHAEOLOGICAL PAPERS 



PUBLISHED 



IN 



1895 

[being the fifth issue of the series and completing the 
index for the period 1891-95] 



PUBLISHED UNDER THE DIRECTION OF THE CONGRESS OF 
ARCHAEOLOGICAL SOCIETIES IN UNION WITH THE 
SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES. 



189(5 



HARBISON AND SONS. 
PBINTEES IN OEDINABY TO HER MAJESTY, 
ST. MAETIN'S LANE, LONDON. 



CONTENTS. 



\Those Transactions marked with an asterisk * in the following list are now for the 
first time included in the index, the others are continuations from the indexes 
of 1891-94. Transactions included for the first time are indexed from 1891 
onwards.'] 



Anthropological Institute, Journal, vol. xxiv, pts. 3 snd 4, vol. xxv, pt. 1. 
Antiquaries, London, Proceedings of the Society, 2nd sei\, vol. xv, pt. 4. 
Antiquaries, Ireland, Proceedings of Eoyal Society of, 5th ser., vol. v. 
Antiquaries, Scotland, Proceedings of the Society, vol. xxix. 
Archaeologia, vol. liv, pt. 2. 
Archseologia JEliana, vol. xvi, pt. 3, vol. xvii. 
Archaeologia Cambrensis, 5th ser., vol. xii*. 
Archaeological Journal, vol. lii. 

Berkshire Architectural and Archaeological Society, vol. iii, pt. 4. 
Berwickshire Naturalist Field Club, vol. xiv, pts. 1 and 2. 
British Archaeological Association, Journal, New Series, vol. i. 
British Architects, Eoyal Institute of, Journal, 3rd ser., vol. ii. 
Cambridge Antiquarian Society, Transactions, vol. ix, pt. 1. 

Chester and North Wales Architectural, Archaeological and Historical Society, 

Transactions, vol. v, pt. 4. 
Clifton Antiquarian Club, vol. iii, pts. 1 and 2. 

Cumberland and Westmorland Archaeological Society, vol. xiii, pts. 2, 3 and 4 

Cymmrodorion Society, Transactions, 1893-4 and 1894-5. 

Derbyshire Archaeological Society, Transactions, vol. xvii. 

Devonshire Association, Transactions, vol. xxvii. 

East Eiding Antiquarian Society, vol. ii and iii. 

Essex Archaeological Society, Transactions, New Series, vol. v, pt. 3. 

Folklore, Proceedings of the Folklore Society, vol. vi. 

Glasgow Archaeological Society, New Series, vol. ii, pts. 3 and 4. 

Hampshire Field Club, Proceedings, vol. iii, pts. 1 and 2. 

Hellenic Society, Journal, vol. xv. 

Huguenot Society, Transactions, vol. v, pts. 1 and 2. 



iv 



CONTENTS. 



Kildare Archaeological Society, Journal, vol. i, pt. 6. 
Lancashire and Cheshire Historic Society, Transactions, vol. x. 
Leicestershire Architectural and Archaeological Society, Transactions, vol. viii, 
pt. 2. 

*Liverpool Literary and Philosophical Society, vol. xlvi, xlvii, xlviii and xlix. 

London and Middlesex Archaeological Society, vol. i (appendix). 
* Manchester Literary and Philosophical Society, 4th ser., vol. iv, v, vi, vii, viii 
and ix. 

Montgomeryshire Collections, vol. xxix. 

Norfolk and Norwich Archaeological Society, Transactions, vol. xii. 

Numismatic Chronicle, 3rd ser., vol. xv. 
*Royal Historical Society, Transactions, vol. v, vi, vii, viii and ix. 

Royal Irish Academy, Transactions, 3rd ser., vol. iii, pt. 4. 
*Royal Society of Literature, Transactions, vol. xv, xvi and xvii. 

St. Albans Architectural and Archaeological Society, 1893-4. 

Shropshire Archaeological and Natural History Society, Transactions, 2nd ser., 
vol. vii. 

Somersetshire Archaeological and Natural History Society, Transactions, vol. xli. 

Suffolk Archaeological Institute, vol. ix, pt. 1. 

Surrey Archaeological Society, Collections, vol. xii, pts. 3 and 4. 

Sussex Archaeological Collections, vol. xxxix. 

Thoresby Society, Miscellany, vol. v. 

Wiltshire Archaeological and Natural History Magazine, vol. xxviii, pts. 3 and 4. 
Yorkshire Archaeological and Topographical Journal, vol. xiv, pts. 1 and 2. 



NOTE. 



The value of this Index to archaeologists is now recognised. Every effort is 
made to keep its contents up to date and continuous, but it is obvious that the 
difficulties are great unless the assistance of the societies is obtained. If for any 
reason the papers of a society are not indexed in the year to which they properly 
belong the plan is to include them in the following year ; and whenever the papers 
of societies are brought into the Index for the first time they are then indexed 
from tbe year 1891. 

By this means it will be seen that the year 1891 is treated as the commencing 
year for the Index and that all transactions published in and since that year will 
find their place in the series. 

To make this work complete an index of the transactions from the beginning of 
archaeological societies down to the year 1890 needs to be published. This Index is 
already completed in MS. form and it will be printed as soon as arrangements can 
be made. 

Societies will greatly oblige by communicating any omissions or suggestions to 

The Editob op the Abchjsological Index, 

Society of Antiquaries, 

Burlington House, London, W. 

Single copies of the yearly Index maybe obtained. Many of the societies in union 
with the Society of Antiquaries take a sufficient number of copies to issue with 
their transactions to each of their members. The more this plan is extended tbe 
less will be the cost of the Index to each society. For particulars of this and 
other works now being carried on by the societies in union application should 
be made to the Honorary Secretary, 

Kalph Nevill, F.S.A., 

13, Addison Crescent, 

Kensington, W. 



INDEX OF ARCHJEOLOGICAL PAPERS PUBLISHED 

IN 1895. 



Abercromby (Hon. John). Recent excavations in the Caucasus. 
Trans. Glasgow Arch. Soc. N.S. ii. 302-311. 

Traditions, customs, and superstitions of the Lewis. Folk- 
lore, vi. 162-170. 

Acland (C. L.). Norse remains in North Britain. Trans. Garni. 
Antiq. Soc. ix. 106-120. 

Allen (T. W.). The text of the Homeric Hymns. Jour. Hell. Stud. 
xv. 136-183, 251-313. 

Amery (P. F. S.). Thirteenth report of the Committee on Devon- 
shire Folklore. Trans. Devon. Assoc. xxvii. 61-74 

Anderson (Joseph, LL.D.). Notice of a cave recently discovered at 
Oban containing human remains and a refuse heap of shells and 
bones of animals, and stone and bone implements. Proc. Soc. 
Antiq. Scot. xxix. 211-230. 

Notes on the contents of a refuse heap at the base of the 

fortified rock known as Dun Fheurain at Gallanach, near Oban. 
Proc. Soc. Antiq. Scot. xxix. 278-285. 

Andre (J. Lewis). Antiquarian notes on the Rose. Arch. Jour. lii. 
207-221. 

The chancel screens of parish churches, illustrated chiefly 

by Sussex examples. Sussex Arch. Goll. xxxix. 31-54. 
Andrew (Samuel). British footprints: the Oldham master-key. 

Jour. Brit. Arch. Assoc. N.S. i. 11-20. 
Andrews (Emily J.). Two Christmas eve customs. Folklore, vi. 93. 
Appleton (Henry, M.D.). A muster roll of cavalry. Torks. Arch. 

Jour. xiv. 239-241. 
Arkwright (W.). The frontier of Lycia and Caria. Jour. Hell, 

Stud. xv. 93-99. 



8 



INDEX OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL PAPERS. 



Abmstbong (Rev. B. J.). Notes on the church and family of Shelton 

Norf. Arch. xii. 234-242. 
Arnold (Rev. F. H, LL.D.). The corn-supply of the south-coast 

m British and Roman times. Sussex Arch. Coll. xxxix. 154-160 
Ashcombe (Rt. Hon. Lord). A charge given by Hugh Hare, Esq., 

J.P., at the general quarter sessions for the county of Surrey 

holden at Dorking 5th April, 1692. Surrey Arch. Coll. xii 

109-144. 

Ashton (Charles) and J. E. Lloyd. Defodau Powys, the customs 

of Powys. Montgomerysh. Coll. xxix. 1-27. 
Atkinson (Rev. J. C, Canon). The progressive or expansional 

significance of place-names. Arch. Jour. lii. 253-265. 
Atkinson (T. D.). On a bridge over the King's ditch. Trans. 

Camb. Antiq. Soc. ix. 33-35. 
On a chalice and paten from Westley Waterless. Proc. 

Camb. Antiq. Soc. ix. 21-24. 
Attree (Major F. W. TO- List of Sussex gentry at various dates with 

descriptions of the arms of a few families not previously noted. 

Sussex Arch. Coll. xxxix. 99-133. 
Auden (Rev. John Ernest). Notes on the church, castle and parish of 

Shrawardine. Trans. Shropshire Arch. Soc. 2nd S. vii. 120-202. 
Axon (W. E. A.). Visitations of the plague in Lancashire and 

Cheshire. Jour. Brit. Arch. Assoc. N.S. i. 265-270. 
Bagnall-Oakeley (M. E.). A week in the Aran Islands. Clifton 

Antiq. Club, iii. 99-107. 
Early Christian settlements in Ireland. Clifton Antiq 

Club, iii. 22-24. 

On a great hoard of Roman coins found at Bishops Wood 

near Ross. Clifton Antiq. Club, iii. 162-166. 
Baillie-Hamilton (Hon. Mrs.). Note on two rare paintings at 

Langton House. Proc. Berwick. Field Club, xiv. 338. 
Baker (Arthur). Plas Mawr. Arch. Cambrensis, 5th S. xii 

40-49. 

Balfour (C. B.). Notes on Newton Don and its former owners. 

Proc. Berwick. Field Club, xiv. 291-313. 
Baedan (Patrick). The Shamrock. Jour. Boy. Soc. Antiq. Ireland 

5th S. v. 178-179. 
Barker (W. R.) An ancient bronze collar from Wraxall, Somerset. 

Clifton Antiq. Club, iii. 89-94. 
Local silver and bronze tokens in the Bristol museum 

Clifton Antiq. Club, iii. 132-133. 



INDEX OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL PAPERS. 



9 



Barnes (Henry, M.D.). On touching for the King's evil. Trews. 

Gumb. and Westmor. Arch. Soc. xiii. 343-363. 
Barrett (C. R. B.) Riding Skimmington and Riding the Stang. 

Jour. Brit. Arch. Assoc. N.S. i. 58-68. 
Barron (Rev. Douglas Gordon). Notice of a small cemetery of 

cremated burials with cinerary urns of clay recently discovered at 

Culla Yoe, Papa Stour, Shetland. Proc. Soc. Antiq. Scot. xxix. 

46-48. 

Barry (Rev. E.). On ogham stones seen in Kilkenny county. Jour. 

Roy. Soc. Antiq. Ireland, 5th S. v. 348-368. 
Bates (C. J.). A forgotten reference to Roman mile-castles. Arch. 

jE liana, xvi. 447-451. 
Bates (Rev. E. H.). On the discovery of an ancient representation 

of the Agnus Dei at Shawell. Trans. Leicest. Archit. and Arch. 

Soc. iii. 68-69. 

Batten (John). Notes on North Perrott. Proc. Somerset Arch, and 

Nat. Hist. Soc. xli. 73-91. 
1 Notes on the documentary history'of seals. Wilts Arch, and 

Nat. Hist. Mag. xxviii. 203-210. 
Bax (Alfred Ridley). On the state of certain parish churches in 

Surrey in 1705. Surrey Arch. Coll. xii. 163-171. 
Beazley (C. Raymond). Exploration under Elizabeth 1558-1603. 

Trans. Boy. Hist. Soc. N.S. ix,. 119-165. 
Beddoe (John, M.D.). On the northern settlements of the West 

Saxons. Jour. Anthrop. Inst. xxv. 16-20. 
Beloe (Edward M.). Castle Rising: its castle and borough. Norf. 

Arch. xii. 164-189. 
■ Freebridge Marshland hundred and the making of Lynn. 

Norf. Arch. xii. 311-335. 
The padder's way and its attendant roads. Trans. Camb. 

Antiq. Soc. ix. 77-95. 
Bensly (W. T., LL.D.). St. Leonard's priory, Norwich. Norf. Arch. 

xii. 190-227. 

Benson (E. ¥.). Aegosthena. Jour. Hell. Stud. xv. 314-324. 
Fourth century head in central museum, Athens. Jour. 

Hell. Stud. xv. 194-201. 
Berkshire Wills from the P.C.C. ante 1558. Berlcs. Arch, and 

Archit. Soc. iii. 100-104, 127-130, 148-152, 168-172, 201- 

203. 

Betham (Rev. C. J.). Brettenham and the Wenyeve family. Suff. 
Inst. Arch. ix. 131-143. 



10 



INDEX OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL PAPERS. 



Betham (Rev. C. J.). Church plate in Suffolk. Suff. Inst, of Arch. 
ix. 26-34. 

Bienkowski (P.). A flying Eros from the school of Praxiteles. 

Jour. Hell. Stud. xv. 211-216. 
Billson (Charles J.). Folksongs comprised in the Finnish Kalevala. 

Folklore, vi. 317-352. 
Bilson (John). On the discovery of some remains of the chapter 

house of Beverley Minster. Archceologia, liv. 425-432. 
Birch (Rev. C. Gr. R.). On certain brasses at Necton and Great 

Cressingham. Norf. Arch. xii. 298-303. 
Birch (W. de G-ray). Historical notes of Whalley Abbey. Jour. I 

Brit. Arch. Assoc. N.S. i. 161-166. 
Notes on the importance of preserving the records 

and literary antiquities of Wales, as illustrated by some 

recent publications. Jour. Brit. Arch. Assoc. N.S. i. 25- 

48. 

Birchall (James). The church and state in Mediaeval Europe. 
Proc. Lit. and Phil. Soc. Liverpool, xivi. 235-262. 

Black (Geo. F.), Notes on a silver mounted charm-stone of rock- 
crystal from Inverleny with notices of other Scottish balls of 
rock-crystal and of superstitions connected therewith. Proc. Soc. 
Antiq. Scot. xxix. 439-448. 

Blair (Robert). A Roman inscribed altar discovered at South 
Shields. Proc. Soc. Antiq. 2nd S. xv. 403-404. 

Blashill (T.). Hull and Dripole in the thirteenth century. Trans. 
Bast Biding Antiq. Soc. ii. 7-11. 

Bogle (Lockhart). Archaeological notes on Dunvegan Castle. Proc. 
Soc. Antiq. Scot. xxix. 255-271. 

Notes on some prehistoric structures in Glenelg and Kintail. 

Proc. Soc. Antiq. Scot. xxix. 180-190. 

Boot (Rev. Alfred). Northern monasticism. Arch. Mliana, xvii. 
91-100. 

Boscawen (W. St. Chad). The mummies of the priests of Ammon 
discovered at Thebes. Trans. Boy. Soc. Lit. 2nd Ser. xvi. 253- 
275. 

Bower (Herbert M.). The fourteen of Meaux, an account of the 
earliest reformed church within France proper. Proc. Hug. Soc. 
v. 1-124. 

Bowes (R.). On a copy of Linacre's Galen de Temperamentis, 
Cambridge, 1521, in the library of Trinity College, Dublin. 
Proc. Camb. Antiq. Soc. ix. 1-3. 



INDEX OF ARCfLEOLOGICAL PAPERS. 



11 



Boyle (J. R.). The Hull cap of maintenance. Trans. East Biding 

Antiq. Soc. iii. 92-99. 
Bradley (Miss Edith). Glastonbury Abbey. Jour. Brit. Arch. 

Assoc. N.S. i. 205-2 3. 
Brakspear (Harold). Notes on Upper Upham Manor House. 

Wilts. Arch, and Nat. Hist. Mag. xxviii. 84-86. 
Bramble (Col. J. R.). Coins of the Bristol mint. Clifton Antiq. 

Ciub, iii. 128-131. 
Brock (E. P. Loftus). The discovery of a Norman crypt at 

Canterbury. Jour. Brit. Arch. Assoc. N.S. i. 86-88. 
The excavation of a Roman villa in the Wadfield near 

Sudeley Castle, Gloucestershire. Jour. Brit. Arch. Assoc. N.S. 

i. 242-250. 

Brown (Prof. G. Baldwin). Some characteristics of pre-Conquest 

architecture. Jour. B.I.B.A. 3rd S. II. 485-502. 
Browne (Charles R., M.D.). The ethnography of the Mullet, 

Inishkea Islands, and Portacloy, county Mayo. Proc. Boy. Irish 

Acad. 3rd S. iii. 587-649. 
Browning (Oscar). The evolution of the family. Trans. Boy. Hist. 

Soc. N.S. vi. 87-107. 
Brushfield (Dr. T. N.). Devonshire briefs. Trans. Devon. Assoc. 

xxvii. 311-357. 

Brydall (Robert). The monumental effigies of Scotland from the 
thirteenth to the fifteenth century. Proc. Soc. Antiq. Scot. xxix. 
329-410. 

Budge (Dr. E. A. Wallis). Three Assyrian marbles in the Bristol hue 

arts academy. Clifton Antiq. Club, iii. 134-141. 
Buick (Rev. G. Raphael). Irish flint arrow-heads. Jour. Boy. Soc. 

Antiq. Ireland, 5th S. v. 41-63. 
Bulkeley-Owen (Hon. Mrs.). Selattyn; a history of the parish. 

Trans. Shropshire Arch. Soc. 2nd S. vii. 207-234. 
Bulow (Dr. Gottfried Von). Diary of the journey of Philip Julius, 

Duke of Stettin- Pomerania, through England in the year 1602. 

Trans. Boy. Hist. Soc. N.S. vi. 1-67. 
Journey through England and Scotland, made by Lupoid 

von Wedel in the \ears 1584 and 1585. Trans. Boy. Hist. Soc. 

N.S. ix. 223-270. 

Bulwer (Brig.- Gen.). The Hobarts of Hales Hall. Norf. Arch. xii. 

158-163. ; 
Burne (Charlotte S.). Chained images. Folklore, vi. 196- 

198. 



12 



INDEX OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL PAPERS. 



Burt (J. B.). The history of the name Hellas, Hellenes. Jour. Bell. 

Stud. xv. 2 L 7-238. 
Calverlet (Rev. W. S.). The Roman fort on Kardkuott known 

as Hardknott Castle. Trans. Gumb. and Westmor. Arch. Soc. xiii. 

449-452. 

Campbell (George W.). John Snell of Ufton and the Ufton exhibi- 
tions. Trans. Glasgoiv Arch. Soc. N.S. ii. 271-286. 

Carmichael (C. H. E.). The study of folklore. Trans. Boy. Soc. Lit. 
2nd S. xv. 84-130. 

Carrington (W. A.). Papers relating to Derbyshire musters, temp. 
Q. Elizabeth, comprising the muster roll for the whole county 
made in 1587 in expectation of the Spanish invasion. Derbyshire 
Arch, and Nat. Hist. Soc. xvii. 1-48. 

Cart (Rev. H.). Recent visit to Carthage. Jour. Brit. Arch. Assoc. 
N.S. i. 225-234. 

Cartwright (J. J.). List of persons in Yorkshire who paid the tax 
on male servants in 1780. York. Arch. Jour. xiv. 65-80. 

Cave-Browne (Rev. J.). Otham church and parish. Jour. Brit. Arch. 
Assoc. N.S. i. 167-186. 

Charlton (W. L.). Runic inscription on Hazel-Gill Crags, near 
Bewcastle. Arch. JE liana, xvii. 53-56. 

Christison (D., M.D.). The forts of Selkirk, the Gala water, the 
southern slopes of the Lammer moors and the north of Roxburgh. 
Proc. Soc. Antiq. Scot. xxix. 108-179. 

Church (Rev. C. M.). Notes on the chart ularies of Bath Priory. 
Proc. Somerset Arch, and Nat. Hist. Soc. xli. 53-64. 

Clakk (J. W.). On ancient libraries: Lincoln Cathedral, West- 
minster Abbey, St. Paul's Cathedral. Trans. Camb. Antiq. Soc. 
ix. 37-60. 

Clarke (Some us). Philae : the Nubian valley and the modified Nile 

reservoir. Arch. Jour. lii. 240-249. 
Report on the proposed works at Philae. Proc. Soc. Antiq. 

2nd S. xv. 457-461. 
Notes on the present state of the Parthenon. Proc. Soc. 

Antiq. 2nd S. xv. 461-466. 
Clodd (Edward). Presidential address to the Folklore Society. 

Folklore, vi. 54-81. 
Reply to Mr. Lang's protest of a psycho-folklorist. Folklore, 

vi. 248-258. 

Clutterbtjck (Rev. R.) Notes on the fair at Weyhill. Proc. Hamp. 
Field Club, iii. 127-142. 



INDEX OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL PAPERS. 



13 



Cobb (J. R.). Caldecot Castle, Monmouthshire. Clifton Antig. Club, 
iii. 35-40. 

Codrington (0.). The coinages of Catch and Kathiawar. Num. 

Ghron. 3rd S. xv. 59-83. 
Coffey (G-eoege). The origins of prehistoric ornament in Ireland. 

Jour. Boy. Soc. Antig. Ireland, 5th S. v. 16-29 ; 195-211. 
Cole (Rev. E. Maule). Huggate dikes. Trans. East Biding Antig. 

Soc. ii. 12-17. 

Notices of Wetwang. Trans. East Biding Antig. Soc. ii. 

68-76. 

The Driffield moot hill. Trans. East Biding Antig. Soc. iii. 

13-16. 

Coleman (A.). Lists of non- parochial registers and records. Wilts 

Arch, and Nat. Hist. Mag. xxviii. 149-155. 
Coles (Fred R.). A record of the cup- and ring-markings in the 

Stewartry of Kirkcudbright. Proc. Soc. Antig. Scot. xxix. 67-91. 
The stone circles of the Stewartry of Kirkcudbright. 

Proc. Soc. Antig. Scot. xxix. 301-316. 
Colgan (Nathaniel). Witchcraft in the Aran Islands. Jour. Boy. 

Soc. Antig. Ireland, 5th S. v. 84-85. 
Collier (W. F.). Dartmoor and the County Council of Devonshire. 

Trans. Devon. Assoc. xxvii. 213-221. 
Collingwood (W. G.) and E^ikr Magnusson. Some Manx names 

in Cumbria. Trans. Gumb. and Westmor. Arch. Soc. xiii. 403- 

414. 

Comerford (Most Rev. Dr.). Castlederrnot : its history and 

antiquities. Jour. Kildare Arch. Soc. i. 361-378. 
Conder (Edward). Account of the exploration of Lyneham barrow, 

Oxon. Proc. Soc. Antig. 2nd S. xv. 404-410. 
Cook (Arthur Bernard). The bee in Greek Mythology. Jour. 

Hell. Stud. xv. 1-24. 
Cooke (John). Aran Islands. Jour. Boy. Soc. Antig. Ireland, 5th 

S. v. 275-277. 

Galway. Jour. Boy. Soc. Antig. Ireland, 5th S. v. 290- 

296. 

Cooper (A. N.). Alfred, King of Northumbria. Trans. East Biding 

Antig. Soc. iii. 17-20. 
Cooper (Re^. T. S.). The church plate of Surrey. Surrey Arch. 

Coll. xii. 172-193. 
Coulton (John James). Names on the Wissey. Nov/. Arch. xii. 

13-21. 



14 



INDEX OF AKCMOLOGICAL PAPERS. 



Cowper (H. S.). A Grasmere farmer's sale schedule in 1710. Trans. 

Currib. and Westmor. Arch. Soc. xiii. 253-268. 
The homes of the Kirkbys of Kirkby Ireleth. Trans. 

Gumb. and Westmor. Arch. Soc. xiii. 269-290. 
Cox (Edward W.). Birkenhead Priory. Trans. Hist. Soc. Lane, and 

Ghesh. N.S. x: 123-156. 
Recent antiquarian finds in Cheshire. Trans. Hist. Soc. 

Lanes, and Ghesh. N.S. x. 175-180. 
: The restoration of St. Wilfrid's church, Farnworth. 

Trans. Hist. Soc. Lane, and Ghesh. N.S. x. 193-199. 
Traces of submerged lands on the coasts of Lancashire, 

Cheshire and North Wales. Trans. Hist. Soc. Lane, and Ghesh. 

N.S. x. 19-56, 199-200. 
Diserth Castle. Jour. Archit. Arch, and Hist. Soc. of 

Chester and North Wales, v. 361-379. 
Cox (Rev. J. Charles, LL.D.). On an Anglo-Saxon cemetery 

recently uncovered near Saxby. Trans. Leicest. Archit. and Arch. 

Soc. iii. 74-77. 

■ On four Spanish Moresco tiles found at Meaux Abbey. 

Trans. East Biding Antiq. Soc. ii. 1-6. 
■ Parliamentary survey of the benefices of the East Riding. 

Trans. East Biding Antiq. Soc. ii. 24-67. 
— The mining operations and metallurgy of the Romans in 

England and Wales. Arch. Jour. Hi. 25-42. 
Cratgie (W. A.). Donald Ban and the Bdcan [a Lochaber story]. 

Folklore, vi. 353-358. 
Skotlands rimur ; Icelandic ballads on the Gowrie con- 
spiracy. Proc. Soc. Antiq. Scot. xxix. 286-292. 
Crake (W. V.). Visit of the Congres Archeeologique de France to 

Sussex in 1893. Sussex Arch. Coll. xxxix. 175-178. 
Cramond (W., LL.D.). Notice of a bronze censer (?) or chafing dish 

found near Balveny Castle, and of a find of coins in the parish of 

Mortlach. Proc. Soc. Antiq. Scot. xxix. 59-62. 
Crawfurd (Rev. G. P.). Vachell of Coley, Reading. Berks Arch. 

and Archit. Soc. iii. 87-92. 
Crawley (A. E.). Taboos of commensality. Folklore, vi. 130- 

144. 

Crisp (Frederick Arthur). Surrey wills. Surrey Arch. Coll. xii. 
194-210. 

Crombie (James E.). Shoe throwing at weddings. Folklore, vi. 
258-281. 



INDEX OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL PAPERS. 



15 



Cullen (John B.). The ancient churches of the town of Wexford. 

Jour. Boy. Soc. Antiq. Ireland, £.th S. v. 369—377. 
Cuming (H. Syer). On skull goblets. Jour. Brit. Arch. Assoc. N.S. 

i. 235-241. 

Shoe lore. Jour. Brit. Arch. Assoc. N.S. i. 148-1.53. 

Cunningham (Rev. Prof. W.). The gild merchant of Shrewsbury. 

Trans. Boy. Hist. Soc. N.S. ix. 99-117. 

Walter of Henley. Trans. Boy. Hist. Soc. KS. ix. 215-221. 

Curle (James). Notes npon three early iron age brooches from the 

island of Grolland, Sweden. Broc. Soc. Antiq. Scot. xxix. 292- 

301. 

Dartmoor Exploration Committee, second report. Trans. Devon. Assoc. 
xxvii. 81-92. 

Darwin (W. E.). A hoard of bronze implements found at Bitterne. 

Broc. Samp. Field Club, iii. 53-66. 
DAVfS (F. Trevor). South Mimms, Middlesex. Trans. St. Albans 

Archit. and Arch. Soc. 1893-94, 25-29. 
Davis (Rev. R. G\). Historical notes on the manors of Merstone and 

Great East Stan den in the Isle of Wight. Broc. Uamp. Field 

Club, iii. 89-98. 

Dawkins (Prof. W. Boyd). Opening Address of the Antiquarian 
section at the Scarborough meeting. Arch. Jour. Iii. 336-347. 

Dawson (Charles). Ancient boat found at Bexhill. Sussex Arch. 
' Coll, xxxix. 161-163. 

Neolithic flint weapon in a wooden haft, found in the East- 
bourne district. Sussex Arch. Coll. xxxix. 97-98. 

Day (Robert). Danish spear-head from Scarriff, co. Clare. Jour. 
Roy. Soc. Antiq. Ireland, 5th S. v. 176. 

Deans (Walter). The Rule water ca' Trail. Broc. Berwick. Field 
Club, xiv. 138-142. 

The Chapel of St. Cuthbert's on the Slitterick, and Chapel 

Cross, Roxburghshire. Broc. Berwick. Field Club. xiv. 143-145. 

Dewick (Rev. E. S.). On a MS, psalter formerly belonging to the 
Abbey of Bury St. Edmunds. Archoeologia, liv. 399-410. 

On a MS. pontifical of a bishop of Metz of the fourteenth 

century. Archceologia, liv. 411-424. 

Dillon (Viscount). An Elizabethan armourer's album. Arch. Jour. 
Hi. 113-128. 

Doe (Gr. M.). Samuel Stoddon. Trans. Devon. Assoc. xxvii. 222-224. 
Domesday Holders and Holdings. Btrks. Arch, and Archit. Soc. iii. 
138-143, 195-200. 



16 



INDEX OF AUCfLEOLOGICAL PAPERS. 



Donald (Colin Dunlop). Presidential address. Trans. Glasgow 

Arch. Soc. 2nd S. ii. 419-427. 
Dowden (Right Rev. John, D.D., Bishop op Edinburgh). Note on 

two late notices, 1560 and 1563, relating to the cultos 

of St. Ninian in England. Proc. Soc. Antiq. Scot. xxix. 198- 

201. 

Duckett (Sie George, Bart.). Hastings v. Senlac. Sussex Arch. 

Coll. xxxix. 28-30. 
Dugan (C. Winston). Notice of an ancient Irish cott found at 

Maghery, comity Armagh. Jour. Boy. Soc. Antiq. Ireland, 

5th S. v. 224-226. 
Dunkin (E. H. W.). A calendar of the deeds and other documents 

in the possession of the Sussex Archaeological Society. Sussex 

Arch. Coll. xxxix. 179-196. 
E. (J.). Wardrobe counter of Edward III. Num. Chrcn. 3rd S. 

xv. 168. 

Earwaker (J. P.). The early deeds relating to the manor of Man- 
chester, now in the possession of the corporation of that city. 
Jour. Brit. Arch. Assoc. N.S. i. 49-57. 

The progress of the Duke of Monmouth in Cheshire in 

September, 1682. Trans. Hist. Soc. Lane, and Chesh. N.S. x. 
71-96. 

Ebblewhite (Ernest Arthur). Flintshire genealogical notes. Arch. 

Cambrensis, 5th S. xii. 191-204, 250-263. 
Edleston (Miss). The Winston, co. Durham, churchwardens' 

accounts, 1632-1695. Arch. JEMana, xvii. 101-144. 
Egan (P. M.). The Keteller monument, Kilkenny. Jour. Roy. Soc. 

Antiq. Ireland, 5th S. v. 72-78. 
Ellis (Frederick). Coins found near Bristol. Clifton Antiq. Club, 

iii, 122-123. 

— Roman remains near Bristol. Clifton Antiq. Club, iii. 

16-21. 

Ellis (H. Leslte). British copper tokens of the Straits Settlements 
and Malayan Archipelago. Num. Chron. 3rd S. xv. 135-153. 

Elworthy (F. T.). Fourteenth report of the Committee on Devon- 
shire verbal provincialisms. Trans. Devon. Assoc. xxvii. 40-60. 

Ely (Talfourd). An old watch and its maker. Arch. Jour. Iii. 
129-138. 

Embleton (Dennis). The Quigs Buring Plas in Sidgatt, Newcastle, 

the Swirle, and the Lort Burn. Arch. Mliana, xvii. 84-90. 
Essex County Families. Trans. Essex Arch. Soc. N.S. v. 131-138. 



INDEX OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL PATERS. 



17 



Etheridge (R., Jun.). A highly ornate sword from the Coburg 
peninsula, North Australia. Jour. Anthrop. Inst. xxiv. 427- 
430. 

Evans (Arthur, J.). The rollright stones and their folklore. Folk- 
lore, vi. 6-51. 

Evans (Sir John). The mint of Gothabyrig. Num. Chron. 3rd S. 
xv. 45-50. 

Eyre (Most Rev. Archbishop). The ancient seal of the Burgh of 

Rutherglen. Trans. Glasgow Arch. Soc. N.S. ii. 247-252. 
Notes on the old western towers of Glasgow Cathedral. 

Trans. Glasgow Arch. Soc. KS. ii. 253-270. 
F. (W. G. D.). Shropshire topographical and genealogical MSS. 

preserved in the Bodleian Library, Oxford. Trans. Shropshire 

Arch. Soc. 2nd S. vii. 79-93. 
Shropshire topographical and genealogical MSS. in the 

William Salt Library at Stafford. Trans. Shropshire Arch. Soc. 

2nd S. vii. 94-96. 

Fahey (Rev. J., D.D.). The church of St. John Baptist at 
Kilmacduagh. Jour. Boy. Soc. Antiq. Ireland, 5th S. v. 85-86. 

Fane (W. Dashwood). The date of the parish church of Melbourne, 
Derbyshire. Derbyshire Arch, and Nat. Hist. Soc. xvii. 
82-94. 

Feilberg (H. F.). Ghostly lighjts. Folklore, vi. 288-300. 

The game of hopscotch as played in Denmark. Folklore, 

vi. 359-372. 

Tommy on the Tub's grave. Folklore, vi. 194-195. 

Ferguson (Chancellor R. S.). A grave cover of tiles at Carlisle. 

Trans. Cumb. and Westmor. Arch. Soc. xiii. 251-252. 
On a tumulus at Old Parks, Kirkoswald, with some 

remarks on one at Aspatria, and also on cup, ring and other 

markings in Cumberland and Westmorland. Trans. Cumb. and 

Westmor. Arch. Soc. xiii. 389-399. 

Picture Board dummies. Arch. Jour. lii. 1-24. 

On a dumb bell at Knole. Arch. Jour. lii. 43-46. 

■ Notes on two curious padlocks in the Carlisle^Museum. 

Arch. Jour. lii. 250-252. 
On the Chap-books in the Bibliotheca Jacksoniana in Tullie 

House, Carlisle. Arch. Jour. lii. 292-335. 
and F. Haverfield. On a milestone of Carausius and 

other recent Roman finds. Trans. Cumb. and Westmor. Arch. 

Soc. xiii. 437-439. 

B 



18 



INDEX OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL PAPERS. 



Ferguson (Prof. John, LL.D.). Bibliographical notes on histories of 
inventions and books of secrets. Trans. Glasgow Arch. Soc. 2nd 
S. ii. 364-404. 

Presidential address. Trans. Glasgow Arch. Soc. 2nd S. ii. 

409-418. 

Ffrench (Rev. J. F. M.). Notes on a goad-spnr found in co. Wicklow. 

Jour. Boy. Soc. Antiq. Ireland, 5th S. v. 212-217. 
Field (John Edward). The antiquities of Wallingford. Berks Arch. 

and Archit. Soc. iii. 96-99, 117-122. 
Field (Osgood). John Field of East Ardsley, the proto-copernican 

of England. Yorks. Arch. Jour. xiv. 81-84. 
Finch (H. B.). Whitchurch in the reign of Queen Elizabeth. Trans. 

Shropshire Arch. Soc. 2nd S. vii. 55-78. 
Fisher (Rev. John). The Welsh Calendar. Trans. Soc. of Cymmrod, 

1894-5, 99-145. 

Fishwick (Lieut. -Col. H.). Pre-Norman churches in Lancashire. 

Jour. Brit. Arch. Assoc. N.S. i. 154-160. 
Fitzgerald (Lord Walter). Mullaghmast : its history and traditions. 

Jour. Kildare Arch. Soc. i. 379-390. 
Fitzgerald (W.). Killeen Cormac inscribed stone. Jour. Boy. Soc. 

Antiq. Ireland, 5th S. v. 380-382. 
Fitzgerald-Uniacke (R. G.). The Fitzgeralds of Rostellane, co. 

Cork. Jour. Boy. Soc. Antiq. Ireland, 5th S. v. 163-170. 
Fletcher (Rev. W. G. D.). Lady Margaret Bromley. Trans. 

Leicest. Archit. and Arch. Soc. iii. 70-73. 
Fowler (Rev. H.). Tyttenb anger. Trans. St. Albans Archit. and 

Arch. Soc. 1893-94, 30-44. 
Fox (G. E.). Excavations on the site of the Roman city at Silchester, 

Hants, in 1894. Archceologia, liv. 439-472. 
Foxcroft (E. D.). Notes on Hinton Charterhouse. Broc. Somerset 

Arch, and Nat. Hist. Soc. xli. 92-98. 
Franks (Sir Wollaston). On a late-Celtic bronze collar from 

Wraxall, Somerset. ArclicBologia, liv. 495-496. 
Fraser (William). A bronze medallion portrait of Oliver Cromwell, 

similar to the bust represented on the Dunbar medal struck by 

Thomas Simon by order of the Parliament. Broc. Soc. Antiq. 

Scot. xxix. 100-104. 
Frazer (William). Early pavement tiles in Ireland. Jour. Boy. Soc. 

Antiq. Ireland, 5th S. v. 171-175. 
Loughcrew hills. Jour. Boy. Soc. Antiq. Ireland, 5th S. v. 

305-310. 



INDEX OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL PAPERS. 



19 



Frazer (William). On cup markings on megalithic monuments due 
to echinus lividus. Jour. Boy. Soc: Antiq. Ireland, 5th S. v. 64-71. 

On the Irish "St. Patrick" or "floreat rex" coinage, 

subsequently circulated in New Jersey by Mark Newbie ; with 
reasons for connecting it with Lord Glamorgan's attempts to levy 
troops in Ireland for Charles I. Jour. Boy. Soc. Antiq. Ireland, 
5th S. v. 338-347. 

Freshfield (Edwin, LL.D.). Some notarial marks in the " Common 
Paper " [the register of the members of the company 1390-1628] 
of the Scriveners' Company. Archceologia, liv. 239-254. 

Fryer (Alfred C). An inscribed stone from Shechem. Clifton 
Antiq. Club, iii. 149-150. 

Recent discoveries [ecclesiastical pavement] at Bristol. 

Jour. Brit. Arch. Assoc. N.S. i. 90-91. 

The Igel monument [Roman, Igel on the Moselle]. Jour. 

Brit. Arch. Assoc. KS. i. 296-298. 

G. (E. A.). Archaeology in Greece, 1894-95. Jour. Hell. Stud. xv. 
202-210. 

Gann (Dr. T.). Notes on the exploration of two mounds in British 

Honduras. Proc. Soc. Antiq. 2nd S. xv. 430-434. 
Gardner (Percy). A marble head, perhaps from Sunium. Jour. 

Hell. Stud. xv. 188-191. 

Two sepulchral Lekythi! Jour. Hell. Stud. xv. 325-329. 

Gerish (W. B.). A churchyard charm. Folklore, vi. 200. 

Norfolk nursery rhyme. Folklore, vi. 202. 

Giuseppi (Montague S.). Alien merchants in England in the fifteenth 

century. Trans. Boy. Hist. Soc. N.S. ix. 75-98. 
Glynne (Sir Stephen, Bart.). Notes on Yorkshire churches. Yorks. 

Arch. Jour. xiv. 158-184. 
Goddard (Rev. E. H.). Notes on a Roman cross-bow, etc., found at 

Southgrove farm, Burbage. Wilts Arch, and Nat. Hist. Mag. 

xxviii. 87-90. 

Notes on objects from a Saxon interment at Basset Down. 

Wilts Arch, and Nat. Hist. Mag. xxviii. 104-108. 
Godden (Gertrude M.). The sacred marriage. Folklore, vi. 225-234. 
Gowland (W.). Notes on the dolmens and other antiquities of 

Korea. Jour. Anthrop. Inst. xxiv. 316-330.